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Overview
Comment:Pickup the SQLite core library 3.29.0 docs from upstream.
Downloads: Tarball | ZIP archive | SQL archive
Timelines: family | ancestors | descendants | both | trunk
Files: files | file ages | folders
SHA1: 4deb290d232e58504861b16579fa736163bd57c2
User & Date: mistachkin 2019-07-13 18:31:10
Context
2019-07-13
18:35
Update version history docs. check-in: 62de24d8a3 user: mistachkin tags: trunk
18:31
Pickup the SQLite core library 3.29.0 docs from upstream. check-in: 4deb290d23 user: mistachkin tags: trunk
18:28
Update SQLite core library to the 3.29.0 release. check-in: fe3c97a1d8 user: mistachkin tags: trunk
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<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/strict.dtd">
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<meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8">
<link href="sqlite.css" rel="stylesheet">
<title>SQLite Query Language: ALTER TABLE</title>
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................................................................................
<b>Compatibility Note:</b>
The behavior of ALTER TABLE when renaming a table was enhanced
in versions 3.25.0 (2018-09-15) and 3.26.0 (2018-12-01)
in order to carry the rename operation forward into triggers and
views that reference the renamed table.  This is considered an
improvement. Applications that depend on the older (and
arguably buggy) behavior can use the
<a href="pragma.html#pragma_legacy_alter_table">PRAGMA legacy_alter_table=ON</a> statement to make ALTER TABLE RENAME


behave as it did prior to version 3.25.0.
</blockquote>

<p>
Beginning with release 3.25.0 (2018-09-15), references to the table
within trigger bodies and view definitions are also renamed.
</p>
................................................................................
<li><p>
If foreign key constraints are enabled, disable them using <a href="pragma.html#pragma_foreign_keys">PRAGMA foreign_keys=OFF</a>.

<li><p>
Start a transaction.

<li><p>
Remember the format of all indexes and triggers associated with table X.
This information will be needed in step 8 below.  One way to do this is
to run a query like the following:
SELECT type, sql FROM sqlite_master WHERE tbl_name='X'.

<li><p>
Use <a href="lang_createtable.html">CREATE TABLE</a> to construct a new table "new_X" that is in the desired
revised format of table X.  Make sure that the name "new_X" does not collide
................................................................................
<li><p>
Drop the old table X:  <a href="lang_droptable.html">DROP TABLE X</a>.

<li><p>
Change the name of new_X to X using: ALTER TABLE new_X RENAME TO X.

<li><p>
Use <a href="lang_createindex.html">CREATE INDEX</a> and <a href="lang_createtrigger.html">CREATE TRIGGER</a> to reconstruct indexes and triggers

associated with table X.  Perhaps use the old format of the triggers and
indexes saved from step 3 above as a guide, making changes as appropriate
for the alteration.

<li><p>If any views refer to table X in a way that is affected by the
schema change, then drop those views using <a href="lang_dropview.html">DROP VIEW</a> and recreate them
with whatever changes are necessary to accommodate the schema change
using <a href="lang_createview.html">CREATE VIEW</a>.

<li><p>
................................................................................

<li><p> Commit the transaction started on step 1 above.
</ol>

<p>If some future version of SQLite adds new ALTER TABLE capabilities, 
those capabilities will very likely use one of the two procedures
outlined above.






















































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<!DOCTYPE html>
<html><head>
<meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1.0">
<meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8">
<link href="sqlite.css" rel="stylesheet">
<title>SQLite Query Language: ALTER TABLE</title>
<!-- path= -->
</head>
................................................................................
<b>Compatibility Note:</b>
The behavior of ALTER TABLE when renaming a table was enhanced
in versions 3.25.0 (2018-09-15) and 3.26.0 (2018-12-01)
in order to carry the rename operation forward into triggers and
views that reference the renamed table.  This is considered an
improvement. Applications that depend on the older (and
arguably buggy) behavior can use the
<a href="pragma.html#pragma_legacy_alter_table">PRAGMA legacy_alter_table=ON</a> statement or the
<a href="c3ref/c_dbconfig_defensive.html#sqlitedbconfiglegacyaltertable">SQLITE_DBCONFIG_LEGACY_ALTER_TABLE</a> configuration parameter
on <a href="c3ref/db_config.html">sqlite3_db_config()</a> interface to make ALTER TABLE RENAME
behave as it did prior to version 3.25.0.
</blockquote>

<p>
Beginning with release 3.25.0 (2018-09-15), references to the table
within trigger bodies and view definitions are also renamed.
</p>
................................................................................
<li><p>
If foreign key constraints are enabled, disable them using <a href="pragma.html#pragma_foreign_keys">PRAGMA foreign_keys=OFF</a>.

<li><p>
Start a transaction.

<li><p>
Remember the format of all indexes, triggers, and views associated with table X.
This information will be needed in step 8 below.  One way to do this is
to run a query like the following:
SELECT type, sql FROM sqlite_master WHERE tbl_name='X'.

<li><p>
Use <a href="lang_createtable.html">CREATE TABLE</a> to construct a new table "new_X" that is in the desired
revised format of table X.  Make sure that the name "new_X" does not collide
................................................................................
<li><p>
Drop the old table X:  <a href="lang_droptable.html">DROP TABLE X</a>.

<li><p>
Change the name of new_X to X using: ALTER TABLE new_X RENAME TO X.

<li><p>
Use <a href="lang_createindex.html">CREATE INDEX</a>, <a href="lang_createtrigger.html">CREATE TRIGGER</a>, and <a href="lang_createview.html">CREATE VIEW</a>
to reconstruct indexes, triggers, and views
associated with table X.  Perhaps use the old format of the triggers,
indexes, and views saved from step 3 above as a guide, making changes
as appropriate for the alteration.

<li><p>If any views refer to table X in a way that is affected by the
schema change, then drop those views using <a href="lang_dropview.html">DROP VIEW</a> and recreate them
with whatever changes are necessary to accommodate the schema change
using <a href="lang_createview.html">CREATE VIEW</a>.

<li><p>
................................................................................

<li><p> Commit the transaction started on step 1 above.
</ol>

<p>If some future version of SQLite adds new ALTER TABLE capabilities, 
those capabilities will very likely use one of the two procedures
outlined above.

<a name="altertableishard"></a>

<h3>Why ALTER TABLE is such a problem for SQLite</h3>

<p>Most SQL database engines store the schema already parsed into
various system tables.  On those database engines, ALTER TABLE merely 
has to make modifications to the corresponding system tables.

<p>SQLite is different in that it stores the schema
in the <a href="fileformat2.html#sqlite_master">sqlite_master</a> table as the original text of the CREATE
statements that define the schema.  Hence ALTER TABLE needs
to revise the text of the CREATE statement.  Doing
so can be tricky for certain "creative" schema designs.

<p>The SQLite approach of storing the schema as text has advantages
for an embedded relational database.  For one, it means that the
schema takes up less space in the database file.  This is important
since a common SQLite usage pattern is to have many small,
separate database files instead of putting everything in one
big global database file, which is the usual approach for client/server
database engines.
Since the schema is duplicated in each separate database file, it is
important to keep the schema representation compact.

<p>Storing the schema as text rather than as parsed tables also
give flexibility to the implementation.  Since the internal parse
of the schema is regenerated each time the database is opened, the
internal representation of the schema can change from one release
to the next.  This is important, as sometimes new features require
enhancements to the internal schema representation.  Changing the
internal schema representation would be much more difficult if the
schema representation was exposed in the database file.  So, in other
words, storing the schema as text helps maintain backwards 
compatibility, and helps ensure that older database files can be
read and written by newer versions of SQLite.

<p>Storing the schema a text also makes the 
<a href="fileformat2.html">SQLite database file format</a> easier to define, document, and 
understand. This helps make SQLite database files a
<a href="locrsf.html">recommended storage format</a> for long-term archiving of data.

<p>The downside of storing schema a text is that it can make
the schema tricky to modify.  And for that reason, the ALTER TABLE
support in SQLite has traditionally lagged behind other SQL
database engines that store their schemas as parsed system tables
that are easier to modify.







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resolution algorithm aborts the current SQL statement with an
SQLITE_CONSTRAINT error.  But the FAIL resolution does not
back out prior changes of the SQL statement that failed nor does
it end the transaction.
For example, if an UPDATE
statement encountered a constraint violation on the 100th row that
it attempts to update, then the first 99 row changes are preserved
but changes to rows 100 and beyond never occur.</p></dd>





<dt><b>IGNORE</b></dt>
<dd><p> When an applicable constraint violation occurs, 
the IGNORE resolution algorithm skips the one row that contains
the constraint violation and continues processing subsequent rows
of the SQL statement as if nothing went wrong.
Other rows before and after the row that
contained the constraint violation are inserted or updated

normally. No error is returned when the IGNORE conflict resolution
algorithm is used.</p></dd>




<dt><b>REPLACE</b></dt>
<dd><p> When a <a href="lang_createtable.html#uniqueconst">UNIQUE</a> or <a href="lang_createtable.html#primkeyconst">PRIMARY KEY</a> constraint violation occurs, 
the REPLACE algorithm
deletes pre-existing rows that are causing the constraint violation
prior to inserting or updating the current row and the command continues 
executing normally.
If a <a href="lang_createtable.html#notnullconst">NOT NULL</a> constraint violation occurs, the REPLACE conflict
resolution replaces the NULL value with
the default value for that column, or if the column has no default
value, then the ABORT algorithm is used.
If a <a href="lang_createtable.html#ckconst">CHECK</a> constraint violation occurs, the REPLACE conflict resolution
algorithm always works like ABORT.</p>

<p>When the REPLACE conflict resolution strategy deletes rows in order to
satisfy a constraint, <a href="lang_createtrigger.html">delete triggers</a> fire if and only if
<a href="pragma.html#pragma_recursive_triggers">recursive triggers</a> are enabled.</p>

<p>The <a href="c3ref/update_hook.html">update hook</a> is not invoked for rows that
are deleted by the REPLACE conflict resolution strategy.  Nor does
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<meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8">
<link href="sqlite.css" rel="stylesheet">
<title>SQLite Query Language: ON CONFLICT clause</title>
<!-- path= -->
</head>
................................................................................
resolution algorithm aborts the current SQL statement with an
SQLITE_CONSTRAINT error.  But the FAIL resolution does not
back out prior changes of the SQL statement that failed nor does
it end the transaction.
For example, if an UPDATE
statement encountered a constraint violation on the 100th row that
it attempts to update, then the first 99 row changes are preserved
but changes to rows 100 and beyond never occur.</p>

<p>The FAIL behavior only works for uniqueness, NOT NULL, and CHECK 
constraints.  A <a href="foreignkeys.html">foreign key constraint</a> violation causes an ABORT.
</p></dd>

<dt><b>IGNORE</b></dt>
<dd><p> When an applicable constraint violation occurs, 
the IGNORE resolution algorithm skips the one row that contains
the constraint violation and continues processing subsequent rows
of the SQL statement as if nothing went wrong.
Other rows before and after the row that
contained the constraint violation are inserted or updated
normally. No error is returned for uniqueness, NOT NULL, and
UNIQUE constraint errors when the IGNORE conflict resolution
algorithm is used.  However, the IGNORE conflict resolution
algorithm works like ABORT for <a href="foreignkeys.html">foreign key constraint</a> errors.
</p>
</dd>

<dt><b>REPLACE</b></dt>
<dd><p> When a <a href="lang_createtable.html#uniqueconst">UNIQUE</a> or <a href="lang_createtable.html#primkeyconst">PRIMARY KEY</a> constraint violation occurs, 
the REPLACE algorithm
deletes pre-existing rows that are causing the constraint violation
prior to inserting or updating the current row and the command continues 
executing normally.
If a <a href="lang_createtable.html#notnullconst">NOT NULL</a> constraint violation occurs, the REPLACE conflict
resolution replaces the NULL value with
the default value for that column, or if the column has no default
value, then the ABORT algorithm is used.
If a <a href="lang_createtable.html#ckconst">CHECK constraint</a> or <a href="foreignkeys.html">foreign key constraint</a> violation occurs, 
the REPLACE conflict resolution algorithm works like ABORT.</p>

<p>When the REPLACE conflict resolution strategy deletes rows in order to
satisfy a constraint, <a href="lang_createtrigger.html">delete triggers</a> fire if and only if
<a href="pragma.html#pragma_recursive_triggers">recursive triggers</a> are enabled.</p>

<p>The <a href="c3ref/update_hook.html">update hook</a> is not invoked for rows that
are deleted by the REPLACE conflict resolution strategy.  Nor does

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................................................................................
<p>If the value of <i>expr</i> is NULL, then the result of the CAST
expression is also NULL. Otherwise, the storage class of the result
is determined by applying the <a href="datatype3.html#affname">rules for determining column affinity</a> to
the <span class='yyterm'>type-name</span>.

<table border=1>
<tr>
  <th> Affinity of <span class='yyterm'>type-name</span>
  <th> Conversion Processing
<tr>
  <td> NONE 
  <td> Casting a value to a <span class='yyterm'>type-name</span> with no affinity 
  causes the value to
  be converted into a BLOB.  Casting to a BLOB consists of first casting
  the value to TEXT in the <a href="pragma.html#pragma_encoding">encoding</a> of the database connection, then
................................................................................
      casting a REAL value greater than
      +9223372036854775807.0 into an integer resulted in the most negative
      integer, -9223372036854775808.  This behavior was meant to emulate the
      behavior of x86/x64 hardware when doing the equivalent cast.

<tr>
  <td> NUMERIC
  <td> Casting a TEXT or BLOB value into NUMERIC first does a forced
   conversion into REAL but then further converts the result into INTEGER if
   and only if the conversion from REAL to INTEGER is lossless and reversible.
   This is the only context in SQLite where the NUMERIC and INTEGER <a href="datatype3.html#affinity">affinities</a>
   behave differently.









   <p> Casting a REAL or INTEGER value to NUMERIC is a no-op, even if a real
   value could be losslessly converted to an integer.

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................................................................................
<p>If the value of <i>expr</i> is NULL, then the result of the CAST
expression is also NULL. Otherwise, the storage class of the result
is determined by applying the <a href="datatype3.html#affname">rules for determining column affinity</a> to
the <span class='yyterm'>type-name</span>.

<table border=1>
<tr>
  <th> Affinity of <span class='yyterm'><nobr>type-name</nobr></span>
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<tr>
  <td> NONE 
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  causes the value to
  be converted into a BLOB.  Casting to a BLOB consists of first casting
  the value to TEXT in the <a href="pragma.html#pragma_encoding">encoding</a> of the database connection, then
................................................................................
      casting a REAL value greater than
      +9223372036854775807.0 into an integer resulted in the most negative
      integer, -9223372036854775808.  This behavior was meant to emulate the
      behavior of x86/x64 hardware when doing the equivalent cast.

<tr>
  <td> NUMERIC
  <td> Casting a TEXT or BLOB value into NUMERIC yields either an INTEGER or
   a REAL result.
   If the input text looks like an integer (there is no decimal point nor
   exponent) and the value is small enough to fit in a 64-bit signed integer,
   then the result will be INTEGER.
   Input text that looks like floating point (there is a decimal point and/or
   an exponent) and the text describes a value that 
   can be losslessly converted back and forth between IEEE 754 64-bit float and a
   51-bit signed integer, then the result is INTEGER.
   (In the previous sentence, a 51-bit integer is specified since that is one
   bit less than the length of the mantissa of an IEEE 754 64-bit float and
   thus provides a 1-bit of margin for the text-to-float conversion operation.)
   Any text input that describes a value outside the range of a 64-bit
   signed integer yields a REAL result.
   <p> Casting a REAL or INTEGER value to NUMERIC is a no-op, even if a real
   value could be losslessly converted to an integer.

</tr>

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    <p>The default page cache implemention does not allocate
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    is allocated in smaller chunks on an as-needed basis.  The page_cache
    setting is a (suggested) upper bound on the amount of memory that the
    cache can use, not the amount of memory it will use all of the time.
    This is the behavior of the default page cache implementation, but an
    <a href="c3ref/pcache_methods2.html">applicaction defined page cache</a> is free
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<a name="pragma_cache_spill"></a>
<h _id=pragma_cache_spill style="display:none"> PRAGMA cache_spill</h><hr>
    <p><b>PRAGMA cache_spill;
         <br>PRAGMA cache_spill=</b><i>boolean</i><b>;
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    journal to delete.  The OFF journaling mode disables the atomic
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    <p>Note that the journal_mode for an <a href="inmemorydb.html">in-memory database</a>
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<title>Pragma statements supported by SQLite</title>
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    <p>The default page cache implemention does not allocate
    the full amount of cache memory all at once.  Cache memory
    is allocated in smaller chunks on an as-needed basis.  The page_cache
    setting is a (suggested) upper bound on the amount of memory that the
    cache can use, not the amount of memory it will use all of the time.
    This is the behavior of the default page cache implementation, but an
    <a href="c3ref/pcache_methods2.html">application defined page cache</a> is free
    to behave differently if it wants.
<a name="pragma_cache_spill"></a>
<h _id=pragma_cache_spill style="display:none"> PRAGMA cache_spill</h><hr>
    <p><b>PRAGMA cache_spill;
         <br>PRAGMA cache_spill=</b><i>boolean</i><b>;
         <br>PRAGMA </b><i>schema.</i><b>cache_spill=<i>N</i>;</b></p>

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    journal to delete.  The OFF journaling mode disables the atomic
    commit and rollback capabilities of SQLite. The <a href="lang_transaction.html">ROLLBACK</a> command
    no longer works; it behaves in an undefined way.  Applications must
    avoid using the <a href="lang_transaction.html">ROLLBACK</a> command when the journal mode is OFF.
    If the application crashes
    in the middle of a transaction when the OFF journaling mode is
    set, then the database file will very likely
    <a href="howtocorrupt.html#cfgerr">go corrupt</a>. Without a journal, there is no way for
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    a constraint error.  This might also leave the database in a corrupted
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    contain code that expect the incomplete behavior
    of <a href="lang_altertable.html#altertabrename">ALTER TABLE RENAME</a> found in older versions of SQLite.
    New applications should leave this flag turned off.
    <p>For compatibility with older <a href="vtab.html">virtual table</a> implementations,
    this flag is turned on temporarily while the <a href="vtab.html#xrename">sqlite3_module.xRename</a>
    method is being run.  The value of this flag is restore after the 
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