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Overview
Comment:Pickup the SQLite core library 3.14.2 docs from upstream.
Downloads: Tarball | ZIP archive | SQL archive
Timelines: family | ancestors | descendants | both | trunk
Files: files | file ages | folders
SHA1: 0d2c14e945fc4ac180a78b33bf5ddca5d285c5b2
User & Date: mistachkin 2016-09-12 21:28:18
Context
2016-09-12
21:35
Further enhance backward compatibility of the 'vtab.tcl' doc tool. check-in: 5a46d020f4 user: mistachkin tags: trunk
21:28
Pickup the SQLite core library 3.14.2 docs from upstream. check-in: 0d2c14e945 user: mistachkin tags: trunk
21:18
Even more updates to the 'vtab.tcl' doc tool. check-in: dfedc189bf user: mistachkin tags: trunk
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<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/strict.dtd">
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<div class=startsearch></div>
  


<h1 align=center>SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1>

<p>SQLite understands most of the standard SQL
language.  But it does <a href="omitted.html">omit some features</a>
while at the same time
................................................................................
<a href="syntaxdiagrams.html">syntax diagrams</a>.

<p>The following syntax documentation topics are available:</p>

<table width="100%" cellpadding="5" border="0">
<tr><td valign="top"><ul>

<li><a href="lang_aggfunc.html">aggregate functions</a></li><li><a href="lang_altertable.html">ALTER TABLE</a></li><li><a href="lang_analyze.html">ANALYZE</a></li><li><a href="lang_attach.html">ATTACH DATABASE</a></li><li><a href="lang_transaction.html">BEGIN TRANSACTION</a></li><li><a href="lang_comment.html">comment</a></li><li><a href="lang_transaction.html">COMMIT TRANSACTION</a></li><li><a href="lang_corefunc.html">core functions</a></li><li><a href="lang_createindex.html">CREATE INDEX</a></li><li><a href="lang_createtable.html">CREATE TABLE</a></li><li><a href="lang_createtrigger.html">CREATE TRIGGER</a></li><li><a href="lang_createview.html">CREATE VIEW</a></li><li><a href="lang_createvtab.html">CREATE VIRTUAL TABLE</a></li></ul></td><td valign="top"><ul><li><a href="lang_datefunc.html">date and time functions</a></li><li><a href="lang_delete.html">DELETE</a></li><li><a href="lang_detach.html">DETACH DATABASE</a></li><li><a href="lang_dropindex.html">DROP INDEX</a></li><li><a href="lang_droptable.html">DROP TABLE</a></li><li><a href="lang_droptrigger.html">DROP TRIGGER</a></li><li><a href="lang_dropview.html">DROP VIEW</a></li><li><a href="lang_transaction.html">END TRANSACTION</a></li><li><a href="lang_explain.html">EXPLAIN</a></li><li><a href="lang_expr.html">expression</a></li><li><a href="lang_indexedby.html">INDEXED BY</a></li><li><a href="lang_insert.html">INSERT</a></li><li><a href="lang_keywords.html">keywords</a></li></ul></td><td valign="top"><ul><li><a href="lang_conflict.html">ON CONFLICT clause</a></li><li><a href="pragma.html#syntax">PRAGMA</a></li><li><a href="lang_reindex.html">REINDEX</a></li><li><a href="lang_savepoint.html">RELEASE SAVEPOINT</a></li><li><a href="lang_replace.html">REPLACE</a></li><li><a href="lang_transaction.html">ROLLBACK TRANSACTION</a></li><li><a href="lang_savepoint.html">SAVEPOINT</a></li><li><a href="lang_select.html">SELECT</a></li><li><a href="lang_update.html">UPDATE</a></li><li><a href="lang_vacuum.html">VACUUM</a></li><li><a href="lang_with.html">WITH clause</a></li>










































































</ul></td></tr></table>

<p>The routines <a href="c3ref/prepare.html">sqlite3_prepare_v2()</a>, <a href="c3ref/prepare.html">sqlite3_prepare()</a>,
<a href="c3ref/prepare.html">sqlite3_prepare16()</a>, <a href="c3ref/prepare.html">sqlite3_prepare16_v2()</a>, 
<a href="c3ref/exec.html">sqlite3_exec()</a>, and <a href="c3ref/free_table.html">sqlite3_get_table()</a> accept
an SQL statement list (sql-stmt-list) which is a semicolon-separated
list of statements.</p>

<p><b><a href="syntax/sql-stmt-list.html">sql-stmt-list:</a></b></p><blockquote>
 <img alt="syntax diagram sql-stmt-list" src="images/syntax/sql-stmt-list.gif"></img>
 </blockquote>



<p>Each SQL statement in the statement list is an instance of the
following:</p>

<p><b><a href="syntax/sql-stmt.html">sql-stmt:</a></b></p><blockquote>
 <img alt="syntax diagram sql-stmt" src="images/syntax/sql-stmt.gif"></img>
 </blockquote>





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<link href="sqlite.css" rel="stylesheet">
<title>Query Language Understood by SQLite</title>
</head>
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<li class='desktoponly'><a href="prosupport.html">Purchase</a>
<li class='search' id='search_menubutton'>
<a href="javascript:void(0)" onclick='toggle_div("searchmenu")'>Search</a>
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</div>






<h1 align=center>SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1>

<p>SQLite understands most of the standard SQL
language.  But it does <a href="omitted.html">omit some features</a>
while at the same time
................................................................................
<a href="syntaxdiagrams.html">syntax diagrams</a>.

<p>The following syntax documentation topics are available:</p>

<table width="100%" cellpadding="5" border="0">
<tr><td valign="top"><ul>

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</ul></td></tr></table>

<p>The routines <a href="c3ref/prepare.html">sqlite3_prepare_v2()</a>, <a href="c3ref/prepare.html">sqlite3_prepare()</a>,
<a href="c3ref/prepare.html">sqlite3_prepare16()</a>, <a href="c3ref/prepare.html">sqlite3_prepare16_v2()</a>, 
<a href="c3ref/exec.html">sqlite3_exec()</a>, and <a href="c3ref/free_table.html">sqlite3_get_table()</a> accept
an SQL statement list (sql-stmt-list) which is a semicolon-separated
list of statements.</p>

<p><b><a href="syntax/sql-stmt-list.html">sql-stmt-list:</a></b></p><div class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram sql-stmt-list" src="images/syntax/sql-stmt-list.gif"></img>

 </div>


<p>Each SQL statement in the statement list is an instance of the
following:</p>

<p><b><a href="syntax/sql-stmt.html">sql-stmt:</a></b></p><div class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram sql-stmt" src="images/syntax/sql-stmt.gif"></img>
 </div>



Changes to Doc/Extra/Core/lang_aggfunc.html.

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<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>Aggregate Functions</h2>

<p>
The aggregate functions shown below are available by default.  Additional
aggregate functions written in C may be added using the 
<a href="c3ref/create_function.html">sqlite3_create_function()</a></a>
API.</p>

................................................................................
can be preceded by the keyword DISTINCT.  In such cases, duplicate
elements are filtered before being passed into the aggregate function.
For example, the function "count(distinct X)" will return the number
of distinct values of column X instead of the total number of non-null
values in column X.
</p>

<table border=0 cellpadding=10>















































<tr><td valign="top" align="right" width="120"><a name="avg"></a>
avg(<i>X</i>)</td><td valign="top">
  The avg() function
  returns the average value of all non-NULL <i>X</i> within a
  group.  String and BLOB values that do not look like numbers are
  interpreted as 0.
  The result of avg() is always a floating point value as long as
  at there is at least one non-NULL input even if all
  inputs are integers.  The result of avg() is NULL if and only if
  there are no non-NULL inputs.  

</td></tr><tr><td valign="top" align="right" width="120"><a name="count"></a>
count(<i>X</i>)<br />count(*)</td><td valign="top">
  The count(X) function returns
  a count of the number of times
  that <i>X</i> is not NULL in a group.  The count(*) function
  (with no arguments) returns the total number of rows in the group.

</td></tr><tr><td valign="top" align="right" width="120"><a name="groupconcat"></a>
group_concat(<i>X</i>)<br />group_concat(<i>X</i>,<i>Y</i>)</td><td valign="top">
  The group_concat() function returns
  a string which is the concatenation of
  all non-NULL values of <i>X</i>.  If parameter <i>Y</i> is present then
  it is used as the separator
  between instances of <i>X</i>.  A comma (",") is used as the separator
  if <i>Y</i> is omitted.  The order of the concatenated elements is
  arbitrary.

</td></tr><tr><td valign="top" align="right" width="120"><a name="maxggunc"></a>
max(<i>X</i>)</td><td valign="top">
  The max() aggregate function
  returns the maximum value of all values in the group.
  The maximum value is the value that would be returned last in an
  ORDER BY on the same column.  Aggregate max() returns NULL 
  if and only if there are no non-NULL values in the group.

</td></tr><tr><td valign="top" align="right" width="120"><a name="minggunc"></a>
min(<i>X</i>)</td><td valign="top">
  The min() aggregate function
  returns the minimum non-NULL value of all values in the group.
  The minimum value is the first non-NULL value that would appear
  in an ORDER BY of the column.
  Aggregate min() returns NULL if and only if there are no non-NULL
  values in the group.

</td></tr><tr><td valign="top" align="right" width="120"><a name="sumunc"></a>
sum(<i>X</i>)<br />total(<i>X</i>)</td><td valign="top">
  The sum() and total() aggregate functions
  return sum of all non-NULL values in the group.
  If there are no non-NULL input rows then sum() returns
  NULL but total() returns 0.0.
  NULL is not normally a helpful result for the sum of no rows
  but the SQL standard requires it and most other
  SQL database engines implement sum() that way so SQLite does it in the
................................................................................
  then sum() returns a floating point value
  which might be an approximation to the true sum.</p>

  <p>Sum() will throw an "integer overflow" exception if all inputs
  are integers or NULL
  and an integer overflow occurs at any point during the computation.
  Total() never throws an integer overflow.
</td></tr>
</table>




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<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>Aggregate Functions</h2></div>





<p>
The aggregate functions shown below are available by default.  Additional
aggregate functions written in C may be added using the 
<a href="c3ref/create_function.html">sqlite3_create_function()</a></a>
API.</p>

................................................................................
can be preceded by the keyword DISTINCT.  In such cases, duplicate
elements are filtered before being passed into the aggregate function.
For example, the function "count(distinct X)" will return the number
of distinct values of column X instead of the total number of non-null
values in column X.
</p>

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<dl>
<a name="avg"></a>
<dt><p><b>avg(<i>X</i>)</b></dt><dd><p>
  The avg() function
  returns the average value of all non-NULL <i>X</i> within a
  group.  String and BLOB values that do not look like numbers are
  interpreted as 0.
  The result of avg() is always a floating point value as long as
  at there is at least one non-NULL input even if all
  inputs are integers.  The result of avg() is NULL if and only if
  there are no non-NULL inputs.  
</dd>
<a name="count"></a>
<dt><p><b>count(<i>X</i>)<br />count(*)</b></dt><dd><p>
  The count(X) function returns
  a count of the number of times
  that <i>X</i> is not NULL in a group.  The count(*) function
  (with no arguments) returns the total number of rows in the group.
</dd>
<a name="groupconcat"></a>
<dt><p><b>group_concat(<i>X</i>)<br />group_concat(<i>X</i>,<i>Y</i>)</b></dt><dd><p>
  The group_concat() function returns
  a string which is the concatenation of
  all non-NULL values of <i>X</i>.  If parameter <i>Y</i> is present then
  it is used as the separator
  between instances of <i>X</i>.  A comma (",") is used as the separator
  if <i>Y</i> is omitted.  The order of the concatenated elements is
  arbitrary.
</dd>
<a name="maxggunc"></a>
<dt><p><b>max(<i>X</i>)</b></dt><dd><p>
  The max() aggregate function
  returns the maximum value of all values in the group.
  The maximum value is the value that would be returned last in an
  ORDER BY on the same column.  Aggregate max() returns NULL 
  if and only if there are no non-NULL values in the group.
</dd>
<a name="minggunc"></a>
<dt><p><b>min(<i>X</i>)</b></dt><dd><p>
  The min() aggregate function
  returns the minimum non-NULL value of all values in the group.
  The minimum value is the first non-NULL value that would appear
  in an ORDER BY of the column.
  Aggregate min() returns NULL if and only if there are no non-NULL
  values in the group.
</dd>
<a name="sumunc"></a>
<dt><p><b>sum(<i>X</i>)<br />total(<i>X</i>)</b></dt><dd><p>
  The sum() and total() aggregate functions
  return sum of all non-NULL values in the group.
  If there are no non-NULL input rows then sum() returns
  NULL but total() returns 0.0.
  NULL is not normally a helpful result for the sum of no rows
  but the SQL standard requires it and most other
  SQL database engines implement sum() that way so SQLite does it in the
................................................................................
  then sum() returns a floating point value
  which might be an approximation to the true sum.</p>

  <p>Sum() will throw an "integer overflow" exception if all inputs
  are integers or NULL
  and an integer overflow occurs at any point during the computation.
  Total() never throws an integer overflow.
</dd>
</dl>


Changes to Doc/Extra/Core/lang_altertable.html.

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<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>ALTER TABLE</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/alter-table-stmt.html">alter-table-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x739' onclick='hideorshow("x739","x740")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x740'>

 <img alt="syntax diagram alter-table-stmt" src="images/syntax/alter-table-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/column-def.html">column-def:</a></b>
<button id='x741' onclick='hideorshow("x741","x742")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x742' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram column-def" src="images/syntax/column-def.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/column-constraint.html">column-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x743' onclick='hideorshow("x743","x744")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x744' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram column-constraint" src="images/syntax/column-constraint.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/conflict-clause.html">conflict-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x745' onclick='hideorshow("x745","x746")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x746' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram conflict-clause" src="images/syntax/conflict-clause.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x747' onclick='hideorshow("x747","x748")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x748' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x749' onclick='hideorshow("x749","x750")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x750' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x751' onclick='hideorshow("x751","x752")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x752' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x753' onclick='hideorshow("x753","x754")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x754' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x755' onclick='hideorshow("x755","x756")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x756' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x757' onclick='hideorshow("x757","x758")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x758' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x759' onclick='hideorshow("x759","x760")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x760' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x761' onclick='hideorshow("x761","x762")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x762' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x763' onclick='hideorshow("x763","x764")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x764' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x765' onclick='hideorshow("x765","x766")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x766' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x767' onclick='hideorshow("x767","x768")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x768' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/foreign-key-clause.html">foreign-key-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x769' onclick='hideorshow("x769","x770")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x770' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram foreign-key-clause" src="images/syntax/foreign-key-clause.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x771' onclick='hideorshow("x771","x772")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x772' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x773' onclick='hideorshow("x773","x774")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x774' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x775' onclick='hideorshow("x775","x776")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x776' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x777' onclick='hideorshow("x777","x778")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x778' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>


<p>SQLite supports a limited subset of ALTER TABLE.
The ALTER TABLE command in SQLite allows the user to rename a table
or to add a new column to an existing table.
</p>



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<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>ALTER TABLE</h2></div><p><b><a href="syntax/alter-table-stmt.html">alter-table-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x739' onclick='hideorshow("x739","x740")'>hide</button></p>

 <div id='x740' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram alter-table-stmt" src="images/syntax/alter-table-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/column-def.html">column-def:</a></b>
<button id='x741' onclick='hideorshow("x741","x742")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x742' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram column-def" src="images/syntax/column-def.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/column-constraint.html">column-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x743' onclick='hideorshow("x743","x744")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x744' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram column-constraint" src="images/syntax/column-constraint.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/conflict-clause.html">conflict-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x745' onclick='hideorshow("x745","x746")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x746' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram conflict-clause" src="images/syntax/conflict-clause.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x747' onclick='hideorshow("x747","x748")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x748' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x749' onclick='hideorshow("x749","x750")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x750' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x751' onclick='hideorshow("x751","x752")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x752' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x753' onclick='hideorshow("x753","x754")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x754' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x755' onclick='hideorshow("x755","x756")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x756' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x757' onclick='hideorshow("x757","x758")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x758' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x759' onclick='hideorshow("x759","x760")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x760' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x761' onclick='hideorshow("x761","x762")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x762' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x763' onclick='hideorshow("x763","x764")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x764' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x765' onclick='hideorshow("x765","x766")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x766' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x767' onclick='hideorshow("x767","x768")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x768' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/foreign-key-clause.html">foreign-key-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x769' onclick='hideorshow("x769","x770")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x770' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram foreign-key-clause" src="images/syntax/foreign-key-clause.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x771' onclick='hideorshow("x771","x772")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x772' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x773' onclick='hideorshow("x773","x774")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x774' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x775' onclick='hideorshow("x775","x776")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x776' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x777' onclick='hideorshow("x777","x778")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x778' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>


<p>SQLite supports a limited subset of ALTER TABLE.
The ALTER TABLE command in SQLite allows the user to rename a table
or to add a new column to an existing table.
</p>

Changes to Doc/Extra/Core/lang_analyze.html.

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<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>ANALYZE</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/analyze-stmt.html">analyze-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x779' onclick='hideorshow("x779","x780")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x780'>

 <img alt="syntax diagram analyze-stmt" src="images/syntax/analyze-stmt.gif" />
</blockquote>



<p> The ANALYZE command gathers statistics about tables and
indices and stores the collected information
in <a href="fileformat2.html#intschema">internal tables</a> of the database where the query optimizer can
access the information and use it to help make better query planning choices.
If no arguments are given, all attached databases are


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<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>ANALYZE</h2></div><p><b><a href="syntax/analyze-stmt.html">analyze-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x779' onclick='hideorshow("x779","x780")'>hide</button></p>

 <div id='x780' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram analyze-stmt" src="images/syntax/analyze-stmt.gif" />

</div>


<p> The ANALYZE command gathers statistics about tables and
indices and stores the collected information
in <a href="fileformat2.html#intschema">internal tables</a> of the database where the query optimizer can
access the information and use it to help make better query planning choices.
If no arguments are given, all attached databases are

Changes to Doc/Extra/Core/lang_attach.html.

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<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>ATTACH DATABASE</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/attach-stmt.html">attach-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x781' onclick='hideorshow("x781","x782")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x782'>

 <img alt="syntax diagram attach-stmt" src="images/syntax/attach-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x783' onclick='hideorshow("x783","x784")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x784' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x785' onclick='hideorshow("x785","x786")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x786' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x787' onclick='hideorshow("x787","x788")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x788' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x789' onclick='hideorshow("x789","x790")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x790' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x791' onclick='hideorshow("x791","x792")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x792' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x793' onclick='hideorshow("x793","x794")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x794' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x795' onclick='hideorshow("x795","x796")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x796' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x797' onclick='hideorshow("x797","x798")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x798' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x799' onclick='hideorshow("x799","x800")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x800' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x801' onclick='hideorshow("x801","x802")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x802' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x803' onclick='hideorshow("x803","x804")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x804' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x805' onclick='hideorshow("x805","x806")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x806' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x807' onclick='hideorshow("x807","x808")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x808' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x809' onclick='hideorshow("x809","x810")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x810' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>


<p> The ATTACH DATABASE statement adds another database 
file to the current <a href="c3ref/sqlite3.html">database connection</a>. 
Database files that were previously attached can be removed using
the <a href="lang_detach.html">DETACH DATABASE</a> command.



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<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>ATTACH DATABASE</h2></div><p><b><a href="syntax/attach-stmt.html">attach-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x781' onclick='hideorshow("x781","x782")'>hide</button></p>

 <div id='x782' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram attach-stmt" src="images/syntax/attach-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x783' onclick='hideorshow("x783","x784")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x784' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x785' onclick='hideorshow("x785","x786")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x786' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x787' onclick='hideorshow("x787","x788")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x788' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x789' onclick='hideorshow("x789","x790")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x790' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x791' onclick='hideorshow("x791","x792")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x792' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x793' onclick='hideorshow("x793","x794")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x794' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x795' onclick='hideorshow("x795","x796")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x796' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x797' onclick='hideorshow("x797","x798")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x798' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x799' onclick='hideorshow("x799","x800")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x800' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x801' onclick='hideorshow("x801","x802")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x802' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x803' onclick='hideorshow("x803","x804")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x804' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x805' onclick='hideorshow("x805","x806")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x806' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x807' onclick='hideorshow("x807","x808")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x808' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x809' onclick='hideorshow("x809","x810")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x810' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>


<p> The ATTACH DATABASE statement adds another database 
file to the current <a href="c3ref/sqlite3.html">database connection</a>. 
Database files that were previously attached can be removed using
the <a href="lang_detach.html">DETACH DATABASE</a> command.

Changes to Doc/Extra/Core/lang_comment.html.

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<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/strict.dtd">
<html><head>
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}
</style>
  
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<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>comment</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/comment-syntax.html">comment-syntax:</a></b>
<button id='x823' onclick='hideorshow("x823","x824")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x824'>

 <img alt="syntax diagram comment-syntax" src="images/syntax/comment-syntax.gif" />
</blockquote>



<p>Comments are not SQL commands, but can occur within the text of
SQL queries passed to <a href="c3ref/prepare.html">sqlite3_prepare_v2()</a> and related interfaces.
Comments are treated as whitespace by the parser.
Comments can begin anywhere whitespace 
can be found, including inside expressions that span multiple lines.


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<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/strict.dtd">
<html><head>
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<meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8">
<link href="sqlite.css" rel="stylesheet">
<title>SQLite Query Language: comment</title>
</head>
<body>
<div class=nosearch>
<a href="index.html">
<img class="logo" src="images/sqlite370_banner.gif" alt="SQLite" border="0">
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w.style.display = "block";
}
}
function div_off(nm){document.getElementById(nm).style.display="none";}
window.onbeforeunload = function(e){div_off("submenu");}
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if( !location.origin.match(/http/) ){
document.getElementById("search_menubutton").style.display = "none";
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/* Used by the Hide/Show button beside syntax diagrams, to toggle the */



















































function hideorshow(btn,obj){
var x = document.getElementById(obj);
var b = document.getElementById(btn);
if( x.style.display!='none' ){
x.style.display = 'none';
b.innerHTML='show';
}else{
x.style.display = '';
b.innerHTML='hide';
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</div>




<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>comment</h2></div><p><b><a href="syntax/comment-syntax.html">comment-syntax:</a></b>
<button id='x823' onclick='hideorshow("x823","x824")'>hide</button></p>

 <div id='x824' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram comment-syntax" src="images/syntax/comment-syntax.gif" />

</div>


<p>Comments are not SQL commands, but can occur within the text of
SQL queries passed to <a href="c3ref/prepare.html">sqlite3_prepare_v2()</a> and related interfaces.
Comments are treated as whitespace by the parser.
Comments can begin anywhere whitespace 
can be found, including inside expressions that span multiple lines.

Changes to Doc/Extra/Core/lang_conflict.html.

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<html><head>
<meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8">
<title>SQLite Query Language: ON CONFLICT clause</title>
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a:visited { color: #734559 }

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<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>ON CONFLICT clause</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/conflict-clause.html">conflict-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1135' onclick='hideorshow("x1135","x1136")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1136'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram conflict-clause" src="images/syntax/conflict-clause.gif" />
</blockquote>



<p>The ON CONFLICT clause is not a separate SQL command.  It is a
non-standard clause that can appear in many other SQL commands.
It is given its own section in this document because it is not
part of standard SQL and therefore might not be familiar.</p>



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<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>ON CONFLICT clause</h2></div><p><b><a href="syntax/conflict-clause.html">conflict-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1135' onclick='hideorshow("x1135","x1136")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1136' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram conflict-clause" src="images/syntax/conflict-clause.gif" />

</div>


<p>The ON CONFLICT clause is not a separate SQL command.  It is a
non-standard clause that can appear in many other SQL commands.
It is given its own section in this document because it is not
part of standard SQL and therefore might not be familiar.</p>

Changes to Doc/Extra/Core/lang_corefunc.html.

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<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>Core Functions</h2>

<p>The core functions shown below are available by default. 
<a href="lang_datefunc.html">Date &amp; Time functions</a>,
<a href="lang_aggfunc.html">aggregate functions</a>, and
<a href="json1.html">JSON functions</a> are documented separately.  An
application may define additional
functions written in C and added to the database engine using
the <a href="c3ref/create_function.html">sqlite3_create_function()</a> API.</p>












<table border=0 cellpadding=10>









































































<tr><td valign="top" align="right" width="120"><a name="abs"></a>
abs(<i>X</i>)</td><td valign="top">
  The abs(X) function returns the absolute value of the numeric
  argument X.  Abs(X) returns NULL if X is NULL. 
  Abs(X) returns 0.0 if X is a string or blob
  that cannot be converted to a numeric value.  If X is the 
  integer -9223372036854775808 then abs(X) throws an integer overflow
  error since there is no equivalent positive 64-bit two complement value.

</td></tr><tr><td valign="top" align="right" width="120"><a name="changes"></a>
changes()</td><td valign="top">

  The changes() function returns the number of database rows that were changed
  or inserted or deleted by the most recently completed INSERT, DELETE,
  or UPDATE statement, exclusive of statements in lower-level triggers.
  The changes() SQL function is a wrapper around the <a href="c3ref/changes.html">sqlite3_changes()</a>
  C/C++ function and hence follows the same rules for counting changes.

</td></tr><tr><td valign="top" align="right" width="120"><a name="char"></a>
char(<i>X1</i>,<i>X2</i>,...,<i>XN</i>)</td><td valign="top">
  The char(X1,X2,...,XN) function returns a string composed of characters having the
   unicode code point values of integers X1 through XN, respectively.

</td></tr><tr><td valign="top" align="right" width="120"><a name="coalesce"></a>
coalesce(<i>X</i>,<i>Y</i>,...)</td><td valign="top">
  The coalesce() function returns a copy of its first non-NULL argument, or
  NULL if all arguments are NULL.  Coalesce() must have at least 
  2 arguments.

</td></tr><tr><td valign="top" align="right" width="120"><a name="glob"></a>
glob(<i>X</i>,<i>Y</i>)</td><td valign="top">
  The glob(X,Y) function is equivalent to the
  expression "<b>Y GLOB X</b>".
  Note that the X and Y arguments are reversed in the glob() function
  relative to the infix <a href="lang_expr.html#glob">GLOB</a> operator.
  If the <a href="c3ref/create_function.html">sqlite3_create_function()</a> interface is used to
  override the glob(X,Y) function with an alternative implementation then
  the <a href="lang_expr.html#glob">GLOB</a> operator will invoke the alternative implementation.







</td></tr><tr><td valign="top" align="right" width="120"><a name="ifnull"></a>
ifnull(<i>X</i>,<i>Y</i>)</td><td valign="top">
  The ifnull() function returns a copy of its first non-NULL argument, or
  NULL if both arguments are NULL.  Ifnull() must have exactly 2 arguments.
  The ifnull() function is equivalent to <a href="lang_corefunc.html#coalesce">coalesce()</a> with two arguments.

</td></tr><tr><td valign="top" align="right" width="120"><a name="instr"></a>
instr(<i>X</i>,<i>Y</i>)</td><td valign="top">
  The instr(X,Y) function finds the first occurrence of string Y within 
  string X and returns the number of prior characters plus 1, or 0 if
  Y is nowhere found within X.
  Or, if X and Y are both BLOBs, then instr(X,Y) returns one
  more than the number bytes prior to the first occurrence of Y, or 0 if
  Y does not occur anywhere within X.
  If both arguments X and Y to instr(X,Y) are non-NULL and are not BLOBs
  then both are interpreted as strings.
  If either X or Y are NULL in instr(X,Y) then the result is NULL.
</td></tr><tr><td valign="top" align="right" width="120"><a name="hex"></a>
hex(<i>X</i>)</td><td valign="top">
  The hex() function interprets its argument as a BLOB and returns
  a string which is the upper-case hexadecimal rendering of the content of
  that blob.
</td></tr><tr><td valign="top" align="right" width="120"><a name="last_insert_rowid"></a>
last_insert_rowid()</td><td valign="top">
  The last_insert_rowid() function returns the <a href="lang_createtable.html#rowid">ROWID</a>
  of the last row insert from the database connection which invoked the
  function.
  The last_insert_rowid() SQL function is a wrapper around the
  <a href="c3ref/last_insert_rowid.html">sqlite3_last_insert_rowid()</a> C/C++ interface function.

</td></tr><tr><td valign="top" align="right" width="120"><a name="length"></a>
length(<i>X</i>)</td><td valign="top">
  For a string value X, the length(X) function returns the number of 
  characters (not bytes) in X prior to the first NUL character.
  Since SQLite strings do not normally contain NUL characters, the length(X)
  function will usually return the total number of characters in the string X.
  For a blob value X, length(X) returns the number of bytes in the blob.
  If X is NULL then length(X) is NULL.
  If X is numeric then length(X) returns the length of a string
  representation of X.

</td></tr><tr><td valign="top" align="right" width="120"><a name="like"></a>
like(<i>X</i>,<i>Y</i>)<br />like(<i>X</i>,<i>Y</i>,<i>Z</i>)</td><td valign="top">
  The like() function is used to implement the
  "<b>Y LIKE X &#91;ESCAPE Z&#93;</b>" expression. 
  If the optional ESCAPE clause is present, then the
  like() function is invoked with three arguments.  Otherwise, it is
  invoked with two arguments only. Note that the X and Y parameters are
  reversed in the like() function relative to the infix <a href="lang_expr.html#like">LIKE</a> operator.
  The <a href="c3ref/create_function.html">sqlite3_create_function()</a> interface can be used to override the
  like() function and thereby change the operation of the
  <a href="lang_expr.html#like">LIKE</a> operator.  When overriding the like() function, it may be important
  to override both the two and three argument versions of the like() 
  function. Otherwise, different code may be called to implement the
  <a href="lang_expr.html#like">LIKE</a> operator depending on whether or not an ESCAPE clause was 
  specified.

</td></tr><tr><td valign="top" align="right" width="120"><a name="likelihood"></a>
likelihood(<i>X</i>,<i>Y</i>)</td><td valign="top">
  The likelihood(X,Y) function returns argument X unchanged.
  The value Y in likelihood(X,Y) must be a floating point constant
  between 0.0 and 1.0, inclusive.
  The likelihood(X) function is a no-op that the code generator
  optimizes away so that it consumes no CPU cycles during run-time
  (that is, during calls to <a href="c3ref/step.html">sqlite3_step()</a>).
  The purpose of the likelihood(X,Y) function is to provide a hint
  to the query planner that the argument X is a boolean that is
  true with a probability of approximately Y.
  The <a href="lang_corefunc.html#unlikely">unlikely(X)</a> function is short-hand for likelihood(X,0.0625).
  The <a href="lang_corefunc.html#likely">likely(X)</a> function is short-hand for likelihood(X,0.9375).

</td></tr><tr><td valign="top" align="right" width="120"><a name="likely"></a>
likely(<i>X</i>)</td><td valign="top">
  The likely(X) function returns the argument X unchanged.
  The likely(X) function is a no-op that the code generator
  optimizes away so that it consumes no CPU cycles at
  run-time (that is, during calls to <a href="c3ref/step.html">sqlite3_step()</a>).
  The purpose of the likely(X) function is to provide a hint
  to the query planner that the argument X is a boolean value
  that is usually true. The likely(X) function is equivalent
  to <a href="lang_corefunc.html#likelihood">likelihood</a>(X,0.9375). See also: <a href="lang_corefunc.html#unlikely">unlikely(X)</a>.

</td></tr><tr><td valign="top" align="right" width="120"><a name="load_extension"></a>
load_extension(<i>X</i>)<br />load_extension(<i>X</i>,<i>Y</i>)</td><td valign="top">
  The load_extension(X,Y) function loads <a href="loadext.html">SQLite extensions</a> out of the shared
  library file named X using the entry point Y.  The result of load_extension()
  is always a NULL.  If Y is omitted then the default entry point name is used.
  The load_extension() function raises an exception if the extension fails to
  load or initialize correctly.

  <p>The load_extension() function will fail if the extension attempts to 
................................................................................
  those functions and/or collating sequences might be used elsewhere
  in the currently running SQL statement.  To load an extension that
  changes or deletes functions or collating sequences, use the
  <a href="c3ref/load_extension.html">sqlite3_load_extension()</a> C-language API.</p>

  <p>For security reasons, extension loaded is turned off by default and must
  be enabled by a prior call to <a href="c3ref/enable_load_extension.html">sqlite3_enable_load_extension()</a>.</p>

</td></tr><tr><td valign="top" align="right" width="120"><a name="lower"></a>
lower(<i>X</i>)</td><td valign="top">
  The lower(X) function returns a copy of string X with all ASCII characters
  converted to lower case.  The default built-in lower() function works
  for ASCII characters only.  To do case conversions on non-ASCII
  characters, load the ICU extension.

</td></tr><tr><td valign="top" align="right" width="120"><a name="ltrim"></a>
ltrim(<i>X</i>)<br />ltrim(<i>X</i>,<i>Y</i>)</td><td valign="top">
  The ltrim(X,Y) function returns a string formed by removing any and all
  characters that appear in Y from the left side of X.
  If the Y argument is omitted, ltrim(X) removes spaces from the left side
  of X.

</td></tr><tr><td valign="top" align="right" width="120"><a name="maxoreunc"></a>
max(<i>X</i>,<i>Y</i>,...)</td><td valign="top">
  The multi-argument max() function returns the argument with the 
  maximum value, or return NULL if any argument is NULL. 
  The multi-argument max() function searches its arguments from left to right
  for an argument that defines a collating function and uses that collating
  function for all string comparisons.  If none of the arguments to max()
  define a collating function, then the BINARY collating function is used.
  Note that <b>max()</b> is a simple function when
  it has 2 or more arguments but operates as an
  <a href="lang_aggfunc.html#maxggunc">aggregate function</a> if given only a single argument.

</td></tr><tr><td valign="top" align="right" width="120"><a name="minoreunc"></a>
min(<i>X</i>,<i>Y</i>,...)</td><td valign="top">
  The multi-argument min() function returns the argument with the
  minimum value.
  The multi-argument min() function searches its arguments from left to right
  for an argument that defines a collating function and uses that collating
  function for all string comparisons.  If none of the arguments to min()
  define a collating function, then the BINARY collating function is used.
  Note that <b>min()</b> is a simple function when
  it has 2 or more arguments but operates as an 
  <a href="lang_aggfunc.html#minggunc">aggregate function</a> if given
  only a single argument.

</td></tr><tr><td valign="top" align="right" width="120"><a name="nullif"></a>
nullif(<i>X</i>,<i>Y</i>)</td><td valign="top">
  The nullif(X,Y) function returns its first argument if the arguments are
  different and NULL if the arguments are the same.  The nullif(X,Y) function
  searches its arguments from left to right for an argument that defines a
  collating function and uses that collating function for all string
  comparisons.  If neither argument to nullif() defines a collating function
  then the BINARY is used.

</td></tr><tr><td valign="top" align="right" width="120"><a name="printf"></a>
printf(<i>FORMAT</i>,...)</td><td valign="top">
  The printf(FORMAT,...) SQL function works like the <a href="c3ref/mprintf.html">sqlite3_mprintf()</a> C-language
  function and the printf() function from the standard C library.
  The first argument is a format string that specifies how to construct the output
  string using values taken from subsequent arguments.  If the FORMAT argument is
  missing or NULL then the result is NULL.  The %n format is silently ignored and
  does not consume an argument.  The %p format is an alias for %X.  The %z format
  is interchangeable with %s.  If there are too few arguments in the argument list,
  missing arguments are assumed to have a NULL value, which is translated into
  0 or 0.0 for numeric formats or an empty string for %s.

</td></tr><tr><td valign="top" align="right" width="120"><a name="quote"></a>
quote(<i>X</i>)</td><td valign="top">
  The quote(X) function returns the text of an SQL literal which
  is the value of its argument suitable for inclusion into an SQL statement.
  Strings are surrounded by single-quotes with escapes on interior quotes
  as needed.  BLOBs are encoded as hexadecimal literals.
  Strings with embedded NUL characters cannot be represented as string
  literals in SQL and hence the returned string literal is truncated prior
  to the first NUL.

</td></tr><tr><td valign="top" align="right" width="120"><a name="random"></a>
random()</td><td valign="top">

  The random() function returns a pseudo-random integer
  between -9223372036854775808 and +9223372036854775807.

</td></tr><tr><td valign="top" align="right" width="120"><a name="randomblob"></a>
randomblob(<i>N</i>)</td><td valign="top">
  The randomblob(N) function return an N-byte blob containing pseudo-random
  bytes. If N is less than 1 then a 1-byte random blob is returned.

  <p>Hint:  applications can generate globally unique identifiers
  using this function together with <a href="lang_corefunc.html#hex">hex()</a> and/or
  <a href="lang_corefunc.html#lower">lower()</a> like this:</p>

  <blockquote>
  hex(randomblob(16))<br></br>
  lower(hex(randomblob(16)))
  </blockquote>

</td></tr><tr><td valign="top" align="right" width="120"><a name="replace"></a>
replace(<i>X</i>,<i>Y</i>,<i>Z</i>)</td><td valign="top">
  The replace(X,Y,Z) function returns a string formed by substituting
  string Z for every occurrence of string Y in string X.  The <a href="datatype3.html#collation">BINARY</a>
  collating sequence is used for comparisons.  If Y is an empty
  string then return X unchanged.  If Z is not initially
  a string, it is cast to a UTF-8 string prior to processing.

</td></tr><tr><td valign="top" align="right" width="120"><a name="round"></a>
round(<i>X</i>)<br />round(<i>X</i>,<i>Y</i>)</td><td valign="top">
  The round(X,Y) function returns a floating-point
  value X rounded to Y digits to the right of the decimal point.
  If the Y argument is omitted, it is assumed to be 0.

</td></tr><tr><td valign="top" align="right" width="120"><a name="rtrim"></a>
rtrim(<i>X</i>)<br />rtrim(<i>X</i>,<i>Y</i>)</td><td valign="top">
  The rtrim(X,Y) function returns a string formed by removing any and all
  characters that appear in Y from the right side of X.
  If the Y argument is omitted, rtrim(X) removes spaces from the right
  side of X.

</td></tr><tr><td valign="top" align="right" width="120"><a name="soundex"></a>
soundex(<i>X</i>)</td><td valign="top">
  The soundex(X) function returns a string that is the soundex encoding 
  of the string X.
  The string "?000" is returned if the argument is NULL or contains
  no ASCII alphabetic characters.
  This function is omitted from SQLite by default.
  It is only available if the <a href="compile.html#soundex">SQLITE_SOUNDEX</a> compile-time option
  is used when SQLite is built.

</td></tr><tr><td valign="top" align="right" width="120"><a name="sqlite_compileoption_get"></a>
sqlite_compileoption_get(<i>N</i>)</td><td valign="top">
  The sqlite_compileoption_get() SQL function is a wrapper around the
  <a href="c3ref/compileoption_get.html">sqlite3_compileoption_get()</a> C/C++ function.
  This routine returns the N-th compile-time option used to build SQLite
  or NULL if N is out of range.  See also the <a href="pragma.html#pragma_compile_options">compile_options pragma</a>.

</td></tr><tr><td valign="top" align="right" width="120"><a name="sqlite_compileoption_used"></a>
sqlite_compileoption_used(<i>X</i>)</td><td valign="top">
  The sqlite_compileoption_used() SQL function is a wrapper around the
  <a href="c3ref/compileoption_get.html">sqlite3_compileoption_used()</a> C/C++ function.
  When the argument X to sqlite_compileoption_used(X) is a string which
  is the name of a compile-time option, this routine returns true (1) or
  false (0) depending on whether or not that option was used during the
  build.

</td></tr><tr><td valign="top" align="right" width="120"><a name="sqlite_source_id"></a>
sqlite_source_id()</td><td valign="top">
  The sqlite_source_id() function returns a string that identifies the
  specific version of the source code that was used to build the SQLite
  library.  The string returned by sqlite_source_id() is
  the date and time that the source code was checked in followed by
  the SHA1 hash for that check-in.  This function is
  an SQL wrapper around the <a href="c3ref/libversion.html">sqlite3_sourceid()</a> C interface.

</td></tr><tr><td valign="top" align="right" width="120"><a name="sqlite_version"></a>
sqlite_version()</td><td valign="top">
  The sqlite_version() function returns the version string for the SQLite
  library that is running.  This function is an SQL
  wrapper around the <a href="c3ref/libversion.html">sqlite3_libversion()</a> C-interface.

</td></tr><tr><td valign="top" align="right" width="120"><a name="substr"></a>
substr(<i>X</i>,<i>Y</i>,<i>Z</i>)<br />substr(<i>X</i>,<i>Y</i>)</td><td valign="top">
  The substr(X,Y,Z) function returns a substring of input string X that begins
  with the Y-th character and which is Z characters long.
  If Z is omitted then substr(X,Y) returns all characters through the end
  of the string X beginning with the Y-th.
  The left-most character of X is number 1.  If Y is negative
  then the first character of the substring is found by counting from the
  right rather than the left.  If Z is negative then
  the abs(Z) characters preceding the Y-th character are returned.
  If X is a string then characters indices refer to actual UTF-8 
  characters.  If X is a BLOB then the indices refer to bytes.

</td></tr><tr><td valign="top" align="right" width="120"><a name="total_changes"></a>
total_changes()</td><td valign="top">
  The total_changes() function returns the number of row changes
  caused by INSERT, UPDATE or DELETE
  statements since the current database connection was opened.
  This function is a wrapper around the <a href="c3ref/total_changes.html">sqlite3_total_changes()</a>
  C/C++ interface.

</td></tr><tr><td valign="top" align="right" width="120"><a name="trim"></a>
trim(<i>X</i>)<br />trim(<i>X</i>,<i>Y</i>)</td><td valign="top">
  The trim(X,Y) function returns a string formed by removing any and all
  characters that appear in Y from both ends of X.
  If the Y argument is omitted, trim(X) removes spaces from both ends of X.

</td></tr><tr><td valign="top" align="right" width="120"><a name="typeof"></a>
typeof(<i>X</i>)</td><td valign="top">
  The typeof(X) function returns a string that indicates the <a href="datatype3.html">datatype</a> of
  the expression X: "null", "integer", "real", "text", or "blob".







</td></tr><tr><td valign="top" align="right" width="120"><a name="unlikely"></a>
unlikely(<i>X</i>)</td><td valign="top">
  The unlikely(X) function returns the argument X unchanged.
  The unlikely(X) function is a no-op that the code generator
  optimizes away so that it consumes no CPU cycles at
  run-time (that is, during calls to <a href="c3ref/step.html">sqlite3_step()</a>).
  The purpose of the unlikely(X) function is to provide a hint
  to the query planner that the argument X is a boolean value
  that is usually not true. The unlikely(X) function is equivalent
  to <a href="lang_corefunc.html#likelihood">likelihood</a>(X, 0.0625).
</td></tr><tr><td valign="top" align="right" width="120"><a name="unicode"></a>
unicode(<i>X</i>)</td><td valign="top">
  The unicode(X) function returns the numeric unicode code point corresponding to
  the first character of the string X.  If the argument to unicode(X) is not a string
  then the result is undefined.
</td></tr><tr><td valign="top" align="right" width="120"><a name="upper"></a>
upper(<i>X</i>)</td><td valign="top">
  The upper(X) function returns a copy of input string X in which all 
  lower-case ASCII characters are converted to their upper-case equivalent.

</td></tr><tr><td valign="top" align="right" width="120"><a name="zeroblob"></a>
zeroblob(<i>N</i>)</td><td valign="top">
  The zeroblob(N) function returns a BLOB consisting of N bytes of 0x00.
  SQLite manages these zeroblobs very efficiently.  Zeroblobs can be used to
  reserve space for a BLOB that is later written using 
  <a href="c3ref/blob_open.html">incremental BLOB I/O</a>.
  This SQL function is implemented using the <a href="c3ref/result_blob.html">sqlite3_result_zeroblob()</a>
  routine from the C/C++ interface.
</td></tr>
</table>




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<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>Core Functions</h2></div>

<p>The core functions shown below are available by default. 
<a href="lang_datefunc.html">Date &amp; Time functions</a>,
<a href="lang_aggfunc.html">aggregate functions</a>, and
<a href="json1.html">JSON functions</a> are documented separately.  An
application may define additional
functions written in C and added to the database engine using
the <a href="c3ref/create_function.html">sqlite3_create_function()</a> API.</p>

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<hr class='xhr'>
<dl>
<a name="abs"></a>
<dt><p><b>abs(<i>X</i>)</b></dt><dd><p>
  The abs(X) function returns the absolute value of the numeric
  argument X.  Abs(X) returns NULL if X is NULL. 
  Abs(X) returns 0.0 if X is a string or blob
  that cannot be converted to a numeric value.  If X is the 
  integer -9223372036854775808 then abs(X) throws an integer overflow
  error since there is no equivalent positive 64-bit two complement value.
</dd>
<a name="changes"></a>

<dt><p><b>changes()</b></dt><dd><p>
  The changes() function returns the number of database rows that were changed
  or inserted or deleted by the most recently completed INSERT, DELETE,
  or UPDATE statement, exclusive of statements in lower-level triggers.
  The changes() SQL function is a wrapper around the <a href="c3ref/changes.html">sqlite3_changes()</a>
  C/C++ function and hence follows the same rules for counting changes.
</dd>
<a name="char"></a>
<dt><p><b>char(<i>X1</i>,<i>X2</i>,...,<i>XN</i>)</b></dt><dd><p>
  The char(X1,X2,...,XN) function returns a string composed of characters having the
   unicode code point values of integers X1 through XN, respectively.
</dd>
<a name="coalesce"></a>
<dt><p><b>coalesce(<i>X</i>,<i>Y</i>,...)</b></dt><dd><p>
  The coalesce() function returns a copy of its first non-NULL argument, or
  NULL if all arguments are NULL.  Coalesce() must have at least 
  2 arguments.
</dd>
<a name="glob"></a>
<dt><p><b>glob(<i>X</i>,<i>Y</i>)</b></dt><dd><p>
  The glob(X,Y) function is equivalent to the
  expression "<b>Y GLOB X</b>".
  Note that the X and Y arguments are reversed in the glob() function
  relative to the infix <a href="lang_expr.html#glob">GLOB</a> operator.
  If the <a href="c3ref/create_function.html">sqlite3_create_function()</a> interface is used to
  override the glob(X,Y) function with an alternative implementation then
  the <a href="lang_expr.html#glob">GLOB</a> operator will invoke the alternative implementation.
</dd>
<a name="hex"></a>
<dt><p><b>hex(<i>X</i>)</b></dt><dd><p>
  The hex() function interprets its argument as a BLOB and returns
  a string which is the upper-case hexadecimal rendering of the content of
  that blob.
</dd>
<a name="ifnull"></a>
<dt><p><b>ifnull(<i>X</i>,<i>Y</i>)</b></dt><dd><p>
  The ifnull() function returns a copy of its first non-NULL argument, or
  NULL if both arguments are NULL.  Ifnull() must have exactly 2 arguments.
  The ifnull() function is equivalent to <a href="lang_corefunc.html#coalesce">coalesce()</a> with two arguments.
</dd>
<a name="instr"></a>
<dt><p><b>instr(<i>X</i>,<i>Y</i>)</b></dt><dd><p>
  The instr(X,Y) function finds the first occurrence of string Y within 
  string X and returns the number of prior characters plus 1, or 0 if
  Y is nowhere found within X.
  Or, if X and Y are both BLOBs, then instr(X,Y) returns one
  more than the number bytes prior to the first occurrence of Y, or 0 if
  Y does not occur anywhere within X.
  If both arguments X and Y to instr(X,Y) are non-NULL and are not BLOBs
  then both are interpreted as strings.
  If either X or Y are NULL in instr(X,Y) then the result is NULL.
</dd>




<a name="last_insert_rowid"></a>
<dt><p><b>last_insert_rowid()</b></dt><dd><p>
  The last_insert_rowid() function returns the <a href="lang_createtable.html#rowid">ROWID</a>
  of the last row insert from the database connection which invoked the
  function.
  The last_insert_rowid() SQL function is a wrapper around the
  <a href="c3ref/last_insert_rowid.html">sqlite3_last_insert_rowid()</a> C/C++ interface function.
</dd>
<a name="length"></a>
<dt><p><b>length(<i>X</i>)</b></dt><dd><p>
  For a string value X, the length(X) function returns the number of 
  characters (not bytes) in X prior to the first NUL character.
  Since SQLite strings do not normally contain NUL characters, the length(X)
  function will usually return the total number of characters in the string X.
  For a blob value X, length(X) returns the number of bytes in the blob.
  If X is NULL then length(X) is NULL.
  If X is numeric then length(X) returns the length of a string
  representation of X.
</dd>
<a name="like"></a>
<dt><p><b>like(<i>X</i>,<i>Y</i>)<br />like(<i>X</i>,<i>Y</i>,<i>Z</i>)</b></dt><dd><p>
  The like() function is used to implement the
  "<b>Y LIKE X &#91;ESCAPE Z&#93;</b>" expression. 
  If the optional ESCAPE clause is present, then the
  like() function is invoked with three arguments.  Otherwise, it is
  invoked with two arguments only. Note that the X and Y parameters are
  reversed in the like() function relative to the infix <a href="lang_expr.html#like">LIKE</a> operator.
  The <a href="c3ref/create_function.html">sqlite3_create_function()</a> interface can be used to override the
  like() function and thereby change the operation of the
  <a href="lang_expr.html#like">LIKE</a> operator.  When overriding the like() function, it may be important
  to override both the two and three argument versions of the like() 
  function. Otherwise, different code may be called to implement the
  <a href="lang_expr.html#like">LIKE</a> operator depending on whether or not an ESCAPE clause was 
  specified.
</dd>
<a name="likelihood"></a>
<dt><p><b>likelihood(<i>X</i>,<i>Y</i>)</b></dt><dd><p>
  The likelihood(X,Y) function returns argument X unchanged.
  The value Y in likelihood(X,Y) must be a floating point constant
  between 0.0 and 1.0, inclusive.
  The likelihood(X) function is a no-op that the code generator
  optimizes away so that it consumes no CPU cycles during run-time
  (that is, during calls to <a href="c3ref/step.html">sqlite3_step()</a>).
  The purpose of the likelihood(X,Y) function is to provide a hint
  to the query planner that the argument X is a boolean that is
  true with a probability of approximately Y.
  The <a href="lang_corefunc.html#unlikely">unlikely(X)</a> function is short-hand for likelihood(X,0.0625).
  The <a href="lang_corefunc.html#likely">likely(X)</a> function is short-hand for likelihood(X,0.9375).
</dd>
<a name="likely"></a>
<dt><p><b>likely(<i>X</i>)</b></dt><dd><p>
  The likely(X) function returns the argument X unchanged.
  The likely(X) function is a no-op that the code generator
  optimizes away so that it consumes no CPU cycles at
  run-time (that is, during calls to <a href="c3ref/step.html">sqlite3_step()</a>).
  The purpose of the likely(X) function is to provide a hint
  to the query planner that the argument X is a boolean value
  that is usually true. The likely(X) function is equivalent
  to <a href="lang_corefunc.html#likelihood">likelihood</a>(X,0.9375). See also: <a href="lang_corefunc.html#unlikely">unlikely(X)</a>.
</dd>
<a name="load_extension"></a>
<dt><p><b>load_extension(<i>X</i>)<br />load_extension(<i>X</i>,<i>Y</i>)</b></dt><dd><p>
  The load_extension(X,Y) function loads <a href="loadext.html">SQLite extensions</a> out of the shared
  library file named X using the entry point Y.  The result of load_extension()
  is always a NULL.  If Y is omitted then the default entry point name is used.
  The load_extension() function raises an exception if the extension fails to
  load or initialize correctly.

  <p>The load_extension() function will fail if the extension attempts to 
................................................................................
  those functions and/or collating sequences might be used elsewhere
  in the currently running SQL statement.  To load an extension that
  changes or deletes functions or collating sequences, use the
  <a href="c3ref/load_extension.html">sqlite3_load_extension()</a> C-language API.</p>

  <p>For security reasons, extension loaded is turned off by default and must
  be enabled by a prior call to <a href="c3ref/enable_load_extension.html">sqlite3_enable_load_extension()</a>.</p>
</dd>
<a name="lower"></a>
<dt><p><b>lower(<i>X</i>)</b></dt><dd><p>
  The lower(X) function returns a copy of string X with all ASCII characters
  converted to lower case.  The default built-in lower() function works
  for ASCII characters only.  To do case conversions on non-ASCII
  characters, load the ICU extension.
</dd>
<a name="ltrim"></a>
<dt><p><b>ltrim(<i>X</i>)<br />ltrim(<i>X</i>,<i>Y</i>)</b></dt><dd><p>
  The ltrim(X,Y) function returns a string formed by removing any and all
  characters that appear in Y from the left side of X.
  If the Y argument is omitted, ltrim(X) removes spaces from the left side
  of X.
</dd>
<a name="maxoreunc"></a>
<dt><p><b>max(<i>X</i>,<i>Y</i>,...)</b></dt><dd><p>
  The multi-argument max() function returns the argument with the 
  maximum value, or return NULL if any argument is NULL. 
  The multi-argument max() function searches its arguments from left to right
  for an argument that defines a collating function and uses that collating
  function for all string comparisons.  If none of the arguments to max()
  define a collating function, then the BINARY collating function is used.
  Note that <b>max()</b> is a simple function when
  it has 2 or more arguments but operates as an
  <a href="lang_aggfunc.html#maxggunc">aggregate function</a> if given only a single argument.
</dd>
<a name="minoreunc"></a>
<dt><p><b>min(<i>X</i>,<i>Y</i>,...)</b></dt><dd><p>
  The multi-argument min() function returns the argument with the
  minimum value.
  The multi-argument min() function searches its arguments from left to right
  for an argument that defines a collating function and uses that collating
  function for all string comparisons.  If none of the arguments to min()
  define a collating function, then the BINARY collating function is used.
  Note that <b>min()</b> is a simple function when
  it has 2 or more arguments but operates as an 
  <a href="lang_aggfunc.html#minggunc">aggregate function</a> if given
  only a single argument.
</dd>
<a name="nullif"></a>
<dt><p><b>nullif(<i>X</i>,<i>Y</i>)</b></dt><dd><p>
  The nullif(X,Y) function returns its first argument if the arguments are
  different and NULL if the arguments are the same.  The nullif(X,Y) function
  searches its arguments from left to right for an argument that defines a
  collating function and uses that collating function for all string
  comparisons.  If neither argument to nullif() defines a collating function
  then the BINARY is used.
</dd>
<a name="printf"></a>
<dt><p><b>printf(<i>FORMAT</i>,...)</b></dt><dd><p>
  The printf(FORMAT,...) SQL function works like the <a href="c3ref/mprintf.html">sqlite3_mprintf()</a> C-language
  function and the printf() function from the standard C library.
  The first argument is a format string that specifies how to construct the output
  string using values taken from subsequent arguments.  If the FORMAT argument is
  missing or NULL then the result is NULL.  The %n format is silently ignored and
  does not consume an argument.  The %p format is an alias for %X.  The %z format
  is interchangeable with %s.  If there are too few arguments in the argument list,
  missing arguments are assumed to have a NULL value, which is translated into
  0 or 0.0 for numeric formats or an empty string for %s.
</dd>
<a name="quote"></a>
<dt><p><b>quote(<i>X</i>)</b></dt><dd><p>
  The quote(X) function returns the text of an SQL literal which
  is the value of its argument suitable for inclusion into an SQL statement.
  Strings are surrounded by single-quotes with escapes on interior quotes
  as needed.  BLOBs are encoded as hexadecimal literals.
  Strings with embedded NUL characters cannot be represented as string
  literals in SQL and hence the returned string literal is truncated prior
  to the first NUL.
</dd>
<a name="random"></a>

<dt><p><b>random()</b></dt><dd><p>
  The random() function returns a pseudo-random integer
  between -9223372036854775808 and +9223372036854775807.
</dd>
<a name="randomblob"></a>
<dt><p><b>randomblob(<i>N</i>)</b></dt><dd><p>
  The randomblob(N) function return an N-byte blob containing pseudo-random
  bytes. If N is less than 1 then a 1-byte random blob is returned.

  <p>Hint:  applications can generate globally unique identifiers
  using this function together with <a href="lang_corefunc.html#hex">hex()</a> and/or
  <a href="lang_corefunc.html#lower">lower()</a> like this:</p>

  <blockquote>
  hex(randomblob(16))<br></br>
  lower(hex(randomblob(16)))
  </blockquote>
</dd>
<a name="replace"></a>
<dt><p><b>replace(<i>X</i>,<i>Y</i>,<i>Z</i>)</b></dt><dd><p>
  The replace(X,Y,Z) function returns a string formed by substituting
  string Z for every occurrence of string Y in string X.  The <a href="datatype3.html#collation">BINARY</a>
  collating sequence is used for comparisons.  If Y is an empty
  string then return X unchanged.  If Z is not initially
  a string, it is cast to a UTF-8 string prior to processing.
</dd>
<a name="round"></a>
<dt><p><b>round(<i>X</i>)<br />round(<i>X</i>,<i>Y</i>)</b></dt><dd><p>
  The round(X,Y) function returns a floating-point
  value X rounded to Y digits to the right of the decimal point.
  If the Y argument is omitted, it is assumed to be 0.
</dd>
<a name="rtrim"></a>
<dt><p><b>rtrim(<i>X</i>)<br />rtrim(<i>X</i>,<i>Y</i>)</b></dt><dd><p>
  The rtrim(X,Y) function returns a string formed by removing any and all
  characters that appear in Y from the right side of X.
  If the Y argument is omitted, rtrim(X) removes spaces from the right
  side of X.
</dd>
<a name="soundex"></a>
<dt><p><b>soundex(<i>X</i>)</b></dt><dd><p>
  The soundex(X) function returns a string that is the soundex encoding 
  of the string X.
  The string "?000" is returned if the argument is NULL or contains
  no ASCII alphabetic characters.
  This function is omitted from SQLite by default.
  It is only available if the <a href="compile.html#soundex">SQLITE_SOUNDEX</a> compile-time option
  is used when SQLite is built.
</dd>
<a name="sqlite_compileoption_get"></a>
<dt><p><b>sqlite_compileoption_get(<i>N</i>)</b></dt><dd><p>
  The sqlite_compileoption_get() SQL function is a wrapper around the
  <a href="c3ref/compileoption_get.html">sqlite3_compileoption_get()</a> C/C++ function.
  This routine returns the N-th compile-time option used to build SQLite
  or NULL if N is out of range.  See also the <a href="pragma.html#pragma_compile_options">compile_options pragma</a>.
</dd>
<a name="sqlite_compileoption_used"></a>
<dt><p><b>sqlite_compileoption_used(<i>X</i>)</b></dt><dd><p>
  The sqlite_compileoption_used() SQL function is a wrapper around the
  <a href="c3ref/compileoption_get.html">sqlite3_compileoption_used()</a> C/C++ function.
  When the argument X to sqlite_compileoption_used(X) is a string which
  is the name of a compile-time option, this routine returns true (1) or
  false (0) depending on whether or not that option was used during the
  build.
</dd>
<a name="sqlite_source_id"></a>
<dt><p><b>sqlite_source_id()</b></dt><dd><p>
  The sqlite_source_id() function returns a string that identifies the
  specific version of the source code that was used to build the SQLite
  library.  The string returned by sqlite_source_id() is
  the date and time that the source code was checked in followed by
  the SHA1 hash for that check-in.  This function is
  an SQL wrapper around the <a href="c3ref/libversion.html">sqlite3_sourceid()</a> C interface.
</dd>
<a name="sqlite_version"></a>
<dt><p><b>sqlite_version()</b></dt><dd><p>
  The sqlite_version() function returns the version string for the SQLite
  library that is running.  This function is an SQL
  wrapper around the <a href="c3ref/libversion.html">sqlite3_libversion()</a> C-interface.
</dd>
<a name="substr"></a>
<dt><p><b>substr(<i>X</i>,<i>Y</i>,<i>Z</i>)<br />substr(<i>X</i>,<i>Y</i>)</b></dt><dd><p>
  The substr(X,Y,Z) function returns a substring of input string X that begins
  with the Y-th character and which is Z characters long.
  If Z is omitted then substr(X,Y) returns all characters through the end
  of the string X beginning with the Y-th.
  The left-most character of X is number 1.  If Y is negative
  then the first character of the substring is found by counting from the
  right rather than the left.  If Z is negative then
  the abs(Z) characters preceding the Y-th character are returned.
  If X is a string then characters indices refer to actual UTF-8 
  characters.  If X is a BLOB then the indices refer to bytes.
</dd>
<a name="total_changes"></a>
<dt><p><b>total_changes()</b></dt><dd><p>
  The total_changes() function returns the number of row changes
  caused by INSERT, UPDATE or DELETE
  statements since the current database connection was opened.
  This function is a wrapper around the <a href="c3ref/total_changes.html">sqlite3_total_changes()</a>
  C/C++ interface.
</dd>
<a name="trim"></a>
<dt><p><b>trim(<i>X</i>)<br />trim(<i>X</i>,<i>Y</i>)</b></dt><dd><p>
  The trim(X,Y) function returns a string formed by removing any and all
  characters that appear in Y from both ends of X.
  If the Y argument is omitted, trim(X) removes spaces from both ends of X.
</dd>
<a name="typeof"></a>
<dt><p><b>typeof(<i>X</i>)</b></dt><dd><p>
  The typeof(X) function returns a string that indicates the <a href="datatype3.html">datatype</a> of
  the expression X: "null", "integer", "real", "text", or "blob".
</dd>
<a name="unicode"></a>
<dt><p><b>unicode(<i>X</i>)</b></dt><dd><p>
  The unicode(X) function returns the numeric unicode code point corresponding to
  the first character of the string X.  If the argument to unicode(X) is not a string
  then the result is undefined.
</dd>
<a name="unlikely"></a>
<dt><p><b>unlikely(<i>X</i>)</b></dt><dd><p>
  The unlikely(X) function returns the argument X unchanged.
  The unlikely(X) function is a no-op that the code generator
  optimizes away so that it consumes no CPU cycles at
  run-time (that is, during calls to <a href="c3ref/step.html">sqlite3_step()</a>).
  The purpose of the unlikely(X) function is to provide a hint
  to the query planner that the argument X is a boolean value
  that is usually not true. The unlikely(X) function is equivalent
  to <a href="lang_corefunc.html#likelihood">likelihood</a>(X, 0.0625).
</dd>




<a name="upper"></a>
<dt><p><b>upper(<i>X</i>)</b></dt><dd><p>
  The upper(X) function returns a copy of input string X in which all 
  lower-case ASCII characters are converted to their upper-case equivalent.
</dd>
<a name="zeroblob"></a>
<dt><p><b>zeroblob(<i>N</i>)</b></dt><dd><p>
  The zeroblob(N) function returns a BLOB consisting of N bytes of 0x00.
  SQLite manages these zeroblobs very efficiently.  Zeroblobs can be used to
  reserve space for a BLOB that is later written using 
  <a href="c3ref/blob_open.html">incremental BLOB I/O</a>.
  This SQL function is implemented using the <a href="c3ref/result_blob.html">sqlite3_result_zeroblob()</a>
  routine from the C/C++ interface.
</dd>
</dl>


Changes to Doc/Extra/Core/lang_createindex.html.

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<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>CREATE INDEX</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/create-index-stmt.html">create-index-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x825' onclick='hideorshow("x825","x826")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x826'>

 <img alt="syntax diagram create-index-stmt" src="images/syntax/create-index-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x827' onclick='hideorshow("x827","x828")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x828' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x829' onclick='hideorshow("x829","x830")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x830' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x831' onclick='hideorshow("x831","x832")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x832' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x833' onclick='hideorshow("x833","x834")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x834' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x835' onclick='hideorshow("x835","x836")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x836' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x837' onclick='hideorshow("x837","x838")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x838' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x839' onclick='hideorshow("x839","x840")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x840' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x841' onclick='hideorshow("x841","x842")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x842' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x843' onclick='hideorshow("x843","x844")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x844' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x845' onclick='hideorshow("x845","x846")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x846' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x847' onclick='hideorshow("x847","x848")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x848' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x849' onclick='hideorshow("x849","x850")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x850' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x851' onclick='hideorshow("x851","x852")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x852' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x853' onclick='hideorshow("x853","x854")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x854' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/indexed-column.html">indexed-column:</a></b>
<button id='x855' onclick='hideorshow("x855","x856")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x856' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram indexed-column" src="images/syntax/indexed-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>


<p>The CREATE INDEX command consists of the keywords "CREATE INDEX" followed
by the name of the new index, the keyword "ON", the name of a previously
created table that is to be indexed, and a parenthesized list of table column
names and/or expressions that are used for the index key.
If the optional WHERE clause is included, then the index is a "<a href="partialindex.html">partial index</a>".


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<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>CREATE INDEX</h2></div><p><b><a href="syntax/create-index-stmt.html">create-index-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x825' onclick='hideorshow("x825","x826")'>hide</button></p>

 <div id='x826' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram create-index-stmt" src="images/syntax/create-index-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x827' onclick='hideorshow("x827","x828")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x828' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x829' onclick='hideorshow("x829","x830")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x830' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x831' onclick='hideorshow("x831","x832")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x832' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x833' onclick='hideorshow("x833","x834")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x834' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x835' onclick='hideorshow("x835","x836")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x836' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x837' onclick='hideorshow("x837","x838")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x838' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x839' onclick='hideorshow("x839","x840")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x840' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
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 <div id='x842' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
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<button id='x843' onclick='hideorshow("x843","x844")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x844' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x845' onclick='hideorshow("x845","x846")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x846' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x847' onclick='hideorshow("x847","x848")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x848' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x849' onclick='hideorshow("x849","x850")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x850' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x851' onclick='hideorshow("x851","x852")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x852' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x853' onclick='hideorshow("x853","x854")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x854' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/indexed-column.html">indexed-column:</a></b>
<button id='x855' onclick='hideorshow("x855","x856")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x856' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram indexed-column" src="images/syntax/indexed-column.gif" />
</div>
</div>


<p>The CREATE INDEX command consists of the keywords "CREATE INDEX" followed
by the name of the new index, the keyword "ON", the name of a previously
created table that is to be indexed, and a parenthesized list of table column
names and/or expressions that are used for the index key.
If the optional WHERE clause is included, then the index is a "<a href="partialindex.html">partial index</a>".

Changes to Doc/Extra/Core/lang_createtable.html.

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<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>CREATE TABLE</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/create-table-stmt.html">create-table-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x857' onclick='hideorshow("x857","x858")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x858'>

 <img alt="syntax diagram create-table-stmt" src="images/syntax/create-table-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/column-def.html">column-def:</a></b>
<button id='x859' onclick='hideorshow("x859","x860")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x860' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram column-def" src="images/syntax/column-def.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/column-constraint.html">column-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x861' onclick='hideorshow("x861","x862")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x862' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram column-constraint" src="images/syntax/column-constraint.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/conflict-clause.html">conflict-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x863' onclick='hideorshow("x863","x864")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x864' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram conflict-clause" src="images/syntax/conflict-clause.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x865' onclick='hideorshow("x865","x866")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x866' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x867' onclick='hideorshow("x867","x868")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x868' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/foreign-key-clause.html">foreign-key-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x869' onclick='hideorshow("x869","x870")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x870' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram foreign-key-clause" src="images/syntax/foreign-key-clause.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x871' onclick='hideorshow("x871","x872")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x872' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x873' onclick='hideorshow("x873","x874")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x874' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x875' onclick='hideorshow("x875","x876")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x876' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x877' onclick='hideorshow("x877","x878")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x878' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x879' onclick='hideorshow("x879","x880")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x880' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x881' onclick='hideorshow("x881","x882")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x882' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x883' onclick='hideorshow("x883","x884")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x884' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x885' onclick='hideorshow("x885","x886")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x886' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x887' onclick='hideorshow("x887","x888")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x888' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x889' onclick='hideorshow("x889","x890")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x890' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x891' onclick='hideorshow("x891","x892")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x892' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x893' onclick='hideorshow("x893","x894")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x894' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x895' onclick='hideorshow("x895","x896")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x896' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x897' onclick='hideorshow("x897","x898")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x898' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x899' onclick='hideorshow("x899","x900")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x900' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x901' onclick='hideorshow("x901","x902")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x902' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x903' onclick='hideorshow("x903","x904")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x904' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x905' onclick='hideorshow("x905","x906")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x906' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-constraint.html">table-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x907' onclick='hideorshow("x907","x908")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x908' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-constraint" src="images/syntax/table-constraint.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/conflict-clause.html">conflict-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x909' onclick='hideorshow("x909","x910")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x910' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram conflict-clause" src="images/syntax/conflict-clause.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x911' onclick='hideorshow("x911","x912")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x912' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x913' onclick='hideorshow("x913","x914")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x914' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x915' onclick='hideorshow("x915","x916")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x916' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x917' onclick='hideorshow("x917","x918")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x918' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x919' onclick='hideorshow("x919","x920")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x920' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/foreign-key-clause.html">foreign-key-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x921' onclick='hideorshow("x921","x922")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x922' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram foreign-key-clause" src="images/syntax/foreign-key-clause.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/indexed-column.html">indexed-column:</a></b>
<button id='x923' onclick='hideorshow("x923","x924")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x924' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram indexed-column" src="images/syntax/indexed-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>


<p>The "CREATE TABLE" command is used to create a new table in an SQLite 
database. A CREATE TABLE command specifies the following attributes of the
new table:

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<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>CREATE TABLE</h2></div><p><b><a href="syntax/create-table-stmt.html">create-table-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x857' onclick='hideorshow("x857","x858")'>hide</button></p>

 <div id='x858' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram create-table-stmt" src="images/syntax/create-table-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/column-def.html">column-def:</a></b>
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 <div id='x860' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram column-def" src="images/syntax/column-def.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/column-constraint.html">column-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x861' onclick='hideorshow("x861","x862")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x862' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram column-constraint" src="images/syntax/column-constraint.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/conflict-clause.html">conflict-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x863' onclick='hideorshow("x863","x864")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x864' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram conflict-clause" src="images/syntax/conflict-clause.gif" />
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 <div id='x866' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x867' onclick='hideorshow("x867","x868")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x868' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/foreign-key-clause.html">foreign-key-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x869' onclick='hideorshow("x869","x870")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x870' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram foreign-key-clause" src="images/syntax/foreign-key-clause.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
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 <div id='x872' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
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<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
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 <div id='x874' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
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 <div id='x876' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
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<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x877' onclick='hideorshow("x877","x878")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x878' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
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</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x879' onclick='hideorshow("x879","x880")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x880' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x881' onclick='hideorshow("x881","x882")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x882' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
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 <div id='x884' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
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 <div id='x886' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
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<button id='x887' onclick='hideorshow("x887","x888")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x888' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x889' onclick='hideorshow("x889","x890")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x890' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x891' onclick='hideorshow("x891","x892")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x892' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x893' onclick='hideorshow("x893","x894")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x894' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
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<button id='x895' onclick='hideorshow("x895","x896")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x896' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x897' onclick='hideorshow("x897","x898")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x898' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x899' onclick='hideorshow("x899","x900")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x900' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x901' onclick='hideorshow("x901","x902")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x902' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x903' onclick='hideorshow("x903","x904")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x904' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
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<button id='x905' onclick='hideorshow("x905","x906")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x906' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-constraint.html">table-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x907' onclick='hideorshow("x907","x908")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x908' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-constraint" src="images/syntax/table-constraint.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/conflict-clause.html">conflict-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x909' onclick='hideorshow("x909","x910")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x910' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram conflict-clause" src="images/syntax/conflict-clause.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x911' onclick='hideorshow("x911","x912")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x912' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x913' onclick='hideorshow("x913","x914")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x914' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x915' onclick='hideorshow("x915","x916")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x916' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x917' onclick='hideorshow("x917","x918")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x918' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x919' onclick='hideorshow("x919","x920")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x920' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
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<button id='x921' onclick='hideorshow("x921","x922")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x922' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram foreign-key-clause" src="images/syntax/foreign-key-clause.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/indexed-column.html">indexed-column:</a></b>
<button id='x923' onclick='hideorshow("x923","x924")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x924' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram indexed-column" src="images/syntax/indexed-column.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>


<p>The "CREATE TABLE" command is used to create a new table in an SQLite 
database. A CREATE TABLE command specifies the following attributes of the
new table:

<ul>

Changes to Doc/Extra/Core/lang_createtrigger.html.

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<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>CREATE TRIGGER</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/create-trigger-stmt.html">create-trigger-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x925' onclick='hideorshow("x925","x926")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x926'>

 <img alt="syntax diagram create-trigger-stmt" src="images/syntax/create-trigger-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/delete-stmt.html">delete-stmt:</a></b>
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 <blockquote id='x928' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram delete-stmt" src="images/syntax/delete-stmt.gif" />
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 <blockquote id='x930' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram qualified-table-name" src="images/syntax/qualified-table-name.gif" />
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 <blockquote id='x932' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram with-clause" src="images/syntax/with-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/cte-table-name.html">cte-table-name:</a></b>
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 <blockquote id='x934' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram cte-table-name" src="images/syntax/cte-table-name.gif" />
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</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x935' onclick='hideorshow("x935","x936")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x936' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x937' onclick='hideorshow("x937","x938")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x938' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x939' onclick='hideorshow("x939","x940")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x940' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x941' onclick='hideorshow("x941","x942")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x942' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x943' onclick='hideorshow("x943","x944")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x944' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/insert-stmt.html">insert-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x945' onclick='hideorshow("x945","x946")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x946' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram insert-stmt" src="images/syntax/insert-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/with-clause.html">with-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x947' onclick='hideorshow("x947","x948")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x948' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram with-clause" src="images/syntax/with-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/cte-table-name.html">cte-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x949' onclick='hideorshow("x949","x950")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x950' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram cte-table-name" src="images/syntax/cte-table-name.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x951' onclick='hideorshow("x951","x952")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x952' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x953' onclick='hideorshow("x953","x954")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x954' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x955' onclick='hideorshow("x955","x956")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x956' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x957' onclick='hideorshow("x957","x958")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x958' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x959' onclick='hideorshow("x959","x960")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x960' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x961' onclick='hideorshow("x961","x962")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x962' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x963' onclick='hideorshow("x963","x964")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x964' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x965' onclick='hideorshow("x965","x966")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x966' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x967' onclick='hideorshow("x967","x968")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x968' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/update-stmt.html">update-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x969' onclick='hideorshow("x969","x970")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x970' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram update-stmt" src="images/syntax/update-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/qualified-table-name.html">qualified-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x971' onclick='hideorshow("x971","x972")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x972' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram qualified-table-name" src="images/syntax/qualified-table-name.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/with-clause.html">with-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x973' onclick='hideorshow("x973","x974")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x974' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram with-clause" src="images/syntax/with-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/cte-table-name.html">cte-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x975' onclick='hideorshow("x975","x976")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x976' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram cte-table-name" src="images/syntax/cte-table-name.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>


<p>The CREATE TRIGGER statement is used to add triggers to the 
database schema. Triggers are database operations 
that are automatically performed when a specified database event
occurs.  </p>

................................................................................
<a name="raise"></a>

<h3>The RAISE() function</h3>

<p>A special SQL function RAISE() may be used within a trigger-program,
with the following syntax</p> 

<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b></p><blockquote>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif"></img>
 </blockquote>


<p>When one of RAISE(ROLLBACK,...), RAISE(ABORT,...) or RAISE(FAIL,...)
is called during trigger-program
execution, the specified <a href="lang_conflict.html">ON CONFLICT</a> processing is performed
the current query terminates.
An error code of <a href="rescode.html#constraint">SQLITE_CONSTRAINT</a> is returned to the application,


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<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>CREATE TRIGGER</h2></div><p><b><a href="syntax/create-trigger-stmt.html">create-trigger-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x925' onclick='hideorshow("x925","x926")'>hide</button></p>

 <div id='x926' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram create-trigger-stmt" src="images/syntax/create-trigger-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/delete-stmt.html">delete-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x927' onclick='hideorshow("x927","x928")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x928' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram delete-stmt" src="images/syntax/delete-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/qualified-table-name.html">qualified-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x929' onclick='hideorshow("x929","x930")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x930' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram qualified-table-name" src="images/syntax/qualified-table-name.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/with-clause.html">with-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x931' onclick='hideorshow("x931","x932")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x932' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram with-clause" src="images/syntax/with-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/cte-table-name.html">cte-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x933' onclick='hideorshow("x933","x934")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x934' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram cte-table-name" src="images/syntax/cte-table-name.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x935' onclick='hideorshow("x935","x936")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x936' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x937' onclick='hideorshow("x937","x938")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x938' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x939' onclick='hideorshow("x939","x940")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x940' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x941' onclick='hideorshow("x941","x942")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x942' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x943' onclick='hideorshow("x943","x944")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x944' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/insert-stmt.html">insert-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x945' onclick='hideorshow("x945","x946")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x946' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram insert-stmt" src="images/syntax/insert-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/with-clause.html">with-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x947' onclick='hideorshow("x947","x948")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x948' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram with-clause" src="images/syntax/with-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/cte-table-name.html">cte-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x949' onclick='hideorshow("x949","x950")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x950' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram cte-table-name" src="images/syntax/cte-table-name.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x951' onclick='hideorshow("x951","x952")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x952' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x953' onclick='hideorshow("x953","x954")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x954' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x955' onclick='hideorshow("x955","x956")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x956' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x957' onclick='hideorshow("x957","x958")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x958' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x959' onclick='hideorshow("x959","x960")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x960' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x961' onclick='hideorshow("x961","x962")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x962' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x963' onclick='hideorshow("x963","x964")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x964' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x965' onclick='hideorshow("x965","x966")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x966' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x967' onclick='hideorshow("x967","x968")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x968' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/update-stmt.html">update-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x969' onclick='hideorshow("x969","x970")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x970' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram update-stmt" src="images/syntax/update-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/qualified-table-name.html">qualified-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x971' onclick='hideorshow("x971","x972")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x972' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram qualified-table-name" src="images/syntax/qualified-table-name.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/with-clause.html">with-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x973' onclick='hideorshow("x973","x974")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x974' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram with-clause" src="images/syntax/with-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/cte-table-name.html">cte-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x975' onclick='hideorshow("x975","x976")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x976' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram cte-table-name" src="images/syntax/cte-table-name.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>


<p>The CREATE TRIGGER statement is used to add triggers to the 
database schema. Triggers are database operations 
that are automatically performed when a specified database event
occurs.  </p>

................................................................................
<a name="raise"></a>

<h3>The RAISE() function</h3>

<p>A special SQL function RAISE() may be used within a trigger-program,
with the following syntax</p> 

<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b></p><div class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif"></img>
 </div>


<p>When one of RAISE(ROLLBACK,...), RAISE(ABORT,...) or RAISE(FAIL,...)
is called during trigger-program
execution, the specified <a href="lang_conflict.html">ON CONFLICT</a> processing is performed
the current query terminates.
An error code of <a href="rescode.html#constraint">SQLITE_CONSTRAINT</a> is returned to the application,

Changes to Doc/Extra/Core/lang_createview.html.

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<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>CREATE VIEW</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/create-view-stmt.html">create-view-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x977' onclick='hideorshow("x977","x978")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x978'>

 <img alt="syntax diagram create-view-stmt" src="images/syntax/create-view-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x979' onclick='hideorshow("x979","x980")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x980' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x981' onclick='hideorshow("x981","x982")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x982' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x983' onclick='hideorshow("x983","x984")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x984' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x985' onclick='hideorshow("x985","x986")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x986' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x987' onclick='hideorshow("x987","x988")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x988' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x989' onclick='hideorshow("x989","x990")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x990' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x991' onclick='hideorshow("x991","x992")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x992' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x993' onclick='hideorshow("x993","x994")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x994' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x995' onclick='hideorshow("x995","x996")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x996' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
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<button id='x997' onclick='hideorshow("x997","x998")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x998' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x999' onclick='hideorshow("x999","x1000")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1000' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1001' onclick='hideorshow("x1001","x1002")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1002' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1003' onclick='hideorshow("x1003","x1004")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1004' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1005' onclick='hideorshow("x1005","x1006")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1006' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>


<p>The CREATE VIEW command assigns a name to a pre-packaged 
<a href="lang_select.html">SELECT</a> statement. 
Once the view is created, it can be used in the FROM clause
of another <a href="lang_select.html">SELECT</a> in place of a table name.
</p>


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<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>CREATE VIEW</h2></div><p><b><a href="syntax/create-view-stmt.html">create-view-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x977' onclick='hideorshow("x977","x978")'>hide</button></p>

 <div id='x978' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram create-view-stmt" src="images/syntax/create-view-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x979' onclick='hideorshow("x979","x980")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x980' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x981' onclick='hideorshow("x981","x982")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x982' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x983' onclick='hideorshow("x983","x984")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x984' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x985' onclick='hideorshow("x985","x986")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x986' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x987' onclick='hideorshow("x987","x988")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x988' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x989' onclick='hideorshow("x989","x990")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x990' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x991' onclick='hideorshow("x991","x992")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x992' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x993' onclick='hideorshow("x993","x994")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x994' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x995' onclick='hideorshow("x995","x996")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x996' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x997' onclick='hideorshow("x997","x998")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x998' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x999' onclick='hideorshow("x999","x1000")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1000' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1001' onclick='hideorshow("x1001","x1002")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1002' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1003' onclick='hideorshow("x1003","x1004")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1004' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1005' onclick='hideorshow("x1005","x1006")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1006' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>


<p>The CREATE VIEW command assigns a name to a pre-packaged 
<a href="lang_select.html">SELECT</a> statement. 
Once the view is created, it can be used in the FROM clause
of another <a href="lang_select.html">SELECT</a> in place of a table name.
</p>

Changes to Doc/Extra/Core/lang_createvtab.html.

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<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>CREATE VIRTUAL TABLE</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/create-virtual-table-stmt.html">create-virtual-table-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1007' onclick='hideorshow("x1007","x1008")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1008'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram create-virtual-table-stmt" src="images/syntax/create-virtual-table-stmt.gif" />
</blockquote>



<p>A <a href="vtab.html">virtual table</a> is an interface to an external storage or computation
engine that appears to be a table but does not actually store information
in the database file.</p>

<p>In general, you can do anything with a <a href="vtab.html">virtual table</a> that can be done


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<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>CREATE VIRTUAL TABLE</h2></div><p><b><a href="syntax/create-virtual-table-stmt.html">create-virtual-table-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1007' onclick='hideorshow("x1007","x1008")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1008' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram create-virtual-table-stmt" src="images/syntax/create-virtual-table-stmt.gif" />

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<p>A <a href="vtab.html">virtual table</a> is an interface to an external storage or computation
engine that appears to be a table but does not actually store information
in the database file.</p>

<p>In general, you can do anything with a <a href="vtab.html">virtual table</a> that can be done

Changes to Doc/Extra/Core/lang_datefunc.html.

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<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>Date And Time Functions</h2>

<p>
SQLite supports five date and time functions as follows:
</p>

<p>
<ol>


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<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>Date And Time Functions</h2></div>

<p>
SQLite supports five date and time functions as follows:
</p>

<p>
<ol>

Changes to Doc/Extra/Core/lang_delete.html.

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<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>DELETE</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/delete-stmt.html">delete-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1009' onclick='hideorshow("x1009","x1010")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1010'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram delete-stmt" src="images/syntax/delete-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1011' onclick='hideorshow("x1011","x1012")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1012' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1013' onclick='hideorshow("x1013","x1014")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1014' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x1015' onclick='hideorshow("x1015","x1016")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1016' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1017' onclick='hideorshow("x1017","x1018")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1018' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1019' onclick='hideorshow("x1019","x1020")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1020' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1021' onclick='hideorshow("x1021","x1022")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1022' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1023' onclick='hideorshow("x1023","x1024")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1024' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1025' onclick='hideorshow("x1025","x1026")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1026' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1027' onclick='hideorshow("x1027","x1028")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1028' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1029' onclick='hideorshow("x1029","x1030")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1030' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1031' onclick='hideorshow("x1031","x1032")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1032' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1033' onclick='hideorshow("x1033","x1034")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1034' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1035' onclick='hideorshow("x1035","x1036")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1036' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1037' onclick='hideorshow("x1037","x1038")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1038' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/qualified-table-name.html">qualified-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1039' onclick='hideorshow("x1039","x1040")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1040' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram qualified-table-name" src="images/syntax/qualified-table-name.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/with-clause.html">with-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1041' onclick='hideorshow("x1041","x1042")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1042' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram with-clause" src="images/syntax/with-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/cte-table-name.html">cte-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1043' onclick='hideorshow("x1043","x1044")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1044' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram cte-table-name" src="images/syntax/cte-table-name.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1045' onclick='hideorshow("x1045","x1046")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1046' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1047' onclick='hideorshow("x1047","x1048")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1048' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1049' onclick='hideorshow("x1049","x1050")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1050' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1051' onclick='hideorshow("x1051","x1052")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1052' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1053' onclick='hideorshow("x1053","x1054")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1054' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1055' onclick='hideorshow("x1055","x1056")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1056' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1057' onclick='hideorshow("x1057","x1058")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1058' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1059' onclick='hideorshow("x1059","x1060")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1060' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1061' onclick='hideorshow("x1061","x1062")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1062' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>


<p>The DELETE command removes records from the table identified by the
   <a href="syntax/qualified-table-name.html">qualified-table-name</a>.

<p>If the WHERE clause is not present, all records in the table are deleted.
   If a WHERE clause is supplied, then only those rows for which the
................................................................................

<h3>Optional LIMIT and ORDER BY clauses</h3>

<p>If SQLite is compiled with the <a href="compile.html#enable_update_delete_limit">SQLITE_ENABLE_UPDATE_DELETE_LIMIT</a>
compile-time option, then the syntax of the DELETE statement is
extended by the addition of optional ORDER BY and LIMIT clauses:</p>

<p><b><a href="syntax/delete-stmt-limited.html">delete-stmt-limited:</a></b></p><blockquote>
 <img alt="syntax diagram delete-stmt-limited" src="images/syntax/delete-stmt-limited.gif"></img>
 </blockquote>


<p>If a DELETE statement has a LIMIT clause, the maximum number of rows that
will be deleted is found by evaluating the accompanying expression and casting
it to an integer value. If the result of the evaluating the LIMIT clause
cannot be losslessly converted to an integer value, it is an error. A 
negative LIMIT value is interpreted as "no limit". If the DELETE statement 


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<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>DELETE</h2></div><p><b><a href="syntax/delete-stmt.html">delete-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1009' onclick='hideorshow("x1009","x1010")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1010' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram delete-stmt" src="images/syntax/delete-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1011' onclick='hideorshow("x1011","x1012")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1012' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1013' onclick='hideorshow("x1013","x1014")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1014' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x1015' onclick='hideorshow("x1015","x1016")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1016' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1017' onclick='hideorshow("x1017","x1018")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1018' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1019' onclick='hideorshow("x1019","x1020")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1020' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1021' onclick='hideorshow("x1021","x1022")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1022' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1023' onclick='hideorshow("x1023","x1024")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1024' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1025' onclick='hideorshow("x1025","x1026")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1026' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1027' onclick='hideorshow("x1027","x1028")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1028' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1029' onclick='hideorshow("x1029","x1030")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1030' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1031' onclick='hideorshow("x1031","x1032")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1032' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1033' onclick='hideorshow("x1033","x1034")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1034' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1035' onclick='hideorshow("x1035","x1036")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1036' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1037' onclick='hideorshow("x1037","x1038")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1038' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/qualified-table-name.html">qualified-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1039' onclick='hideorshow("x1039","x1040")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1040' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram qualified-table-name" src="images/syntax/qualified-table-name.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/with-clause.html">with-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1041' onclick='hideorshow("x1041","x1042")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1042' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram with-clause" src="images/syntax/with-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/cte-table-name.html">cte-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1043' onclick='hideorshow("x1043","x1044")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1044' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram cte-table-name" src="images/syntax/cte-table-name.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1045' onclick='hideorshow("x1045","x1046")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1046' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1047' onclick='hideorshow("x1047","x1048")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1048' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1049' onclick='hideorshow("x1049","x1050")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1050' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1051' onclick='hideorshow("x1051","x1052")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1052' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1053' onclick='hideorshow("x1053","x1054")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1054' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1055' onclick='hideorshow("x1055","x1056")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1056' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1057' onclick='hideorshow("x1057","x1058")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1058' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1059' onclick='hideorshow("x1059","x1060")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1060' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1061' onclick='hideorshow("x1061","x1062")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1062' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>


<p>The DELETE command removes records from the table identified by the
   <a href="syntax/qualified-table-name.html">qualified-table-name</a>.

<p>If the WHERE clause is not present, all records in the table are deleted.
   If a WHERE clause is supplied, then only those rows for which the
................................................................................

<h3>Optional LIMIT and ORDER BY clauses</h3>

<p>If SQLite is compiled with the <a href="compile.html#enable_update_delete_limit">SQLITE_ENABLE_UPDATE_DELETE_LIMIT</a>
compile-time option, then the syntax of the DELETE statement is
extended by the addition of optional ORDER BY and LIMIT clauses:</p>

<p><b><a href="syntax/delete-stmt-limited.html">delete-stmt-limited:</a></b></p><div class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram delete-stmt-limited" src="images/syntax/delete-stmt-limited.gif"></img>
 </div>


<p>If a DELETE statement has a LIMIT clause, the maximum number of rows that
will be deleted is found by evaluating the accompanying expression and casting
it to an integer value. If the result of the evaluating the LIMIT clause
cannot be losslessly converted to an integer value, it is an error. A 
negative LIMIT value is interpreted as "no limit". If the DELETE statement 

Changes to Doc/Extra/Core/lang_detach.html.

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<title>SQLite Query Language: DETACH DATABASE</title>
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<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>DETACH DATABASE</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/detach-stmt.html">detach-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1063' onclick='hideorshow("x1063","x1064")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1064'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram detach-stmt" src="images/syntax/detach-stmt.gif" />
</blockquote>



<p>This statement detaches an additional database connection previously 
attached using the <a href="lang_attach.html">ATTACH</a> statement.  
When not in <a href="sharedcache.html">shared cache mode</a>, 
it is possible to have the same database file attached multiple times using 
different names, and detaching one connection to a file will leave the 


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</div>




<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>DETACH DATABASE</h2></div><p><b><a href="syntax/detach-stmt.html">detach-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1063' onclick='hideorshow("x1063","x1064")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1064' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram detach-stmt" src="images/syntax/detach-stmt.gif" />

</div>


<p>This statement detaches an additional database connection previously 
attached using the <a href="lang_attach.html">ATTACH</a> statement.  
When not in <a href="sharedcache.html">shared cache mode</a>, 
it is possible to have the same database file attached multiple times using 
different names, and detaching one connection to a file will leave the 

Changes to Doc/Extra/Core/lang_dropindex.html.

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<meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8">
<title>SQLite Query Language: DROP INDEX</title>
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</head>
<body>
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<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>DROP INDEX</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/drop-index-stmt.html">drop-index-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1065' onclick='hideorshow("x1065","x1066")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1066'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram drop-index-stmt" src="images/syntax/drop-index-stmt.gif" />
</blockquote>



<p>The DROP INDEX statement removes an index added
with the <a href="lang_createindex.html">CREATE INDEX</a> statement.  The index is completely removed from
the disk.  The only way to recover the index is to reenter the
appropriate <a href="lang_createindex.html">CREATE INDEX</a> command.</p>




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<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>DROP INDEX</h2></div><p><b><a href="syntax/drop-index-stmt.html">drop-index-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1065' onclick='hideorshow("x1065","x1066")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1066' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram drop-index-stmt" src="images/syntax/drop-index-stmt.gif" />

</div>


<p>The DROP INDEX statement removes an index added
with the <a href="lang_createindex.html">CREATE INDEX</a> statement.  The index is completely removed from
the disk.  The only way to recover the index is to reenter the
appropriate <a href="lang_createindex.html">CREATE INDEX</a> command.</p>


Changes to Doc/Extra/Core/lang_droptable.html.

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<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>DROP TABLE</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/drop-table-stmt.html">drop-table-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1067' onclick='hideorshow("x1067","x1068")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1068'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram drop-table-stmt" src="images/syntax/drop-table-stmt.gif" />
</blockquote>



<p>The DROP TABLE statement removes a table added with the
<a href="lang_createtable.html">CREATE TABLE</a> statement.  The name specified is the
table name.  The dropped table is completely removed from the database 
schema and the disk file.  The table can not be recovered.  
All indices and triggers


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<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>DROP TABLE</h2></div><p><b><a href="syntax/drop-table-stmt.html">drop-table-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1067' onclick='hideorshow("x1067","x1068")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1068' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram drop-table-stmt" src="images/syntax/drop-table-stmt.gif" />

</div>


<p>The DROP TABLE statement removes a table added with the
<a href="lang_createtable.html">CREATE TABLE</a> statement.  The name specified is the
table name.  The dropped table is completely removed from the database 
schema and the disk file.  The table can not be recovered.  
All indices and triggers

Changes to Doc/Extra/Core/lang_droptrigger.html.

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<style type="text/css">
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}

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.tagline {
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<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>DROP TRIGGER</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/drop-trigger-stmt.html">drop-trigger-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1069' onclick='hideorshow("x1069","x1070")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1070'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram drop-trigger-stmt" src="images/syntax/drop-trigger-stmt.gif" />
</blockquote>



<p>The DROP TRIGGER statement removes a trigger created by the 
<a href="lang_createtrigger.html">CREATE TRIGGER</a> statement. Once removed, the trigger definition is no
longer present in the sqlite_master (or sqlite_temp_master) table and is
not fired by any subsequent INSERT, UPDATE or DELETE statements.

<p>Note that triggers are automatically dropped when the associated table is
dropped.




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<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>DROP TRIGGER</h2></div><p><b><a href="syntax/drop-trigger-stmt.html">drop-trigger-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1069' onclick='hideorshow("x1069","x1070")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1070' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram drop-trigger-stmt" src="images/syntax/drop-trigger-stmt.gif" />

</div>


<p>The DROP TRIGGER statement removes a trigger created by the 
<a href="lang_createtrigger.html">CREATE TRIGGER</a> statement. Once removed, the trigger definition is no
longer present in the sqlite_master (or sqlite_temp_master) table and is
not fired by any subsequent INSERT, UPDATE or DELETE statements.

<p>Note that triggers are automatically dropped when the associated table is
dropped.


Changes to Doc/Extra/Core/lang_dropview.html.

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<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>DROP VIEW</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/drop-view-stmt.html">drop-view-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1071' onclick='hideorshow("x1071","x1072")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1072'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram drop-view-stmt" src="images/syntax/drop-view-stmt.gif" />
</blockquote>



<p>The DROP VIEW statement removes a view created by the <a href="lang_createview.html">CREATE VIEW</a> 
  statement. The view definition is removed from the database schema, but 
  no actual data in the underlying base tables is modified.

<p>The view to drop is identified by the view-name and optional 


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<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>DROP VIEW</h2></div><p><b><a href="syntax/drop-view-stmt.html">drop-view-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1071' onclick='hideorshow("x1071","x1072")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1072' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram drop-view-stmt" src="images/syntax/drop-view-stmt.gif" />

</div>


<p>The DROP VIEW statement removes a view created by the <a href="lang_createview.html">CREATE VIEW</a> 
  statement. The view definition is removed from the database schema, but 
  no actual data in the underlying base tables is modified.

<p>The view to drop is identified by the view-name and optional 

Changes to Doc/Extra/Core/lang_explain.html.

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<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>EXPLAIN</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/sql-stmt.html">sql-stmt:</a></b></p><blockquote>
 <img alt="syntax diagram sql-stmt" src="images/syntax/sql-stmt.gif"></img>
 </blockquote>



<p>An SQL statement can be preceded by the keyword "EXPLAIN" or
by the phrase "EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN".  Either modification causes the
SQL statement to behave as a query and to return information about
how the SQL statement would have operated if the EXPLAIN keyword or
phrase had been omitted.</p>


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<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>EXPLAIN</h2></div><p><b><a href="syntax/sql-stmt.html">sql-stmt:</a></b></p><div class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram sql-stmt" src="images/syntax/sql-stmt.gif"></img>

 </div>


<p>An SQL statement can be preceded by the keyword "EXPLAIN" or
by the phrase "EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN".  Either modification causes the
SQL statement to behave as a query and to return information about
how the SQL statement would have operated if the EXPLAIN keyword or
phrase had been omitted.</p>

Changes to Doc/Extra/Core/lang_expr.html.

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<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>expression</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1073' onclick='hideorshow("x1073","x1074")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1074'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1075' onclick='hideorshow("x1075","x1076")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1076' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x1077' onclick='hideorshow("x1077","x1078")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1078' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1079' onclick='hideorshow("x1079","x1080")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1080' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1081' onclick='hideorshow("x1081","x1082")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1082' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1083' onclick='hideorshow("x1083","x1084")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1084' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1085' onclick='hideorshow("x1085","x1086")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1086' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
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 <blockquote id='x1090' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
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<button id='x1091' onclick='hideorshow("x1091","x1092")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1092' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
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<button id='x1093' onclick='hideorshow("x1093","x1094")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1094' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1095' onclick='hideorshow("x1095","x1096")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1096' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
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<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1097' onclick='hideorshow("x1097","x1098")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1098' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1099' onclick='hideorshow("x1099","x1100")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1100' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>


<p>This section is different from the others.  Most other sections of
this document talks about a particular SQL command.  This section does
not talk about a standalone command but about "expressions" which are 
subcomponents of most other commands.</p>

................................................................................
A literal value represents a constant.
Literal values may be integers, floating point numbers, strings,
BLOBs, or NULLs.
<p>
The syntax for integer and floating point literals (collectively
"numeric literals") is shown by the following diagram:</p>

<p><b><a href="syntax/numeric-literal.html">numeric-literal:</a></b></p><blockquote>
 <img alt="syntax diagram numeric-literal" src="images/syntax/numeric-literal.gif"></img>
 </blockquote>


<p>
If a numeric literal has a decimal point or an exponentiation
clause or if its magnitude is less than -9223372036854775808 or
greater than 9223372036854775807, then it is a floating point literal.
Otherwise is it is an  integer literal.


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<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>expression</h2></div><p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1073' onclick='hideorshow("x1073","x1074")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1074' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1075' onclick='hideorshow("x1075","x1076")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1076' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x1077' onclick='hideorshow("x1077","x1078")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1078' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1079' onclick='hideorshow("x1079","x1080")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1080' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1081' onclick='hideorshow("x1081","x1082")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1082' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1083' onclick='hideorshow("x1083","x1084")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1084' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1085' onclick='hideorshow("x1085","x1086")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1086' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1087' onclick='hideorshow("x1087","x1088")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1088' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1089' onclick='hideorshow("x1089","x1090")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1090' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1091' onclick='hideorshow("x1091","x1092")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1092' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1093' onclick='hideorshow("x1093","x1094")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1094' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1095' onclick='hideorshow("x1095","x1096")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1096' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1097' onclick='hideorshow("x1097","x1098")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1098' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1099' onclick='hideorshow("x1099","x1100")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1100' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>


<p>This section is different from the others.  Most other sections of
this document talks about a particular SQL command.  This section does
not talk about a standalone command but about "expressions" which are 
subcomponents of most other commands.</p>

................................................................................
A literal value represents a constant.
Literal values may be integers, floating point numbers, strings,
BLOBs, or NULLs.
<p>
The syntax for integer and floating point literals (collectively
"numeric literals") is shown by the following diagram:</p>

<p><b><a href="syntax/numeric-literal.html">numeric-literal:</a></b></p><div class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram numeric-literal" src="images/syntax/numeric-literal.gif"></img>
 </div>


<p>
If a numeric literal has a decimal point or an exponentiation
clause or if its magnitude is less than -9223372036854775808 or
greater than 9223372036854775807, then it is a floating point literal.
Otherwise is it is an  integer literal.

Changes to Doc/Extra/Core/lang_indexedby.html.

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<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>INDEXED BY</h2>
<p>The INDEXED BY phrase forces the <a href="optoverview.html">SQLite query planner</a> to use a
particular named index on a <a href="lang_delete.html">DELETE</a>, <a href="lang_select.html">SELECT</a>, or <a href="lang_update.html">UPDATE</a> statement.
The INDEXED BY phrase is an SQLite extension and
is not portable to other SQL database engines.</p>

<p><b><a href="syntax/qualified-table-name.html">qualified-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1435' onclick='hideorshow("x1435","x1436")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1436'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram qualified-table-name" src="images/syntax/qualified-table-name.gif" />
</blockquote>


<p>The "INDEXED BY <span class='yyterm'>index-name</span>" phrase specifies 
that the named index
must be used in order to look up values on the preceding table.
If <span class='yyterm'>index-name</span> does not exist or cannot be used 
for the query, then the preparation of the SQL statement fails.


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<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>INDEXED BY</h2></div>
<p>The INDEXED BY phrase forces the <a href="optoverview.html">SQLite query planner</a> to use a
particular named index on a <a href="lang_delete.html">DELETE</a>, <a href="lang_select.html">SELECT</a>, or <a href="lang_update.html">UPDATE</a> statement.
The INDEXED BY phrase is an SQLite extension and
is not portable to other SQL database engines.</p>

<p><b><a href="syntax/qualified-table-name.html">qualified-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1435' onclick='hideorshow("x1435","x1436")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1436' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram qualified-table-name" src="images/syntax/qualified-table-name.gif" />
</div>


<p>The "INDEXED BY <span class='yyterm'>index-name</span>" phrase specifies 
that the named index
must be used in order to look up values on the preceding table.
If <span class='yyterm'>index-name</span> does not exist or cannot be used 
for the query, then the preparation of the SQL statement fails.

Changes to Doc/Extra/Core/lang_insert.html.

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<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>INSERT</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/insert-stmt.html">insert-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1101' onclick='hideorshow("x1101","x1102")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1102'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram insert-stmt" src="images/syntax/insert-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1103' onclick='hideorshow("x1103","x1104")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1104' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1105' onclick='hideorshow("x1105","x1106")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1106' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x1107' onclick='hideorshow("x1107","x1108")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1108' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1109' onclick='hideorshow("x1109","x1110")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1110' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1111' onclick='hideorshow("x1111","x1112")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1112' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1113' onclick='hideorshow("x1113","x1114")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1114' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1115' onclick='hideorshow("x1115","x1116")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1116' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1117' onclick='hideorshow("x1117","x1118")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1118' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1119' onclick='hideorshow("x1119","x1120")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1120' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1121' onclick='hideorshow("x1121","x1122")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1122' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1123' onclick='hideorshow("x1123","x1124")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1124' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1125' onclick='hideorshow("x1125","x1126")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1126' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
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<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1127' onclick='hideorshow("x1127","x1128")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1128' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
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<button id='x1129' onclick='hideorshow("x1129","x1130")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1130' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/with-clause.html">with-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1131' onclick='hideorshow("x1131","x1132")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1132' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram with-clause" src="images/syntax/with-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/cte-table-name.html">cte-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1133' onclick='hideorshow("x1133","x1134")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1134' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram cte-table-name" src="images/syntax/cte-table-name.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>


<p>The INSERT statement comes in three basic forms.  
<ul>
<li><p>The first form (with the "VALUES" keyword) creates one or more
new rows in
an existing table. If the <span class='yyterm'>column-name</span> list after


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<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>INSERT</h2></div><p><b><a href="syntax/insert-stmt.html">insert-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1101' onclick='hideorshow("x1101","x1102")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1102' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram insert-stmt" src="images/syntax/insert-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1103' onclick='hideorshow("x1103","x1104")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1104' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1105' onclick='hideorshow("x1105","x1106")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1106' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x1107' onclick='hideorshow("x1107","x1108")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1108' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1109' onclick='hideorshow("x1109","x1110")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1110' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1111' onclick='hideorshow("x1111","x1112")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1112' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1113' onclick='hideorshow("x1113","x1114")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1114' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1115' onclick='hideorshow("x1115","x1116")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1116' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</div>
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<button id='x1117' onclick='hideorshow("x1117","x1118")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1118' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
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<button id='x1119' onclick='hideorshow("x1119","x1120")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1120' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
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 <div id='x1122' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
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<button id='x1123' onclick='hideorshow("x1123","x1124")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1124' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1125' onclick='hideorshow("x1125","x1126")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1126' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
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 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
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</div>


<p>The INSERT statement comes in three basic forms.  
<ul>
<li><p>The first form (with the "VALUES" keyword) creates one or more
new rows in
an existing table. If the <span class='yyterm'>column-name</span> list after

Changes to Doc/Extra/Core/lang_keywords.html.

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<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>SQLite Keywords</h2></DIV>

<p>The SQL standard specifies a huge number of keywords which may not
be used as the names of tables, indices, columns, databases, user-defined
functions, collations, virtual table modules, or any other named object.
The list of keywords is so long that few people can remember them all.
For most SQL code, your safest bet is to never use any English language
word as the name of a user-defined object.</p>
................................................................................
but some keywords may be omitted when SQL language features are
disabled.
Regardless of the compile-time configuration, any identifier that is not on
the following 124 element
list is not a keyword to the SQL parser in SQLite:
</p>

<blockquote>
<table width="100%"><tr>
<td align="left" valign="top" width="20%">
ABORT<br>
ACTION<br>
ADD<br>
AFTER<br>
ALL<br>
ALTER<br>
ANALYZE<br>
AND<br>
AS<br>
ASC<br>
ATTACH<br>


AUTOINCREMENT<br>
BEFORE<br>
BEGIN<br>
BETWEEN<br>
BY<br>
CASCADE<br>
CASE<br>

CAST<br>
CHECK<br>
COLLATE<br>
COLUMN<br>
COMMIT<br>


CONFLICT<br>
CONSTRAINT<br>
</td><td valign="top" align="left" width="20%">CREATE<br>
CROSS<br>


CURRENT_DATE<br>
CURRENT_TIME<br>
CURRENT_TIMESTAMP<br>
DATABASE<br>
DEFAULT<br>

DEFERRABLE<br>
DEFERRED<br>
DELETE<br>
DESC<br>
DETACH<br>


DISTINCT<br>
DROP<br>
EACH<br>
ELSE<br>

END<br>
ESCAPE<br>
EXCEPT<br>


EXCLUSIVE<br>
EXISTS<br>
EXPLAIN<br>
FAIL<br>
FOR<br>

FOREIGN<br>
</td><td valign="top" align="left" width="20%">FROM<br>
FULL<br>
GLOB<br>
GROUP<br>
HAVING<br>
IF<br>

IGNORE<br>


IMMEDIATE<br>
IN<br>
INDEX<br>
INDEXED<br>


INITIALLY<br>
INNER<br>
INSERT<br>
INSTEAD<br>


INTERSECT<br>
INTO<br>
IS<br>
ISNULL<br>
JOIN<br>
KEY<br>
LEFT<br>


LIKE<br>
LIMIT<br>
MATCH<br>

</td><td valign="top" align="left" width="20%">NATURAL<br>
NO<br>

NOT<br>
NOTNULL<br>
NULL<br>
OF<br>
OFFSET<br>

ON<br>
OR<br>
ORDER<br>
OUTER<br>
PLAN<br>

PRAGMA<br>
PRIMARY<br>
QUERY<br>
RAISE<br>


RECURSIVE<br>
REFERENCES<br>
REGEXP<br>
REINDEX<br>
RELEASE<br>
RENAME<br>
REPLACE<br>


RESTRICT<br>
RIGHT<br>
</td><td valign="top" align="left" width="20%">ROLLBACK<br>
ROW<br>


SAVEPOINT<br>
SELECT<br>
SET<br>
TABLE<br>
TEMP<br>


TEMPORARY<br>
THEN<br>
TO<br>


TRANSACTION<br>
TRIGGER<br>
UNION<br>
UNIQUE<br>
UPDATE<br>
USING<br>
VACUUM<br>
VALUES<br>
VIEW<br>
VIRTUAL<br>
WHEN<br>
WHERE<br>
WITH<br>
WITHOUT<br>



































</td></tr></table></blockquote>





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</div>




<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>SQLite Keywords</h2></div></DIV>

<p>The SQL standard specifies a huge number of keywords which may not
be used as the names of tables, indices, columns, databases, user-defined
functions, collations, virtual table modules, or any other named object.
The list of keywords is so long that few people can remember them all.
For most SQL code, your safest bet is to never use any English language
word as the name of a user-defined object.</p>
................................................................................
but some keywords may be omitted when SQL language features are
disabled.
Regardless of the compile-time configuration, any identifier that is not on
the following 124 element
list is not a keyword to the SQL parser in SQLite:
</p>

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Changes to Doc/Extra/Core/lang_naming.html.

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<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>Database Object Name Resolution</h2>

<p>
  In SQLite, a database object (a table, index, trigger or view) is identified
  by the name of the object and the name of the database that it resides in. 
  Database objects may reside in the main database, the temp database, or in
  an <a href="lang_attach.html">attached database</a>.



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<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/strict.dtd">
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</div>




<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>Database Object Name Resolution</h2></div>

<p>
  In SQLite, a database object (a table, index, trigger or view) is identified
  by the name of the object and the name of the database that it resides in. 
  Database objects may reside in the main database, the temp database, or in
  an <a href="lang_attach.html">attached database</a>.

Changes to Doc/Extra/Core/lang_reindex.html.

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<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/strict.dtd">
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<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>REINDEX</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/reindex-stmt.html">reindex-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1137' onclick='hideorshow("x1137","x1138")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1138'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram reindex-stmt" src="images/syntax/reindex-stmt.gif" />
</blockquote>



<p>The REINDEX command is used to delete and recreate indices from scratch.
This is useful when the definition of a collation sequence has changed.
</p>

<p>If the REINDEX keyword is not followed by a collation-sequence or database 


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if( !location.origin.match(/http/) ){
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<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>REINDEX</h2></div><p><b><a href="syntax/reindex-stmt.html">reindex-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1137' onclick='hideorshow("x1137","x1138")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1138' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram reindex-stmt" src="images/syntax/reindex-stmt.gif" />

</div>


<p>The REINDEX command is used to delete and recreate indices from scratch.
This is useful when the definition of a collation sequence has changed.
</p>

<p>If the REINDEX keyword is not followed by a collation-sequence or database 

Changes to Doc/Extra/Core/lang_replace.html.

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<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>REPLACE</h2>

<p>The REPLACE command is an alias for the "<a href="lang_conflict.html">INSERT OR REPLACE</a>"
variant of the <a href="lang_insert.html">INSERT</a> command.  
This alias is provided for compatibility other SQL database engines.  See the 
<a href="lang_insert.html">INSERT</a> command documentation for additional information.</p>  




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<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>REPLACE</h2></div>

<p>The REPLACE command is an alias for the "<a href="lang_conflict.html">INSERT OR REPLACE</a>"
variant of the <a href="lang_insert.html">INSERT</a> command.  
This alias is provided for compatibility other SQL database engines.  See the 
<a href="lang_insert.html">INSERT</a> command documentation for additional information.</p>  


Changes to Doc/Extra/Core/lang_savepoint.html.

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<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>SAVEPOINT</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/savepoint-stmt.html">savepoint-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x817' onclick='hideorshow("x817","x818")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x818'>

 <img alt="syntax diagram savepoint-stmt" src="images/syntax/savepoint-stmt.gif" />
</blockquote>

<p><b><a href="syntax/release-stmt.html">release-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x819' onclick='hideorshow("x819","x820")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x820'>

 <img alt="syntax diagram release-stmt" src="images/syntax/release-stmt.gif" />
</blockquote>

<p><b><a href="syntax/rollback-stmt.html">rollback-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x821' onclick='hideorshow("x821","x822")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x822'>

 <img alt="syntax diagram rollback-stmt" src="images/syntax/rollback-stmt.gif" />
</blockquote>



<p> SAVEPOINTs are a method of creating transactions, similar to
<a href="lang_transaction.html">BEGIN</a> and <a href="lang_transaction.html">COMMIT</a>, except that the SAVEPOINT and RELEASE commands
are named and may be nested.</p>

<p> The SAVEPOINT command starts a new transaction with a name.


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<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>SAVEPOINT</h2></div><p><b><a href="syntax/savepoint-stmt.html">savepoint-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x817' onclick='hideorshow("x817","x818")'>hide</button></p>

 <div id='x818' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram savepoint-stmt" src="images/syntax/savepoint-stmt.gif" />

</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/release-stmt.html">release-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x819' onclick='hideorshow("x819","x820")'>hide</button></p>

 <div id='x820' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram release-stmt" src="images/syntax/release-stmt.gif" />

</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/rollback-stmt.html">rollback-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x821' onclick='hideorshow("x821","x822")'>hide</button></p>

 <div id='x822' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram rollback-stmt" src="images/syntax/rollback-stmt.gif" />

</div>


<p> SAVEPOINTs are a method of creating transactions, similar to
<a href="lang_transaction.html">BEGIN</a> and <a href="lang_transaction.html">COMMIT</a>, except that the SAVEPOINT and RELEASE commands
are named and may be nested.</p>

<p> The SAVEPOINT command starts a new transaction with a name.

Changes to Doc/Extra/Core/lang_select.html.

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<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>SELECT</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1175' onclick='hideorshow("x1175","x1176")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1176'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1177' onclick='hideorshow("x1177","x1178")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1178' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1179' onclick='hideorshow("x1179","x1180")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1180' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1181' onclick='hideorshow("x1181","x1182")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1182' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1183' onclick='hideorshow("x1183","x1184")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1184' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x1185' onclick='hideorshow("x1185","x1186")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1186' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1187' onclick='hideorshow("x1187","x1188")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1188' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1189' onclick='hideorshow("x1189","x1190")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1190' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1191' onclick='hideorshow("x1191","x1192")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1192' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1193' onclick='hideorshow("x1193","x1194")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1194' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1195' onclick='hideorshow("x1195","x1196")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1196' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1197' onclick='hideorshow("x1197","x1198")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1198' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1199' onclick='hideorshow("x1199","x1200")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1200' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1201' onclick='hideorshow("x1201","x1202")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1202' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>



<p>The SELECT statement is used to query the database.  The
result of a SELECT is zero or more rows of data where each row
has a fixed number of columns.  A SELECT statement does not make
any changes to the database.
................................................................................
SELECT statement syntax as possible in a single diagram, because some readers
find that helpful.  The following "<a href="syntax/factored-select-stmt.html">factored-select-stmt</a>" is an alternative
syntax diagrams that expresses the same syntax but tries to break the syntax 
down into smaller chunks.

<p><b><a href="syntax/factored-select-stmt.html">factored-select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1203' onclick='hideorshow("x1203","x1204")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1204' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram factored-select-stmt" src="images/syntax/factored-select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1205' onclick='hideorshow("x1205","x1206")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1206' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1207' onclick='hideorshow("x1207","x1208")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1208' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1209' onclick='hideorshow("x1209","x1210")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1210' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1211' onclick='hideorshow("x1211","x1212")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1212' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1213' onclick='hideorshow("x1213","x1214")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1214' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1215' onclick='hideorshow("x1215","x1216")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1216' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1217' onclick='hideorshow("x1217","x1218")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1218' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1219' onclick='hideorshow("x1219","x1220")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1220' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1221' onclick='hideorshow("x1221","x1222")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1222' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1223' onclick='hideorshow("x1223","x1224")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1224' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x1225' onclick='hideorshow("x1225","x1226")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1226' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1227' onclick='hideorshow("x1227","x1228")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1228' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1229' onclick='hideorshow("x1229","x1230")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1230' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1231' onclick='hideorshow("x1231","x1232")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1232' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1233' onclick='hideorshow("x1233","x1234")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1234' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1235' onclick='hideorshow("x1235","x1236")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1236' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1237' onclick='hideorshow("x1237","x1238")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1238' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1239' onclick='hideorshow("x1239","x1240")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1240' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1241' onclick='hideorshow("x1241","x1242")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1242' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1243' onclick='hideorshow("x1243","x1244")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1244' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-core.html">select-core:</a></b>
<button id='x1245' onclick='hideorshow("x1245","x1246")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1246' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-core" src="images/syntax/select-core.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1247' onclick='hideorshow("x1247","x1248")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1248' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1249' onclick='hideorshow("x1249","x1250")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1250' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1251' onclick='hideorshow("x1251","x1252")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1252' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1253' onclick='hideorshow("x1253","x1254")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1254' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1255' onclick='hideorshow("x1255","x1256")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1256' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1257' onclick='hideorshow("x1257","x1258")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1258' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>


<p>Note that there are paths through the syntax diagrams that
are not allowed in practice.  Some examples:
<ul>
<li>A <a href="lang_select.html#values">VALUES</a> clause can be the first element in a <a href="lang_select.html#compound">compound SELECT</a>
    that uses a <a href="lang_with.html">WITH</a> clause, but a <a href="lang_select.html#simpleselect">simple SELECT</a> that consists of
................................................................................

<p>The core of a SELECT statement is a "simple SELECT" shown by the
<a href="syntax/select-core.html">select-core</a> and <a href="syntax/simple-select-stmt.html">simple-select-stmt</a> syntax diagrams below.  
In practice, most SELECT statements are simple SELECT statements.

<p><b><a href="syntax/simple-select-stmt.html">simple-select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1259' onclick='hideorshow("x1259","x1260")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1260'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram simple-select-stmt" src="images/syntax/simple-select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1261' onclick='hideorshow("x1261","x1262")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1262' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1263' onclick='hideorshow("x1263","x1264")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1264' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1265' onclick='hideorshow("x1265","x1266")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1266' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1267' onclick='hideorshow("x1267","x1268")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1268' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1269' onclick='hideorshow("x1269","x1270")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1270' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1271' onclick='hideorshow("x1271","x1272")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1272' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1273' onclick='hideorshow("x1273","x1274")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1274' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1275' onclick='hideorshow("x1275","x1276")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1276' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1277' onclick='hideorshow("x1277","x1278")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1278' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1279' onclick='hideorshow("x1279","x1280")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1280' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x1281' onclick='hideorshow("x1281","x1282")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1282' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1283' onclick='hideorshow("x1283","x1284")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1284' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1285' onclick='hideorshow("x1285","x1286")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1286' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1287' onclick='hideorshow("x1287","x1288")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1288' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1289' onclick='hideorshow("x1289","x1290")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1290' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1291' onclick='hideorshow("x1291","x1292")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1292' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1293' onclick='hideorshow("x1293","x1294")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1294' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1295' onclick='hideorshow("x1295","x1296")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1296' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1297' onclick='hideorshow("x1297","x1298")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1298' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1299' onclick='hideorshow("x1299","x1300")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1300' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1301' onclick='hideorshow("x1301","x1302")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1302' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-core.html">select-core:</a></b>
<button id='x1303' onclick='hideorshow("x1303","x1304")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1304'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-core" src="images/syntax/select-core.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1305' onclick='hideorshow("x1305","x1306")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1306' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1307' onclick='hideorshow("x1307","x1308")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1308' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1309' onclick='hideorshow("x1309","x1310")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1310' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1311' onclick='hideorshow("x1311","x1312")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1312' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1313' onclick='hideorshow("x1313","x1314")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1314' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1315' onclick='hideorshow("x1315","x1316")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1316' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1317' onclick='hideorshow("x1317","x1318")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1318' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>


<p>Generating the results of a simple SELECT
statement is presented as a four step process in the description below:

<ol>
  <li> <p><a href="lang_select.html#fromclause">FROM clause</a> processing: The input data for the simple SELECT is
................................................................................

<p>Two or more <a href="lang_select.html#simpleselect">simple SELECT</a> statements may be connected together to form
a compound SELECT using the UNION, UNION ALL, INTERSECT or EXCEPT operator,
as shown by the following diagram:

<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-select-stmt.html">compound-select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1319' onclick='hideorshow("x1319","x1320")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1320'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-select-stmt" src="images/syntax/compound-select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1321' onclick='hideorshow("x1321","x1322")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1322' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1323' onclick='hideorshow("x1323","x1324")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1324' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1325' onclick='hideorshow("x1325","x1326")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1326' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1327' onclick='hideorshow("x1327","x1328")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1328' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1329' onclick='hideorshow("x1329","x1330")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1330' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1331' onclick='hideorshow("x1331","x1332")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1332' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1333' onclick='hideorshow("x1333","x1334")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1334' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1335' onclick='hideorshow("x1335","x1336")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1336' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1337' onclick='hideorshow("x1337","x1338")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1338' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1339' onclick='hideorshow("x1339","x1340")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1340' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x1341' onclick='hideorshow("x1341","x1342")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1342' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1343' onclick='hideorshow("x1343","x1344")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1344' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1345' onclick='hideorshow("x1345","x1346")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1346' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1347' onclick='hideorshow("x1347","x1348")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1348' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1349' onclick='hideorshow("x1349","x1350")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1350' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1351' onclick='hideorshow("x1351","x1352")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1352' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1353' onclick='hideorshow("x1353","x1354")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1354' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1355' onclick='hideorshow("x1355","x1356")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1356' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1357' onclick='hideorshow("x1357","x1358")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1358' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1359' onclick='hideorshow("x1359","x1360")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1360' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1361' onclick='hideorshow("x1361","x1362")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1362' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-core.html">select-core:</a></b>
<button id='x1363' onclick='hideorshow("x1363","x1364")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1364' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-core" src="images/syntax/select-core.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1365' onclick='hideorshow("x1365","x1366")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1366' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1367' onclick='hideorshow("x1367","x1368")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1368' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1369' onclick='hideorshow("x1369","x1370")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1370' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1371' onclick='hideorshow("x1371","x1372")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1372' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1373' onclick='hideorshow("x1373","x1374")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1374' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1375' onclick='hideorshow("x1375","x1376")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1376' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1377' onclick='hideorshow("x1377","x1378")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1378' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>


<p>In a compound SELECT, all the constituent SELECTs must return the same 
number of result columns. As the components of a compound SELECT must
be simple SELECT statements, they may not contain <a href="lang_select.html#orderby">ORDER BY</a> or <a href="lang_select.html#limitoffset">LIMIT</a> clauses.
<a href="lang_select.html#orderby">ORDER BY</a> and <a href="lang_select.html#limitoffset">LIMIT</a> clauses may only occur at the end of the entire compound
SELECT, and then only if the final element of the compound is not a <a href="lang_select.html#values">VALUES</a> clause.


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<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>SELECT</h2></div><p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1175' onclick='hideorshow("x1175","x1176")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1176' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1177' onclick='hideorshow("x1177","x1178")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1178' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1179' onclick='hideorshow("x1179","x1180")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1180' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1181' onclick='hideorshow("x1181","x1182")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1182' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1183' onclick='hideorshow("x1183","x1184")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1184' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x1185' onclick='hideorshow("x1185","x1186")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1186' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1187' onclick='hideorshow("x1187","x1188")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1188' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1189' onclick='hideorshow("x1189","x1190")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1190' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1191' onclick='hideorshow("x1191","x1192")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1192' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1193' onclick='hideorshow("x1193","x1194")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1194' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1195' onclick='hideorshow("x1195","x1196")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1196' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1197' onclick='hideorshow("x1197","x1198")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1198' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1199' onclick='hideorshow("x1199","x1200")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1200' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1201' onclick='hideorshow("x1201","x1202")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1202' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</div>
</div>



<p>The SELECT statement is used to query the database.  The
result of a SELECT is zero or more rows of data where each row
has a fixed number of columns.  A SELECT statement does not make
any changes to the database.
................................................................................
SELECT statement syntax as possible in a single diagram, because some readers
find that helpful.  The following "<a href="syntax/factored-select-stmt.html">factored-select-stmt</a>" is an alternative
syntax diagrams that expresses the same syntax but tries to break the syntax 
down into smaller chunks.

<p><b><a href="syntax/factored-select-stmt.html">factored-select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1203' onclick='hideorshow("x1203","x1204")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1204' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram factored-select-stmt" src="images/syntax/factored-select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1205' onclick='hideorshow("x1205","x1206")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1206' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1207' onclick='hideorshow("x1207","x1208")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1208' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1209' onclick='hideorshow("x1209","x1210")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1210' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1211' onclick='hideorshow("x1211","x1212")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1212' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1213' onclick='hideorshow("x1213","x1214")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1214' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1215' onclick='hideorshow("x1215","x1216")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1216' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1217' onclick='hideorshow("x1217","x1218")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1218' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1219' onclick='hideorshow("x1219","x1220")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1220' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1221' onclick='hideorshow("x1221","x1222")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1222' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1223' onclick='hideorshow("x1223","x1224")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1224' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x1225' onclick='hideorshow("x1225","x1226")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1226' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1227' onclick='hideorshow("x1227","x1228")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1228' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1229' onclick='hideorshow("x1229","x1230")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1230' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1231' onclick='hideorshow("x1231","x1232")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1232' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1233' onclick='hideorshow("x1233","x1234")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1234' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1235' onclick='hideorshow("x1235","x1236")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1236' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1237' onclick='hideorshow("x1237","x1238")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1238' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1239' onclick='hideorshow("x1239","x1240")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1240' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1241' onclick='hideorshow("x1241","x1242")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1242' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1243' onclick='hideorshow("x1243","x1244")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1244' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-core.html">select-core:</a></b>
<button id='x1245' onclick='hideorshow("x1245","x1246")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1246' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-core" src="images/syntax/select-core.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1247' onclick='hideorshow("x1247","x1248")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1248' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1249' onclick='hideorshow("x1249","x1250")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1250' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1251' onclick='hideorshow("x1251","x1252")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1252' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1253' onclick='hideorshow("x1253","x1254")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1254' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1255' onclick='hideorshow("x1255","x1256")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1256' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1257' onclick='hideorshow("x1257","x1258")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1258' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>


<p>Note that there are paths through the syntax diagrams that
are not allowed in practice.  Some examples:
<ul>
<li>A <a href="lang_select.html#values">VALUES</a> clause can be the first element in a <a href="lang_select.html#compound">compound SELECT</a>
    that uses a <a href="lang_with.html">WITH</a> clause, but a <a href="lang_select.html#simpleselect">simple SELECT</a> that consists of
................................................................................

<p>The core of a SELECT statement is a "simple SELECT" shown by the
<a href="syntax/select-core.html">select-core</a> and <a href="syntax/simple-select-stmt.html">simple-select-stmt</a> syntax diagrams below.  
In practice, most SELECT statements are simple SELECT statements.

<p><b><a href="syntax/simple-select-stmt.html">simple-select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1259' onclick='hideorshow("x1259","x1260")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1260' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram simple-select-stmt" src="images/syntax/simple-select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1261' onclick='hideorshow("x1261","x1262")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1262' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1263' onclick='hideorshow("x1263","x1264")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1264' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1265' onclick='hideorshow("x1265","x1266")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1266' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1267' onclick='hideorshow("x1267","x1268")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1268' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1269' onclick='hideorshow("x1269","x1270")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1270' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1271' onclick='hideorshow("x1271","x1272")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1272' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1273' onclick='hideorshow("x1273","x1274")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1274' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1275' onclick='hideorshow("x1275","x1276")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1276' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1277' onclick='hideorshow("x1277","x1278")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1278' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1279' onclick='hideorshow("x1279","x1280")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1280' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x1281' onclick='hideorshow("x1281","x1282")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1282' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1283' onclick='hideorshow("x1283","x1284")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1284' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1285' onclick='hideorshow("x1285","x1286")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1286' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1287' onclick='hideorshow("x1287","x1288")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1288' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1289' onclick='hideorshow("x1289","x1290")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1290' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1291' onclick='hideorshow("x1291","x1292")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1292' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1293' onclick='hideorshow("x1293","x1294")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1294' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1295' onclick='hideorshow("x1295","x1296")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1296' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1297' onclick='hideorshow("x1297","x1298")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1298' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1299' onclick='hideorshow("x1299","x1300")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1300' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1301' onclick='hideorshow("x1301","x1302")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1302' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-core.html">select-core:</a></b>
<button id='x1303' onclick='hideorshow("x1303","x1304")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1304' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-core" src="images/syntax/select-core.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1305' onclick='hideorshow("x1305","x1306")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1306' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1307' onclick='hideorshow("x1307","x1308")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1308' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1309' onclick='hideorshow("x1309","x1310")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1310' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1311' onclick='hideorshow("x1311","x1312")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1312' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1313' onclick='hideorshow("x1313","x1314")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1314' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1315' onclick='hideorshow("x1315","x1316")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1316' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1317' onclick='hideorshow("x1317","x1318")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1318' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>


<p>Generating the results of a simple SELECT
statement is presented as a four step process in the description below:

<ol>
  <li> <p><a href="lang_select.html#fromclause">FROM clause</a> processing: The input data for the simple SELECT is
................................................................................

<p>Two or more <a href="lang_select.html#simpleselect">simple SELECT</a> statements may be connected together to form
a compound SELECT using the UNION, UNION ALL, INTERSECT or EXCEPT operator,
as shown by the following diagram:

<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-select-stmt.html">compound-select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1319' onclick='hideorshow("x1319","x1320")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1320' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-select-stmt" src="images/syntax/compound-select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1321' onclick='hideorshow("x1321","x1322")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1322' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1323' onclick='hideorshow("x1323","x1324")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1324' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1325' onclick='hideorshow("x1325","x1326")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1326' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1327' onclick='hideorshow("x1327","x1328")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1328' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1329' onclick='hideorshow("x1329","x1330")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1330' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1331' onclick='hideorshow("x1331","x1332")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1332' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1333' onclick='hideorshow("x1333","x1334")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1334' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1335' onclick='hideorshow("x1335","x1336")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1336' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1337' onclick='hideorshow("x1337","x1338")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1338' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1339' onclick='hideorshow("x1339","x1340")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1340' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x1341' onclick='hideorshow("x1341","x1342")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1342' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1343' onclick='hideorshow("x1343","x1344")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1344' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1345' onclick='hideorshow("x1345","x1346")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1346' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1347' onclick='hideorshow("x1347","x1348")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1348' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1349' onclick='hideorshow("x1349","x1350")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1350' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1351' onclick='hideorshow("x1351","x1352")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1352' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1353' onclick='hideorshow("x1353","x1354")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1354' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1355' onclick='hideorshow("x1355","x1356")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1356' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1357' onclick='hideorshow("x1357","x1358")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1358' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1359' onclick='hideorshow("x1359","x1360")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1360' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1361' onclick='hideorshow("x1361","x1362")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1362' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-core.html">select-core:</a></b>
<button id='x1363' onclick='hideorshow("x1363","x1364")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1364' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-core" src="images/syntax/select-core.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1365' onclick='hideorshow("x1365","x1366")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1366' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1367' onclick='hideorshow("x1367","x1368")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1368' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1369' onclick='hideorshow("x1369","x1370")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1370' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1371' onclick='hideorshow("x1371","x1372")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1372' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1373' onclick='hideorshow("x1373","x1374")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1374' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1375' onclick='hideorshow("x1375","x1376")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1376' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1377' onclick='hideorshow("x1377","x1378")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1378' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>


<p>In a compound SELECT, all the constituent SELECTs must return the same 
number of result columns. As the components of a compound SELECT must
be simple SELECT statements, they may not contain <a href="lang_select.html#orderby">ORDER BY</a> or <a href="lang_select.html#limitoffset">LIMIT</a> clauses.
<a href="lang_select.html#orderby">ORDER BY</a> and <a href="lang_select.html#limitoffset">LIMIT</a> clauses may only occur at the end of the entire compound
SELECT, and then only if the final element of the compound is not a <a href="lang_select.html#values">VALUES</a> clause.

Changes to Doc/Extra/Core/lang_transaction.html.

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<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>BEGIN TRANSACTION</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/begin-stmt.html">begin-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x811' onclick='hideorshow("x811","x812")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x812'>

 <img alt="syntax diagram begin-stmt" src="images/syntax/begin-stmt.gif" />
</blockquote>

<p><b><a href="syntax/commit-stmt.html">commit-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x813' onclick='hideorshow("x813","x814")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x814'>

 <img alt="syntax diagram commit-stmt" src="images/syntax/commit-stmt.gif" />
</blockquote>

<p><b><a href="syntax/rollback-stmt.html">rollback-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x815' onclick='hideorshow("x815","x816")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x816'>

 <img alt="syntax diagram rollback-stmt" src="images/syntax/rollback-stmt.gif" />
</blockquote>



<p>
No changes can be made to the database except within a transaction.
Any command that changes the database (basically, any SQL command
other than <a href="lang_select.html">SELECT</a>) will automatically start a transaction if
one is not already in effect.  Automatically started transactions


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<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>BEGIN TRANSACTION</h2></div><p><b><a href="syntax/begin-stmt.html">begin-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x811' onclick='hideorshow("x811","x812")'>hide</button></p>

 <div id='x812' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram begin-stmt" src="images/syntax/begin-stmt.gif" />

</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/commit-stmt.html">commit-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x813' onclick='hideorshow("x813","x814")'>hide</button></p>

 <div id='x814' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram commit-stmt" src="images/syntax/commit-stmt.gif" />

</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/rollback-stmt.html">rollback-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x815' onclick='hideorshow("x815","x816")'>hide</button></p>

 <div id='x816' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram rollback-stmt" src="images/syntax/rollback-stmt.gif" />

</div>


<p>
No changes can be made to the database except within a transaction.
Any command that changes the database (basically, any SQL command
other than <a href="lang_select.html">SELECT</a>) will automatically start a transaction if
one is not already in effect.  Automatically started transactions

Changes to Doc/Extra/Core/lang_update.html.

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<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/strict.dtd">
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<title>SQLite Query Language: UPDATE</title>
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<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>UPDATE</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/update-stmt.html">update-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1379' onclick='hideorshow("x1379","x1380")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1380'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram update-stmt" src="images/syntax/update-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1381' onclick='hideorshow("x1381","x1382")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1382' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1383' onclick='hideorshow("x1383","x1384")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1384' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x1385' onclick='hideorshow("x1385","x1386")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1386' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1387' onclick='hideorshow("x1387","x1388")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1388' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1389' onclick='hideorshow("x1389","x1390")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1390' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1391' onclick='hideorshow("x1391","x1392")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1392' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1393' onclick='hideorshow("x1393","x1394")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1394' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1395' onclick='hideorshow("x1395","x1396")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1396' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1397' onclick='hideorshow("x1397","x1398")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1398' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1399' onclick='hideorshow("x1399","x1400")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1400' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1401' onclick='hideorshow("x1401","x1402")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1402' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1403' onclick='hideorshow("x1403","x1404")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1404' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1405' onclick='hideorshow("x1405","x1406")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1406' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1407' onclick='hideorshow("x1407","x1408")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1408' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/qualified-table-name.html">qualified-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1409' onclick='hideorshow("x1409","x1410")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1410' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram qualified-table-name" src="images/syntax/qualified-table-name.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/with-clause.html">with-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1411' onclick='hideorshow("x1411","x1412")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1412' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram with-clause" src="images/syntax/with-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/cte-table-name.html">cte-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1413' onclick='hideorshow("x1413","x1414")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1414' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram cte-table-name" src="images/syntax/cte-table-name.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1415' onclick='hideorshow("x1415","x1416")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1416' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1417' onclick='hideorshow("x1417","x1418")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1418' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1419' onclick='hideorshow("x1419","x1420")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1420' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1421' onclick='hideorshow("x1421","x1422")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1422' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1423' onclick='hideorshow("x1423","x1424")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1424' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1425' onclick='hideorshow("x1425","x1426")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1426' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1427' onclick='hideorshow("x1427","x1428")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1428' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1429' onclick='hideorshow("x1429","x1430")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1430' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1431' onclick='hideorshow("x1431","x1432")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1432' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>


<p>An UPDATE statement is used to modify a subset of the values stored in 
zero or more rows of the database table identified by the 
<a href="syntax/qualified-table-name.html">qualified-table-name</a> specified as part of the UPDATE statement.

<p>If the UPDATE statement does not have a WHERE clause, all rows in the
................................................................................

<h3>Optional LIMIT and ORDER BY Clauses</h3>

<p>If SQLite is built with the <a href="compile.html#enable_update_delete_limit">SQLITE_ENABLE_UPDATE_DELETE_LIMIT</a>
compile-time option then the syntax of the UPDATE statement is extended
with optional ORDER BY and LIMIT clauses as follows:</p>

<p><b><a href="syntax/update-stmt-limited.html">update-stmt-limited:</a></b></p><blockquote>
 <img alt="syntax diagram update-stmt-limited" src="images/syntax/update-stmt-limited.gif"></img>
 </blockquote>


<p>If an UPDATE statement has a LIMIT clause, the maximum number of rows that
will be updated is found by evaluating the accompanying expression and casting
it to an integer value. A negative value is interpreted as "no limit".

<p>If the LIMIT expression evaluates to non-negative value <i>N</i> and the


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<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/strict.dtd">
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<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>UPDATE</h2></div><p><b><a href="syntax/update-stmt.html">update-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1379' onclick='hideorshow("x1379","x1380")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1380' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram update-stmt" src="images/syntax/update-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1381' onclick='hideorshow("x1381","x1382")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1382' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1383' onclick='hideorshow("x1383","x1384")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1384' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x1385' onclick='hideorshow("x1385","x1386")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1386' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1387' onclick='hideorshow("x1387","x1388")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1388' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1389' onclick='hideorshow("x1389","x1390")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1390' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1391' onclick='hideorshow("x1391","x1392")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1392' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1393' onclick='hideorshow("x1393","x1394")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1394' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1395' onclick='hideorshow("x1395","x1396")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1396' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1397' onclick='hideorshow("x1397","x1398")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1398' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1399' onclick='hideorshow("x1399","x1400")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1400' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1401' onclick='hideorshow("x1401","x1402")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1402' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1403' onclick='hideorshow("x1403","x1404")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1404' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1405' onclick='hideorshow("x1405","x1406")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1406' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1407' onclick='hideorshow("x1407","x1408")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1408' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/qualified-table-name.html">qualified-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1409' onclick='hideorshow("x1409","x1410")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1410' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram qualified-table-name" src="images/syntax/qualified-table-name.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/with-clause.html">with-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1411' onclick='hideorshow("x1411","x1412")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1412' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram with-clause" src="images/syntax/with-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/cte-table-name.html">cte-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1413' onclick='hideorshow("x1413","x1414")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1414' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram cte-table-name" src="images/syntax/cte-table-name.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1415' onclick='hideorshow("x1415","x1416")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1416' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1417' onclick='hideorshow("x1417","x1418")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1418' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1419' onclick='hideorshow("x1419","x1420")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1420' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1421' onclick='hideorshow("x1421","x1422")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1422' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1423' onclick='hideorshow("x1423","x1424")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1424' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1425' onclick='hideorshow("x1425","x1426")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1426' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1427' onclick='hideorshow("x1427","x1428")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1428' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1429' onclick='hideorshow("x1429","x1430")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1430' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1431' onclick='hideorshow("x1431","x1432")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1432' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>


<p>An UPDATE statement is used to modify a subset of the values stored in 
zero or more rows of the database table identified by the 
<a href="syntax/qualified-table-name.html">qualified-table-name</a> specified as part of the UPDATE statement.

<p>If the UPDATE statement does not have a WHERE clause, all rows in the
................................................................................

<h3>Optional LIMIT and ORDER BY Clauses</h3>

<p>If SQLite is built with the <a href="compile.html#enable_update_delete_limit">SQLITE_ENABLE_UPDATE_DELETE_LIMIT</a>
compile-time option then the syntax of the UPDATE statement is extended
with optional ORDER BY and LIMIT clauses as follows:</p>

<p><b><a href="syntax/update-stmt-limited.html">update-stmt-limited:</a></b></p><div class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram update-stmt-limited" src="images/syntax/update-stmt-limited.gif"></img>
 </div>


<p>If an UPDATE statement has a LIMIT clause, the maximum number of rows that
will be updated is found by evaluating the accompanying expression and casting
it to an integer value. A negative value is interpreted as "no limit".

<p>If the LIMIT expression evaluates to non-negative value <i>N</i> and the

Changes to Doc/Extra/Core/lang_vacuum.html.

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<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>VACUUM</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/vacuum-stmt.html">vacuum-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1433' onclick='hideorshow("x1433","x1434")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1434'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram vacuum-stmt" src="images/syntax/vacuum-stmt.gif" />
</blockquote>



<p>
  The VACUUM command rebuilds the entire database. There are several 
  reasons an application might do this:

<ul>


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<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>VACUUM</h2></div><p><b><a href="syntax/vacuum-stmt.html">vacuum-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1433' onclick='hideorshow("x1433","x1434")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1434' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram vacuum-stmt" src="images/syntax/vacuum-stmt.gif" />

</div>


<p>
  The VACUUM command rebuilds the entire database. There are several 
  reasons an application might do this:

<ul>

Changes to Doc/Extra/Core/lang_with.html.

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<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>WITH clause</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/with-clause.html">with-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1139' onclick='hideorshow("x1139","x1140")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1140'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram with-clause" src="images/syntax/with-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/cte-table-name.html">cte-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1141' onclick='hideorshow("x1141","x1142")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1142' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram cte-table-name" src="images/syntax/cte-table-name.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1143' onclick='hideorshow("x1143","x1144")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1144' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1145' onclick='hideorshow("x1145","x1146")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1146' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1147' onclick='hideorshow("x1147","x1148")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1148' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1149' onclick='hideorshow("x1149","x1150")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1150' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1151' onclick='hideorshow("x1151","x1152")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1152' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x1153' onclick='hideorshow("x1153","x1154")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1154' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1155' onclick='hideorshow("x1155","x1156")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1156' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1157' onclick='hideorshow("x1157","x1158")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1158' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1159' onclick='hideorshow("x1159","x1160")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1160' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1161' onclick='hideorshow("x1161","x1162")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1162' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1163' onclick='hideorshow("x1163","x1164")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1164' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1165' onclick='hideorshow("x1165","x1166")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1166' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1167' onclick='hideorshow("x1167","x1168")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1168' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1169' onclick='hideorshow("x1169","x1170")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1170' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>


<p>Common Table Expressions or CTEs act like temporary <a href="lang_createview.html">views</a> that exist
only for the duration of a single SQL statement.  There are two kinds of
common table expressions: "ordinary" and "recursive". Ordinary 
common table expressions are helpful for making
queries easier to understand by factoring
................................................................................
</ol>

<p>To put it another way, a recursive common table expression must
look like the following:

<p><b><a href="syntax/recursive-cte.html">recursive-cte:</a></b>
<button id='x1171' onclick='hideorshow("x1171","x1172")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1172'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram recursive-cte" src="images/syntax/recursive-cte.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/cte-table-name.html">cte-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1173' onclick='hideorshow("x1173","x1174")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1174' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram cte-table-name" src="images/syntax/cte-table-name.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>


<p>Call the table named by the <a href="syntax/cte-table-name.html">cte-table-name</a> in a recursive
common table expression the "recursive table".
In the <a href="syntax/recursive-cte.html">recursive-cte</a> bubble diagram above, the recursive
table must appear exactly once in the FROM clause of the 
<span class='yyterm'>recursive-select</span>


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<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>WITH clause</h2></div><p><b><a href="syntax/with-clause.html">with-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1139' onclick='hideorshow("x1139","x1140")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1140' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram with-clause" src="images/syntax/with-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/cte-table-name.html">cte-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1141' onclick='hideorshow("x1141","x1142")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1142' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram cte-table-name" src="images/syntax/cte-table-name.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1143' onclick='hideorshow("x1143","x1144")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1144' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1145' onclick='hideorshow("x1145","x1146")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1146' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1147' onclick='hideorshow("x1147","x1148")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1148' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1149' onclick='hideorshow("x1149","x1150")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1150' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1151' onclick='hideorshow("x1151","x1152")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1152' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x1153' onclick='hideorshow("x1153","x1154")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1154' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1155' onclick='hideorshow("x1155","x1156")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1156' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1157' onclick='hideorshow("x1157","x1158")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1158' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
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<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1159' onclick='hideorshow("x1159","x1160")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1160' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1161' onclick='hideorshow("x1161","x1162")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1162' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1163' onclick='hideorshow("x1163","x1164")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1164' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1165' onclick='hideorshow("x1165","x1166")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1166' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
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<button id='x1167' onclick='hideorshow("x1167","x1168")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1168' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
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<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1169' onclick='hideorshow("x1169","x1170")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1170' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
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<p>Common Table Expressions or CTEs act like temporary <a href="lang_createview.html">views</a> that exist
only for the duration of a single SQL statement.  There are two kinds of
common table expressions: "ordinary" and "recursive". Ordinary 
common table expressions are helpful for making
queries easier to understand by factoring
................................................................................
</ol>

<p>To put it another way, a recursive common table expression must
look like the following:

<p><b><a href="syntax/recursive-cte.html">recursive-cte:</a></b>
<button id='x1171' onclick='hideorshow("x1171","x1172")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1172' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram recursive-cte" src="images/syntax/recursive-cte.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/cte-table-name.html">cte-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1173' onclick='hideorshow("x1173","x1174")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1174' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram cte-table-name" src="images/syntax/cte-table-name.gif" />
</div>
</div>


<p>Call the table named by the <a href="syntax/cte-table-name.html">cte-table-name</a> in a recursive
common table expression the "recursive table".
In the <a href="syntax/recursive-cte.html">recursive-cte</a> bubble diagram above, the recursive
table must appear exactly once in the FROM clause of the 
<span class='yyterm'>recursive-select</span>

Changes to Doc/Extra/Core/pragma.html.

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