System.Data.SQLite

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Changes In Branch trunk Excluding Merge-Ins

This is equivalent to a diff from 555d0d530d to 6e6b7d1598

2024-07-04
04:22
Enable tracking of SQLiteMemory class bytes by default. Further testing enhancements. Leaf check-in: 6e6b7d1598 user: mistachkin tags: trunk
01:18
Further improvements to the 'data-1.116' test. check-in: a38b0f5f53 user: mistachkin tags: trunk
2010-11-24
14:29
Remove a duplicate DLL whose name differs only in case. check-in: 7f9e634bf5 user: drh tags: trunk
2010-08-15
22:10
Fix guid type Closed-Leaf check-in: 555d0d530d user: rmsimpson tags: sourceforge
2010-08-11
16:17
Updates for take and skip check-in: fc483e780a user: rmsimpson tags: sourceforge

Added .fossil-settings/binary-glob.





























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*.bmp
*.chm
*.db
*.dll
*.exe
*.gif
*.gz
*.lib
*.msi
*.pdb
*.png
*.resources
*.snk
*.zip

Added .fossil-settings/crnl-glob.



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Added .fossil-settings/encoding-glob.



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Tests/data/testlinq.out

Added .fossil-settings/ignore-glob.























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Externals/Eagle/bin/net5/Eagle*.pdb
Externals/Eagle/bin/net6/Eagle*.pdb
Externals/Eagle/bin/netCore20/Eagle*.pdb
Externals/Eagle/bin/netCore30/Eagle*.pdb
Externals/Eagle/bin/netFramework20/Eagle*.pdb
Externals/Eagle/bin/netFramework20/x64/Spilornis.pdb
Externals/Eagle/bin/netFramework20/x86/Spilornis.pdb
Externals/Eagle/bin/netFramework40/Eagle*.pdb
Externals/Eagle/bin/netFramework40/x64/Spilornis.pdb
Externals/Eagle/bin/netFramework40/x86/Spilornis.pdb
Targets/SQLite.NET.Settings.targets.netFx40.user

Added Doc/Extra/Core/images/sqlite370_banner.gif.

cannot compute difference between binary files

Added Doc/Extra/Core/json1.html.















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































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JSON Functions And Operators
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Table Of Contents
</a>
<div id="toc_sub"><div class="fancy-toc1"><a href="#overview">1. Overview</a></div>
<div class="fancy-toc1"><a href="#compiling_in_json_support">2. Compiling in JSON Support</a></div>
<div class="fancy-toc1"><a href="#interface_overview">3. Interface Overview</a></div>
<div class="fancy-toc2"><a href="#json_arguments">3.1. JSON arguments</a></div>
<div class="fancy-toc2"><a href="#jsonb">3.2. JSONB</a></div>
<div class="fancy-toc3"><a href="#the_jsonb_format">3.2.1. The JSONB format</a></div>
<div class="fancy-toc3"><a href="#handling_of_malformed_jsonb">3.2.2. Handling of malformed JSONB</a></div>
<div class="fancy-toc2"><a href="#path_arguments">3.3. PATH arguments</a></div>
<div class="fancy-toc2"><a href="#value_arguments">3.4. VALUE arguments</a></div>
<div class="fancy-toc2"><a href="#compatibility">3.5. Compatibility</a></div>
<div class="fancy-toc2"><a href="#json5_extensions">3.6. JSON5 Extensions</a></div>
<div class="fancy-toc2"><a href="#performance_considerations">3.7. Performance Considerations</a></div>
<div class="fancy-toc2"><a href="#the_json_blob_input_bug">3.8. The JSON BLOB Input Bug</a></div>
<div class="fancy-toc1"><a href="#function_details">4. Function Details</a></div>
<div class="fancy-toc2"><a href="#the_json_function">4.1. The json() function</a></div>
<div class="fancy-toc2"><a href="#the_jsonb_function">4.2. The jsonb() function</a></div>
<div class="fancy-toc2"><a href="#the_json_array_function">4.3. The json_array() function</a></div>
<div class="fancy-toc2"><a href="#the_jsonb_array_function">4.4. The jsonb_array() function</a></div>
<div class="fancy-toc2"><a href="#the_json_array_length_function">4.5. The json_array_length() function</a></div>
<div class="fancy-toc2"><a href="#the_json_error_position_function">4.6. The json_error_position() function</a></div>
<div class="fancy-toc2"><a href="#the_json_extract_function">4.7. The json_extract() function</a></div>
<div class="fancy-toc2"><a href="#the_jsonb_extract_function">4.8. The jsonb_extract() function</a></div>
<div class="fancy-toc2"><a href="#the_and_operators">4.9. The -> and ->> operators</a></div>
<div class="fancy-toc2"><a href="#the_json_insert_json_replace_and_json_set_functions">4.10. The json_insert(), json_replace, and json_set() functions</a></div>
<div class="fancy-toc2"><a href="#the_jsonb_insert_jsonb_replace_and_jsonb_set_functions">4.11. The jsonb_insert(), jsonb_replace, and jsonb_set() functions</a></div>
<div class="fancy-toc2"><a href="#the_json_object_function">4.12. The json_object() function</a></div>
<div class="fancy-toc2"><a href="#the_jsonb_object_function">4.13. The jsonb_object() function</a></div>
<div class="fancy-toc2"><a href="#the_json_patch_function">4.14. The json_patch() function</a></div>
<div class="fancy-toc2"><a href="#the_jsonb_patch_function">4.15. The jsonb_patch() function</a></div>
<div class="fancy-toc2"><a href="#the_json_pretty_function">4.16. The json_pretty() function</a></div>
<div class="fancy-toc2"><a href="#the_json_remove_function">4.17. The json_remove() function</a></div>
<div class="fancy-toc2"><a href="#the_jsonb_remove_function">4.18. The jsonb_remove() function</a></div>
<div class="fancy-toc2"><a href="#the_json_type_function">4.19. The json_type() function</a></div>
<div class="fancy-toc2"><a href="#the_json_valid_function">4.20. The json_valid() function</a></div>
<div class="fancy-toc2"><a href="#the_json_quote_function">4.21. The json_quote() function</a></div>
<div class="fancy-toc2"><a href="#array_and_object_aggregate_functions">4.22. Array and object aggregate functions</a></div>
<div class="fancy-toc2"><a href="#the_json_each_and_json_tree_table_valued_functions">4.23. The json_each() and json_tree() table-valued functions</a></div>
<div class="fancy-toc3"><a href="#examples_using_json_each_and_json_tree_">4.23.1. Examples using json_each() and json_tree()</a></div>
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<h1 id="overview"><span>1. </span>Overview</h1>
<p>
By default, SQLite supports thirty functions and two operators for
dealing with JSON values.  There are also two <a href="vtab.html#tabfunc2">table-valued functions</a>
that can be used to decompose a JSON string.

</p><p>
There are twenty-six scalar functions and operators:

</p><ol>
<li value='1'>
<a href='#jmini'>json</a>(<i>json</i>)
</li>

<li value='2'>
<a href='#jminib'>jsonb</a>(<i>json</i>)
</li>

<li value='3'>
<a href='#jarray'>json_array</a>(<i>value1</i>,<i>value2</i>,...)
</li>

<li value='4'>
<a href='#jarrayb'>jsonb_array</a>(<i>value1</i>,<i>value2</i>,...)
</li>

<li value='5'>
<a href='#jarraylen'>json_array_length</a>(<i>json</i>)<br><a href='#jarraylen'>json_array_length</a>(<i>json</i>,<i>path</i>)
</li>

<li value='6'>
<a href='#jerr'>json_error_position</a>(<i>json</i>)
</li>

<li value='7'>
<a href='#jex'>json_extract</a>(<i>json</i>,<i>path</i>,...)
</li>

<li value='8'>
<a href='#jexb'>jsonb_extract</a>(<i>json</i>,<i>path</i>,...)
</li>

<li value='9'>
<i>json</i> <a href='#jptr'>-></a> <i>path</i>
</li>

<li value='10'>
<i>json</i> <a href='#jptr'>->></a> <i>path</i>
</li>

<li value='11'>
<a href='#jins'>json_insert</a>(<i>json</i>,<i>path</i>,<i>value</i>,...)
</li>

<li value='12'>
<a href='#jinsb'>jsonb_insert</a>(<i>json</i>,<i>path</i>,<i>value</i>,...)
</li>

<li value='13'>
<a href='#jobj'>json_object</a>(<i>label1</i>,<i>value1</i>,...)
</li>

<li value='14'>
<a href='#jobjb'>jsonb_object</a>(<i>label1</i>,<i>value1</i>,...)
</li>

<li value='15'>
<a href='#jpatch'>json_patch</a>(<i>json</i>1,json2)
</li>

<li value='16'>
<a href='#jpatchb'>jsonb_patch</a>(<i>json</i>1,json2)
</li>

<li value='17'>
<a href='#jpretty'>json_pretty</a>(<i>json</i>)
</li>

<li value='18'>
<a href='#jrm'>json_remove</a>(<i>json</i>,<i>path</i>,...)
</li>

<li value='19'>
<a href='#jrmb'>jsonb_remove</a>(<i>json</i>,<i>path</i>,...)
</li>

<li value='20'>
<a href='#jrepl'>json_replace</a>(<i>json</i>,<i>path</i>,<i>value</i>,...)
</li>

<li value='21'>
<a href='#jreplb'>jsonb_replace</a>(<i>json</i>,<i>path</i>,<i>value</i>,...)
</li>

<li value='22'>
<a href='#jset'>json_set</a>(<i>json</i>,<i>path</i>,<i>value</i>,...)
</li>

<li value='23'>
<a href='#jsetb'>jsonb_set</a>(<i>json</i>,<i>path</i>,<i>value</i>,...)
</li>

<li value='24'>
<a href='#jtype'>json_type</a>(<i>json</i>)<br><a href='#jtype'>json_type</a>(<i>json</i>,<i>path</i>)
</li>

<li value='25'>
<a href='#jvalid'>json_valid</a>(<i>json</i>)<br><a href='#jvalid'>json_valid</a>(<i>json</i>,flags)
</li>

<li value='26'>
<a href='#jquote'>json_quote</a>(<i>value</i>)
</li>


</ol>

<p>There are four <a href="lang_aggfunc.html">aggregate SQL functions</a>:

</p><ol>
<li value='27'>
<a href='#jgrouparray'>json_group_array</a>(<i>value</i>)
</li>

<li value='28'>
<a href='#jgrouparrayb'>jsonb_group_array</a>(<i>value</i>)
</li>

<li value='29'>
<a href='#jgroupobject'>json_group_object</a>(<i>label</i>,<i>value</i>)
</li>

<li value='30'>
<a href='#jgroupobjectb'>jsonb_group_object</a>(name,<i>value</i>)
</li>


</ol>

<p>The two <a href="vtab.html#tabfunc2">table-valued functions</a> are:

</p><ol>
<li value='31'>
<a href='#jeach'>json_each</a>(<i>json</i>)<br><a href='#jeach'>json_each</a>(<i>json</i>,<i>path</i>)
</li>

<li value='32'>
<a href='#jtree'>json_tree</a>(<i>json</i>)<br><a href='#jtree'>json_tree</a>(<i>json</i>,<i>path</i>)
</li>


</ol>



<style>
.jans {color: #050;}
.jex {color: #025;}
</style>


<a name="howtocompile"></a>

<h1 id="compiling_in_json_support"><span>2. </span>Compiling in JSON Support</h1>

<p>
The JSON functions and operators are built into SQLite by default,
as of SQLite version 3.38.0 (2022-02-22).  They can be omitted
by adding the -DSQLITE_OMIT_JSON compile-time option.  Prior to
version 3.38.0, the JSON functions were an extension that would only
be included in builds if the -DSQLITE_ENABLE_JSON1 compile-time option
was included.  In other words, the JSON functions went from being
opt-in with SQLite version 3.37.2 and earlier to opt-out with
SQLite version 3.38.0 and later.

</p><h1 id="interface_overview"><span>3. </span>Interface Overview</h1>

<p>
SQLite stores JSON as ordinary text.
Backwards compatibility constraints mean that SQLite is only able to
store values that are NULL, integers, floating-point numbers, text,
and BLOBs.  It is not possible to add a new "JSON" type.


</p><h2 id="json_arguments"><span>3.1. </span>JSON arguments</h2>

<p>
For functions that accept JSON as their first argument, that argument
can be a JSON object, array, number, string, or null.  SQLite numeric
values and NULL values are interpreted as JSON numbers and nulls, respectively.
SQLite text values can be understood as JSON objects, arrays, or strings.
If an SQLite text value that is not a well-formed JSON object, array, or
string is passed into JSON function, that function will usually throw
an error.  (Exceptions to this rule are <a href="json1.html#jvalid">json_valid()</a>,
<a href="json1.html#jquote">json_quote()</a>, and <a href="json1.html#jerr">json_error_position()</a>.)

</p><p>
These routines understand all
<a href="https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc8259.txt">rfc-8259 JSON syntax</a>
and also <a href="https://spec.json5.org/">JSON5 extensions</a>.  JSON text
generated by these routines always strictly conforms to the
<a href="https://json.org">canonical JSON definition</a> and does not contain any JSON5
or other extensions.  The ability to read and understand JSON5 was added in
version 3.42.0 (2023-05-16).
Prior versions of SQLite would only read canonical JSON.

<a name="jsonbx"></a>

</p><h2 id="jsonb"><span>3.2. </span>JSONB</h2>

<p>
Beginning with version 3.45.0 (2024-01-15), SQLite allows its
internal "parse tree" representation of JSON to be stored on disk,
as a BLOB, in a format that we call "JSONB".  By storing SQLite's internal
binary representation of JSON directly in the database, applications
can bypass the overhead of parsing and rendering JSON when reading and
updating JSON values.  The internal JSONB format also uses slightly
less disk space then text JSON.

</p><p>
Any SQL function parameter that accepts text JSON as an input will also
accept a BLOB in the JSONB format.  The function will operate the
same in either case, except that it will run faster when
the input is JSONB, since it does not need to run the JSON parser.

</p><p>
Most SQL functions that return JSON text have a corresponding function
that returns the equivalent JSONB.  The functions that return JSON
in the text format begin with "<tt>json_</tt>" and functions that
return the binary JSONB format begin with "<tt>jsonb_</tt>".

</p><h3 id="the_jsonb_format"><span>3.2.1. </span>The JSONB format</h3>

<p>
JSONB is a binary representation of JSON used by SQLite and
is intended for internal use by SQLite only.  Applications
should not use JSONB outside of SQLite nor try to reverse-engineer the
JSONB format.

</p><p>
The "JSONB" name is inspired by <a href="https://postgresql.org">PostgreSQL</a>, but the
on-disk format for SQLite's JSONB is not the same as PostgreSQL's.
The two formats have the same name, but are not binary compatible.
The PostgreSQL JSONB format claims to offer O(1)
lookup of elements in objects and arrays.  SQLite's JSONB format makes no
such claim.  SQLite's JSONB has O(N) time complexity for
most operations in SQLite, just like text JSON.  The advantage of JSONB in
SQLite is that it is smaller and faster than text JSON - potentially several
times faster. There is space in the
on-disk JSONB format to add enhancements and future versions of SQLite might
include options to provide O(1) lookup of elements in JSONB, but no such
capability is currently available.

</p><h3 id="handling_of_malformed_jsonb"><span>3.2.2. </span>Handling of malformed JSONB</h3>

<p>
The JSONB that is generated by SQLite will always be well-formed.  If you
follow recommended practice and
treat JSONB as an opaque BLOB, then you will not have any problems.  But
JSONB is just a BLOB, so a mischievous programmer could devise BLOBs
that are similar to JSONB but that are technically malformed.  When
misformatted JSONB is feed into JSON functions, any of the following
might happen:

</p><ul>
<li><p>
The SQL statement might abort with a "malformed JSON" error.

</p></li><li><p>
The correct answer might be returned, if the malformed parts of
the JSONB blob do not impact the answer.

</p></li><li><p>
A goofy or nonsensical answer might be returned.
</p></li></ul>

<p>
The way in which SQLite handles invalid JSONB might change
from one version of SQLite to the next.  The system follows
the garbage-in/garbage-out rule:  If you feed the JSON functions invalid
JSONB, you get back an invalid answer.  If you are in doubt about the
validity of our JSONB, use the <a href="json1.html#jvalid">json_valid()</a> function to verify it.

</p><p>
We do make this one promise:
Malformed JSONB will never cause a memory
error or similar problem that might lead to a vulnerability.
Invalid JSONB might lead to crazy answers,
or it might cause queries to abort, but it won't cause a crash.

<a name="jsonpath"></a>

</p><h2 id="path_arguments"><span>3.3. </span>PATH arguments</h2>

<p>
For functions that accept PATH arguments, that PATH must be well-formed or
else the function will throw an error.
A well-formed PATH is a text value that begins with exactly one
'$' character followed by zero or more instances
of ".<i>objectlabel</i>" or "&#91;<i>arrayindex</i>&#93;".

</p><p>
The <i>arrayindex</i> is usually a non-negative integer <i>N</i>.  In
that case, the array element selected is the <i>N</i>-th element
of the array, starting with zero on the left.
The <i>arrayindex</i> can also be of the form "<b>#-</b><i>N</i>"
in which case the element selected is the <i>N</i>-th from the
right.  The last element of the array is "<b>#-1</b>".  Think of
the "#" characters as the "number of elements in the array".  Then
the expression "#-1" evaluates to the integer that corresponds to 
the last entry in the array.  It is sometimes useful for the array
index to be just the <b>#</b> character, for example when appending
a value to an existing JSON array:

<ul>
<li><span class='jex'>json_set('[0,1,2]','$[#]','new')</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; '[0,1,2,"new"]'</span></li>

</ul>


<a name="varg"></a>

</p><h2 id="value_arguments"><span>3.4. </span>VALUE arguments</h2>

<p>
For functions that accept "<i>value</i>" arguments (also shown as
"<i>value1</i>" and "<i>value2</i>"),
those arguments are usually understood
to be literal strings that are quoted and become JSON string values
in the result.  Even if the input <i>value</i> strings look like 
well-formed JSON, they are still interpreted as literal strings in the
result.

</p><p>
However, if a <i>value</i> argument comes directly from the result of another
JSON function or from <a href="json1.html#jptr">the -> operator</a> (but not <a href="json1.html#jptr">the ->> operator</a>),
then the argument is understood to be actual JSON and
the complete JSON is inserted rather than a quoted string.

</p><p>
For example, in the following call to json_object(), the <i>value</i>
argument looks like a well-formed JSON array.  However, because it is just
ordinary SQL text, it is interpreted as a literal string and added to the
result as a quoted string:

<ul>
<li><span class='jex'>json_object('ex','[52,3.14159]')</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; '{"ex":"[52,3.14159]"}'</span></li>

<li><span class='jex'>json_object('ex',('[52,3.14159]'->>'$'))</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; '{"ex":"[52,3.14159]"}'</span></li>

</ul>


</p><p>
But if the <i>value</i> argument in the outer json_object() call is the
result of another JSON function like <a href="json1.html#jmini">json()</a> or <a href="json1.html#jarray">json_array()</a>, then
the value is understood to be actual JSON and is inserted as such:

<ul>
<li><span class='jex'>json_object('ex',json('[52,3.14159]'))</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; '{"ex":[52,3.14159]}'</span></li>

<li><span class='jex'>json_object('ex',json_array(52,3.14159))</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; '{"ex":[52,3.14159]}'</span></li>

<li><span class='jex'>json_object('ex','[52,3.14159]'->'$')</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; '{"ex":[52,3.14159]}'</span></li>

</ul>


</p><p>
To be clear: "<i>json</i>" arguments are always interpreted as JSON
regardless of where the value for that argument comes from.  But
"<i>value</i>" arguments are only interpreted as JSON if those arguments
come directly from another JSON function or <a href="json1.html#jptr">the -> operator</a>.

</p><p>
Within JSON value arguments interpreted as JSON strings, Unicode escape
sequences are not treated as equivalent to the characters or escaped
control characters represented by the expressed Unicode code point.
Such escape sequences are not translated or specially treated; they
are treated as plain text by SQLite's JSON functions.

</p><h2 id="compatibility"><span>3.5. </span>Compatibility</h2>

<p>
The current implementation of this JSON library uses a recursive descent
parser.  In order to avoid using excess stack space, any JSON input that has
more than 1000 levels of nesting is considered invalid.   Limits on nesting
depth are allowed for compatible implementations of JSON by
<a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc8259#section-9">RFC-8259 section 9</a>.

<a name="json5"></a>

</p><h2 id="json5_extensions"><span>3.6. </span>JSON5 Extensions</h2>

<p>
Beginning in version 3.42.0 (2023-05-16), these routines will
read and interpret input JSON text that includes
<a href="https://spec.json5.org/">JSON5</a> extensions.  However, JSON text generated
by these routines will always be strictly conforming to the 
<a href="https://json.org">canonical definition of JSON</a>.

</p><p>
Here is a synopsis of JSON5 extensions (adapted from the
<a href="https://spec.json5.org/#introduction">JSON5 specification</a>):

</p><ul>
<li> Object keys may be unquoted identifiers.
</li><li> Objects may have a single trailing comma.
</li><li> Arrays may have a single trailing comma.
</li><li> Strings may be single quoted.
</li><li> Strings may span multiple lines by escaping new line characters.
</li><li> Strings may include new character escapes.
</li><li> Numbers may be hexadecimal.
</li><li> Numbers may have a leading or trailing decimal point.
</li><li> Numbers may be "Infinity", "-Infinity", and "NaN".
</li><li> Numbers may begin with an explicit plus sign.
</li><li> Single (//...) and multi-line (/*...*/) comments are allowed.
</li><li> Additional white space characters are allowed.
</li></ul>

<p>
To convert string X from JSON5 into canonical JSON, invoke
"<a href="json1.html#jmini">json(X)</a>".  The output of the "<a href="json1.html#jmini">json()</a>" function will be canonical
JSON regardless of any JSON5 extensions that are present in the input.
For backwards compatibility, the <a href="json1.html#jvalid">json_valid(X)</a> function without a
"flags" argument continues
to report false for inputs that are not canonical JSON, even if the
input is JSON5 that the function is able to understand.  To determine
whether or not an input string is valid JSON5, include the 0x02 bit
in the "flags" argument to json_valid:  "<tt>json_valid(X,2)</tt>".

</p><p>
These routines understand all of JSON5, plus a little more.
SQLite extends the JSON5 syntax in these two ways:

</p><ol>
<li><p>
Strict JSON5 requires that
unquoted object keys must be ECMAScript 5.1 IdentifierNames.  But large
unicode tables and lots of code is required in order to determine whether or
not a key is an ECMAScript 5.1 IdentifierName.  For this reason,
SQLite allows object keys to include any unicode characters
greater than U+007f that are not whitespace characters.  This relaxed
definition of "identifier" greatly simplifies the implementation and allows
the JSON parser to be smaller and run faster.

</p></li><li><p>
JSON5 allows floating-point infinities to be expressed as
"<tt>Infinity</tt>", "<tt>-Infinity</tt>", or "<tt>+Infinity</tt>"
in exactly that case - the initial "I" is capitalized and all other
characters are lower case.  SQLite also allows the abbreviation "<tt>Inf</tt>"
to be used in place of "<tt>Infinity</tt>" and it allows both keywords
to appear in any combination of upper and lower case letters.
Similarly,
JSON5 allows "NaN" for not-a-number.  SQLite extends this to also allow
"QNaN" and "SNaN" in any combination of upper and lower case letters.
Note that SQLite interprets NaN, QNaN, and SNaN as just an alternative
spellings for "null".
This extension has been added because (we are told) there exists a lot
of JSON in the wild that includes these non-standard representations
for infinity and not-a-number.
</p></li></ol>


<h2 id="performance_considerations"><span>3.7. </span>Performance Considerations</h2>

<p>
Most JSON functions do their internal processing using JSONB.  So if the
input is text, they first most translate the input text into JSONB.
If the input is already in the JSONB format, no translation is needed,
that step can be skipped, and performance is faster.

</p><p>
For that reason,
when an argument to one JSON function is supplied by another
JSON function, it is usually more efficient to use the "<tt>jsonb_</tt>"
variant for the function used as the argument.  

</p><ul>
<li>
  <tt>... json_insert(A,'$.b',json(C)) ...</tt>
  &nbsp; &larr; Less efficient.
</li><li>
  <tt>... json_insert(A,'$.b',jsonb(C)) ...</tt>
  &nbsp; &larr; More efficient.
</li></ul>


<p>
The <a href="json1.html#jgroupobjectb">aggregate JSON SQL functions</a> are an exception to this rule.  Those
functions all do their processing using text instead of JSONB.  So for the
aggregate JSON SQL functions, it is more efficient for the arguments
to be supplied using "<tt>json_</tt>" functions than "<tt>jsonb_</tt>"
functions.

</p><ul>
<li>
  <tt>... json_group_array(json(A))) ...</tt>
  &nbsp; &larr; More efficient.
</li><li>
  <tt>... json_group_array(jsonb(A))) ...</tt>
  &nbsp; &larr; Less efficient.
</li></ul>

<a name="jblobbug"></a>

<h2 id="the_json_blob_input_bug"><span>3.8. </span>The JSON BLOB Input Bug</h2>

<p>If a JSON input is a BLOB that is not JSONB and that looks like
text JSON when cast to text, then it is accepted as text JSON.
This is actually a long-standing bug in the original implementation
that the SQLite developers were unaware of.  The documentation stated
that a BLOB input to a JSON function should raise an error.  But in the
actual implementation, the input would be accepted as long
as the BLOB content was a valid JSON string in the text encoding of
the database.

</p><p>This JSON BLOB input bug was accidentally fixed when the JSON routines
were reimplemented for the 3.45.0 release (2024-01-15).
That caused breakage in applications that had come to depend on the old
behavior.  (In defense of those applications:  they were often lured into
using BLOBs as JSON by the <a href="cli.html#fileio">readfile()</a> SQL function
available in the <a href="cli.html">CLI</a>.  Readfile() was used to read JSON from disk files,
but readfile() returns a BLOB.  And that worked for them, so why not just
do it?)

</p><p>For backwards compatibility,
the (formerly incorrect) legacy behavior of interpreting BLOBs as text JSON
if no other interpretation works
is hereby documented and is be officially supported in 
version 3.45.1 (2024-01-30) and all subsequent releases.

</p><h1 id="function_details"><span>4. </span>Function Details</h1>

<p>The following sections provide additional detail on the operation of
the various JSON functions and operators:

<a name="jmini"></a>

</p><h2 id="the_json_function"><span>4.1. </span>The json() function</h2>

<p>The json(X) function verifies that its argument X is a valid
JSON string or JSONB blob and returns a minified version of that JSON string
with all unnecessary whitespace removed.  If X is not a well-formed
JSON string or JSONB blob, then this routine throws an error.

</p><p>If the input is JSON5 text, then it is converted into canonical
RFC-8259 text prior to being returned.

</p><p>If the argument X to json(X) contains JSON objects with duplicate
labels, then it is undefined whether or not the duplicates are
preserved.  The current implementation preserves duplicates.
However, future enhancements
to this routine may choose to silently remove duplicates.

</p><p>
Example:

<ul>
<li><span class='jex'>json(' { "this" : "is", "a": [ "test" ] } ')</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; '{"this":"is","a":["test"]}'</span></li>

</ul>


<a name="jminib"></a>

</p><h2 id="the_jsonb_function"><span>4.2. </span>The jsonb() function</h2>

<p>The jsonb(X) function returns the binary JSONB representation
of the JSON provided as argument X.  An error is raised if X is
TEXT that does not have valid JSON syntax.

</p><p>If X is a BLOB and appears to be JSONB,
then this routine simply returns a copy of X.
Only the outer-most element of the JSONB input is examined, however.
The deep structure of the JSONB is not validated.

<a name="jarray"></a>

</p><h2 id="the_json_array_function"><span>4.3. </span>The json_array() function</h2>

<p>The json_array() SQL function accepts zero or more arguments and
returns a well-formed JSON array that is composed from those arguments.
If any argument to json_array() is a BLOB then an error is thrown.

</p><p>An argument with SQL type TEXT is normally converted into a quoted 
JSON string.  However, if the argument is the output from another json1
function, then it is stored as JSON.  This allows calls to json_array()
and <a href="json1.html#jobj">json_object()</a> to be nested.  The <a href="json1.html#jmini">json()</a> function can also
be used to force strings to be recognized as JSON.

</p><p>Examples:

<ul>
<li><span class='jex'>json_array(1,2,'3',4)</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; '[1,2,"3",4]'</span></li>

<li><span class='jex'>json_array('[1,2]')</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; '["[1,2]"]'</span></li>

<li><span class='jex'>json_array(json_array(1,2))</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; '[[1,2]]'</span></li>

<li><span class='jex'>json_array(1,null,'3','[4,5]','{"six":7.7}')</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; '[1,null,"3","[4,5]","{\"six\":7.7}"]'</span></li>

<li><span class='jex'>json_array(1,null,'3',json('[4,5]'),json('{"six":7.7}'))</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; '[1,null,"3",[4,5],{"six":7.7}]'</span></li>

</ul>



<a name="jarrayb"></a>

</p><h2 id="the_jsonb_array_function"><span>4.4. </span>The jsonb_array() function</h2>

<p>The jsonb_array() SQL function works just like the <a href="json1.html#jarray">json_array()</a>
function except that it returns the constructed JSON array in the
SQLite's private JSONB format rather than in the standard
RFC 8259 text format.

<a name="jarraylen"></a>

</p><h2 id="the_json_array_length_function"><span>4.5. </span>The json_array_length() function</h2>

<p>The json_array_length(X) function returns the number of elements
in the JSON array X, or 0 if X is some kind of JSON value other
than an array.  The json_array_length(X,P) locates the array at path P
within X and returns the length of that array, or 0 if path P locates
an element in X that is not a JSON array, and NULL if path P does not
locate any element of X.  Errors are thrown if either X is not 
well-formed JSON or if P is not a well-formed path.

</p><p>Examples:

<ul>
<li><span class='jex'>json_array_length('[1,2,3,4]')</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; 4</span></li>

<li><span class='jex'>json_array_length('[1,2,3,4]', '$')</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; 4</span></li>

<li><span class='jex'>json_array_length('[1,2,3,4]', '$[2]')</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; 0</span></li>

<li><span class='jex'>json_array_length('{"one":[1,2,3]}')</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; 0</span></li>

<li><span class='jex'>json_array_length('{"one":[1,2,3]}', '$.one')</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; 3</span></li>

<li><span class='jex'>json_array_length('{"one":[1,2,3]}', '$.two')</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; NULL</span></li>

</ul>



<a name="jerr"></a>

</p><h2 id="the_json_error_position_function"><span>4.6. </span>The json_error_position() function</h2>

<p>The json_error_position(X) function returns 0 if the input X is a
well-formed JSON or JSON5 string.  If the input X contains one or more
syntax errors, then this function returns the character position of the
first syntax error.  The left-most character is position 1.

</p><p>If the input X is a BLOB, then this routine returns 0 if X is
a well-formed JSONB blob.  If the return value is positive, then it
represents the <i>approximate</i> 1-based position in the BLOB of the
first detected error.

</p><p>
The json_error_position() function was added with
SQLite version 3.42.0 (2023-05-16).


<a name="jex"></a>

</p><h2 id="the_json_extract_function"><span>4.7. </span>The json_extract() function</h2>

<p>The json_extract(X,P1,P2,...) extracts and returns one or more 
values from the
well-formed JSON at X.  If only a single path P1 is provided, then the
SQL datatype of the result is NULL for a JSON null, INTEGER or REAL
for a JSON numeric value, an INTEGER zero for a JSON false value,
an INTEGER one for a JSON true value, the dequoted text for a 
JSON string value, and a text representation for JSON object and array values.
If there are multiple path arguments (P1, P2, and so forth) then this
routine returns SQLite text which is a well-formed JSON array holding
the various values.

</p><p>Examples:

<ul>
<li><span class='jex'>json_extract('{"a":2,"c":[4,5,{"f":7}]}', '$')</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; '{"a":2,"c":[4,5,{"f":7}]}'</span></li>

<li><span class='jex'>json_extract('{"a":2,"c":[4,5,{"f":7}]}', '$.c')</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; '[4,5,{"f":7}]'</span></li>

<li><span class='jex'>json_extract('{"a":2,"c":[4,5,{"f":7}]}', '$.c[2]')</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; '{"f":7}'</span></li>

<li><span class='jex'>json_extract('{"a":2,"c":[4,5,{"f":7}]}', '$.c[2].f')</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; 7</span></li>

<li><span class='jex'>json_extract('{"a":2,"c":[4,5],"f":7}','$.c','$.a')</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; '[[4,5],2]'</span></li>

<li><span class='jex'>json_extract('{"a":2,"c":[4,5],"f":7}','$.c[#-1]')</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; 5</span></li>

<li><span class='jex'>json_extract('{"a":2,"c":[4,5,{"f":7}]}', '$.x')</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; NULL</span></li>

<li><span class='jex'>json_extract('{"a":2,"c":[4,5,{"f":7}]}', '$.x', '$.a')</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; '[null,2]'</span></li>

<li><span class='jex'>json_extract('{"a":"xyz"}', '$.a')</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; 'xyz'</span></li>

<li><span class='jex'>json_extract('{"a":null}', '$.a')</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; NULL</span></li>

</ul>


</p><p>There is a subtle incompatibility between the json_extract() function
in SQLite and the json_extract() function in MySQL.  The MySQL version
of json_extract() always returns JSON.  The SQLite version of
json_extract() only returns JSON if there are two or more PATH arguments
(because the result is then a JSON array) or if the single PATH argument
references an array or object.  In SQLite, if json_extract() has only
a single PATH argument and that PATH references a JSON null or a string
or a numeric value, then json_extract() returns the corresponding SQL
NULL, TEXT, INTEGER, or REAL value.

</p><p>The difference between MySQL json_extract() and SQLite json_extract()
really only stands out when accessing individual values within the JSON
that are strings or NULLs.  The following table demonstrates the difference:

</p><center>
<table border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0">
<tr><th>Operation</th><th>SQLite Result</th><th>MySQL Result
</th></tr><tr><td>json_extract('{"a":null,"b":"xyz"}','$.a')</td><td>NULL</td><td>'null'
</td></tr><tr><td>json_extract('{"a":null,"b":"xyz"}','$.b')</td><td>'xyz'</td><td>'"xyz"'
</td></tr></table></center>

<a name="jexb"></a>

<h2 id="the_jsonb_extract_function"><span>4.8. </span>The jsonb_extract() function</h2>

<p>
The jsonb_extract() function works the same as the <a href="json1.html#jex">json_extract()</a> function,
except in cases where json_extract() would normally return a text
JSON array object, this routine returns the array or object in the
JSONB format.  For the common case where a text, numeric, null, or
boolean JSON element is returned, this routine works exactly the same
as json_extract().


<a name="jptr"></a>

</p><h2 id="the_and_operators"><span>4.9. </span>The -> and ->> operators</h2>

<p>Beginning with SQLite version 3.38.0 (2022-02-22), the ->
and ->> operators are available for extracting subcomponents of JSON.
The SQLite implementation of -> and ->> strives to be
compatible with both MySQL and PostgreSQL.
The -> and ->> operators take a JSON string or JSONB blob
as their left operand and a PATH expression or object field
label or array index as their right operand.  The -> operator
returns a text JSON representation of the selected subcomponent or
NULL if that subcomponent does not exist.  The ->> operator returns
an SQL TEXT, INTEGER, REAL, or NULL value that represents the selected
subcomponent, or NULL if the subcomponent does not exist.

</p><p>Both the -> and ->> operators select the same subcomponent
of the JSON to their left.  The difference is that -> always returns a
JSON representation of that subcomponent and the ->> operator always
returns an SQL representation of that subcomponent.  Thus, these operators
are subtly different from a two-argument <a href="json1.html#jex">json_extract()</a> function call.
A call to json_extract() with two arguments will return a JSON representation
of the subcomponent if and only if the subcomponent is a JSON array or
object, and will return an SQL representation of the subcomponent if the
subcomponent is a JSON null, string, or numeric value.

</p><p>When the -> operator returns JSON, it always returns the
RFC 8565 text representation of that JSON, not JSONB.  Use the
<a href="json1.html#jexb">jsonb_extract()</a> function if you need a subcomponent in the
JSONB format.

</p><p>The right-hand operand to the -> and ->> operators can
be a well-formed JSON path expression.  This is the form used by MySQL.
For compatibility with PostgreSQL,
the -> and ->> operators also accept a text object label or
integer array index as their right-hand operand.
If the right operand is a text
label X, then it is interpreted as the JSON path '$.X'.  If the right
operand is an integer value N, then it is interpreted as the JSON path '$[N]'.

</p><p>Examples:

<ul>
<li><span class='jex'>'{"a":2,"c":[4,5,{"f":7}]}' -> '$'</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; '{"a":2,"c":[4,5,{"f":7}]}'</span></li>

<li><span class='jex'>'{"a":2,"c":[4,5,{"f":7}]}' -> '$.c'</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; '[4,5,{"f":7}]'</span></li>

<li><span class='jex'>'{"a":2,"c":[4,5,{"f":7}]}' -> 'c'</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; '[4,5,{"f":7}]'</span></li>

<li><span class='jex'>'{"a":2,"c":[4,5,{"f":7}]}' -> '$.c[2]'</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; '{"f":7}'</span></li>

<li><span class='jex'>'{"a":2,"c":[4,5,{"f":7}]}' -> '$.c[2].f'</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; '7'</span></li>

<li><span class='jex'>'{"a":2,"c":[4,5,{"f":7}]}' ->> '$.c[2].f'</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; 7</span></li>

<li><span class='jex'>'{"a":2,"c":[4,5,{"f":7}]}' -> 'c' -> 2 ->> 'f'</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; 7</span></li>

<li><span class='jex'>'{"a":2,"c":[4,5],"f":7}' -> '$.c[#-1]'</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; '5'</span></li>

<li><span class='jex'>'{"a":2,"c":[4,5,{"f":7}]}' -> '$.x'</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; NULL</span></li>

<li><span class='jex'>'[11,22,33,44]' -> 3</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; '44'</span></li>

<li><span class='jex'>'[11,22,33,44]' ->> 3</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; 44</span></li>

<li><span class='jex'>'{"a":"xyz"}' -> '$.a'</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; '"xyz"'</span></li>

<li><span class='jex'>'{"a":"xyz"}' ->> '$.a'</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; 'xyz'</span></li>

<li><span class='jex'>'{"a":null}' -> '$.a'</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; 'null'</span></li>

<li><span class='jex'>'{"a":null}' ->> '$.a'</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; NULL</span></li>

</ul>


<a name="jins"></a>

<a name="jrepl"></a>

<a name="jset"></a>

</p><h2 id="the_json_insert_json_replace_and_json_set_functions"><span>4.10. </span>The json_insert(), json_replace, and json_set() functions</h2>

<p>The json_insert(), json_replace, and json_set() functions all take
a single JSON value as their first argument followed by zero or more
pairs of path and value arguments, and return a new JSON string formed
by updating the input JSON by the path/value pairs.  The functions
differ only in how they deal with creating new values and overwriting
preexisting values.

</p><center>
<table border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0">
<tr>
<th>Function</th><th>Overwrite if already exists?</th><th>Create if does not exist?
</th></tr><tr>
<td>json_insert()</td><td align="center">No</td><td align="center">Yes
</td></tr><tr>
<td>json_replace()</td><td align="center">Yes</td><td align="center">No
</td></tr><tr>
<td>json_set()</td><td align="center">Yes</td><td align="center">Yes
</td></tr></table></center>

<p>The json_insert(), json_replace(), and json_set() functions always
take an odd number of arguments.  The first argument is always the original
JSON to be edited.  Subsequent arguments occur in pairs with the first
element of each pair being a path and the second element being the value
to insert or replace or set on that path.

</p><p>Edits occur sequentially from left to right.  Changes caused by
prior edits can affect the path search for subsequent edits.

</p><p>If the value of a path/value pair is an SQLite TEXT value, then it
is normally inserted as a quoted JSON string, even if the string looks
like valid JSON.  However, if the value is the result of another
json function (such as <a href="json1.html#jmini">json()</a> or <a href="json1.html#jarray">json_array()</a> or <a href="json1.html#jobj">json_object()</a>)
or if it is the result of <a href="json1.html#jptr">the -> operator</a>,
then it is interpreted as JSON and is inserted as JSON retaining all
of its substructure.  Values that are the result of <a href="json1.html#jptr">the ->> operator</a>
are always interpreted as TEXT and are inserted as a JSON string even
if they look like valid JSON.

</p><p>These routines throw an error if the first JSON argument is not
well-formed or if any PATH argument is not well-formed or if any
argument is a BLOB.

</p><p>To append an element onto the end of an array, using json_insert()
with an array index of "#".  Examples:

<ul>
<li><span class='jex'>json_insert('[1,2,3,4]','$[#]',99)</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; '[1,2,3,4,99]'</span></li>

<li><span class='jex'>json_insert('[1,[2,3],4]','$[1][#]',99)</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; '[1,[2,3,99],4]'</span></li>

</ul>


</p><p>Other examples:

<ul>
<li><span class='jex'>json_insert('{"a":2,"c":4}', '$.a', 99)</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; '{"a":2,"c":4}'</span></li>

<li><span class='jex'>json_insert('{"a":2,"c":4}', '$.e', 99)</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; '{"a":2,"c":4,"e":99}'</span></li>

<li><span class='jex'>json_replace('{"a":2,"c":4}', '$.a', 99)</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; '{"a":99,"c":4}'</span></li>

<li><span class='jex'>json_replace('{"a":2,"c":4}', '$.e', 99)</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; '{"a":2,"c":4}'</span></li>

<li><span class='jex'>json_set('{"a":2,"c":4}', '$.a', 99)</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; '{"a":99,"c":4}'</span></li>

<li><span class='jex'>json_set('{"a":2,"c":4}', '$.e', 99)</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; '{"a":2,"c":4,"e":99}'</span></li>

<li><span class='jex'>json_set('{"a":2,"c":4}', '$.c', '[97,96]')</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; '{"a":2,"c":"[97,96]"}'</span></li>

<li><span class='jex'>json_set('{"a":2,"c":4}', '$.c', json('[97,96]'))</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; '{"a":2,"c":[97,96]}'</span></li>

<li><span class='jex'>json_set('{"a":2,"c":4}', '$.c', json_array(97,96))</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; '{"a":2,"c":[97,96]}'</span></li>

</ul>


<a name="jinsb"></a>

<a name="jreplb"></a>

<a name="jsetb"></a>

</p><h2 id="the_jsonb_insert_jsonb_replace_and_jsonb_set_functions"><span>4.11. </span>The jsonb_insert(), jsonb_replace, and jsonb_set() functions</h2>

<p>The jsonb_insert(), jsonb_replace(), and jsonb_set() functions work the
same as <a href="json1.html#jins">json_insert()</a>, <a href="json1.html#jrepl">json_replace()</a>, and <a href="json1.html#jset">json_set()</a>, respectively,
except that "<tt>jsonb_</tt>" versions return their result in the binary
JSONB format.

<a name="jobj"></a>

</p><h2 id="the_json_object_function"><span>4.12. </span>The json_object() function</h2>

<p>The json_object() SQL function accepts zero or more pairs of arguments
and returns a well-formed JSON object that is composed from those arguments.
The first argument of each pair is the label and the second argument of
each pair is the value.
If any argument to json_object() is a BLOB then an error is thrown.

</p><p>The json_object() function currently allows duplicate labels without
complaint, though this might change in a future enhancement.

</p><p>An argument with SQL type TEXT it is normally converted into a quoted 
JSON string even if the input text is well-formed JSON.  
However, if the argument is the direct result from another JSON
function or <a href="json1.html#jptr">the -> operator</a> (but not <a href="json1.html#jptr">the ->> operator</a>), 
then it is treated as JSON and all of its JSON type information
and substructure is preserved.  This allows calls to json_object()
and <a href="json1.html#jarray">json_array()</a> to be nested.  The <a href="json1.html#jmini">json()</a> function can also
be used to force strings to be recognized as JSON.

</p><p>Examples:

<ul>
<li><span class='jex'>json_object('a',2,'c',4)</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; '{"a":2,"c":4}'</span></li>

<li><span class='jex'>json_object('a',2,'c','{e:5}')</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; '{"a":2,"c":"{e:5}"}'</span></li>

<li><span class='jex'>json_object('a',2,'c',json_object('e',5))</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; '{"a":2,"c":{"e":5}}'</span></li>

</ul>


<a name="jobjb"></a>

</p><h2 id="the_jsonb_object_function"><span>4.13. </span>The jsonb_object() function</h2>

<p>
The jsonb_object() function works just like the <a href="json1.html#jobj">json_object()</a> function
except that the generated object is returned in the binary JSONB format.

<a name="jpatch"></a>

</p><h2 id="the_json_patch_function"><span>4.14. </span>The json_patch() function</h2>

<p>The json_patch(T,P) SQL function runs the
<a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7396">RFC-7396</a> MergePatch algorithm
to apply patch P against input T.  The patched copy of T is returned.

</p><p>MergePatch can add, modify, or delete elements of a JSON Object,
and so for JSON Objects, the json_patch() routine is a generalized
replacement for <a href="json1.html#jset">json_set()</a> and <a href="json1.html#jrm">json_remove()</a>.  However, MergePatch
treats JSON Array objects as atomic.  MergePatch cannot append to an
Array nor modify individual elements of an Array.  It can only insert,
replace, or delete the whole Array as a single unit.  Hence, json_patch()
is not as useful when dealing with JSON that includes Arrays,
especially Arrays with lots of substructure.

</p><p>Examples:

<ul>
<li><span class='jex'>json_patch('{"a":1,"b":2}','{"c":3,"d":4}')</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; '{"a":1,"b":2,"c":3,"d":4}'</span></li>

<li><span class='jex'>json_patch('{"a":[1,2],"b":2}','{"a":9}')</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; '{"a":9,"b":2}'</span></li>

<li><span class='jex'>json_patch('{"a":[1,2],"b":2}','{"a":null}')</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; '{"b":2}'</span></li>

<li><span class='jex'>json_patch('{"a":1,"b":2}','{"a":9,"b":null,"c":8}')</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; '{"a":9,"c":8}'</span></li>

<li><span class='jex'>json_patch('{"a":{"x":1,"y":2},"b":3}','{"a":{"y":9},"c":8}')</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; '{"a":{"x":1,"y":9},"b":3,"c":8}'</span></li>

</ul>



<a name="jpatchb"></a>

</p><h2 id="the_jsonb_patch_function"><span>4.15. </span>The jsonb_patch() function</h2>

<p>
The jsonb_patch() function works just like the <a href="json1.html#jpatch">json_patch()</a> function
except that the patched JSON is returned in the binary JSONB format.

<a name="jpretty"></a>

</p><h2 id="the_json_pretty_function"><span>4.16. </span>The json_pretty() function</h2>
<p>
The json_pretty() function works like <a href="json1.html#jmini">json()</a> except that it adds
extra whitespace to make the JSON result easier for humans to read.
The first argument is the JSON or JSONB that is to be pretty-printed.
The optional second argument is a text string that is used for indentation.
If the second argument is omitted or is NULL, then indentation is four
spaces per level.
</p><p>
The json_pretty() function was added with SQLite version 3.46.0 
(2024-05-23).

<a name="jrm"></a>

</p><h2 id="the_json_remove_function"><span>4.17. </span>The json_remove() function</h2>

<p>The json_remove(X,P,...) function takes a single JSON value as its
first argument followed by zero or more path arguments.
The json_remove(X,P,...) function returns
a copy of the X parameter with all the elements 
identified by path arguments removed.  Paths that select elements
not found in X are silently ignored.

</p><p>Removals occurs sequentially from left to right.  Changes caused by
prior removals can affect the path search for subsequent arguments.

</p><p>If the json_remove(X) function is called with no path arguments,
then it returns the input X reformatted, with excess whitespace
removed.

</p><p>The json_remove() function throws an error if the first argument
is not well-formed JSON or if any later argument is not a well-formed
path.

</p><p>Examples:

<ul>
<li><span class='jex'>json_remove('[0,1,2,3,4]','$[2]')</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; '[0,1,3,4]'</span></li>

<li><span class='jex'>json_remove('[0,1,2,3,4]','$[2]','$[0]')</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; '[1,3,4]'</span></li>

<li><span class='jex'>json_remove('[0,1,2,3,4]','$[0]','$[2]')</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; '[1,2,4]'</span></li>

<li><span class='jex'>json_remove('[0,1,2,3,4]','$[#-1]','$[0]')</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; '[1,2,3]'</span></li>

<li><span class='jex'>json_remove('{"x":25,"y":42}')</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; '{"x":25,"y":42}'</span></li>

<li><span class='jex'>json_remove('{"x":25,"y":42}','$.z')</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; '{"x":25,"y":42}'</span></li>

<li><span class='jex'>json_remove('{"x":25,"y":42}','$.y')</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; '{"x":25}'</span></li>

<li><span class='jex'>json_remove('{"x":25,"y":42}','$')</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; NULL</span></li>

</ul>


<a name="jrmb"></a>

</p><h2 id="the_jsonb_remove_function"><span>4.18. </span>The jsonb_remove() function</h2>
<p>
The jsonb_remove() function works just like the <a href="json1.html#jrm">json_remove()</a> function
except that the edited JSON result is returned in the binary JSONB format.

<a name="jtype"></a>

</p><h2 id="the_json_type_function"><span>4.19. </span>The json_type() function</h2>

<p>The json_type(X) function returns the "type" of the outermost element
of X.  The json_type(X,P) function returns the "type" of the element
in X that is selected by path P.  The "type" returned by json_type() is
one of the following SQL text values:
'null', 'true', 'false', 'integer', 'real', 'text', 'array', or 'object'.
If the path P in json_type(X,P) selects an element that does not exist
in X, then this function returns NULL.

</p><p>The json_type() function throws an error if its first argument is
not well-formed JSON or JSONB or if its second argument is not a well-formed
JSON path.

</p><p>Examples:

<ul>
<li><span class='jex'>json_type('{"a":[2,3.5,true,false,null,"x"]}')</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; 'object'</span></li>

<li><span class='jex'>json_type('{"a":[2,3.5,true,false,null,"x"]}','$')</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; 'object'</span></li>

<li><span class='jex'>json_type('{"a":[2,3.5,true,false,null,"x"]}','$.a')</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; 'array'</span></li>

<li><span class='jex'>json_type('{"a":[2,3.5,true,false,null,"x"]}','$.a[0]')</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; 'integer'</span></li>

<li><span class='jex'>json_type('{"a":[2,3.5,true,false,null,"x"]}','$.a[1]')</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; 'real'</span></li>

<li><span class='jex'>json_type('{"a":[2,3.5,true,false,null,"x"]}','$.a[2]')</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; 'true'</span></li>

<li><span class='jex'>json_type('{"a":[2,3.5,true,false,null,"x"]}','$.a[3]')</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; 'false'</span></li>

<li><span class='jex'>json_type('{"a":[2,3.5,true,false,null,"x"]}','$.a[4]')</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; 'null'</span></li>

<li><span class='jex'>json_type('{"a":[2,3.5,true,false,null,"x"]}','$.a[5]')</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; 'text'</span></li>

<li><span class='jex'>json_type('{"a":[2,3.5,true,false,null,"x"]}','$.a[6]')</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; NULL</span></li>

</ul>


<a name="jvalid"></a>

</p><h2 id="the_json_valid_function"><span>4.20. </span>The json_valid() function</h2>

<p>The json_valid(X,Y) function return 1 if the argument X is well-formed
JSON, or returns 0 if X is not well-formed.  The Y parameter is an integer
bitmask that defines what is meant by "well-formed".  The following bits
of Y are currently defined:

</p><ul>
<li> <b>0x01</b> &rarr;
The input is text that strictly complies with canonical RFC-8259 JSON,
without any extensions.
</li><li> <b>0x02</b> &rarr;
The input is text that is JSON with <a href="json1.html#json5">JSON5</a> extensions described above.
</li><li> <b>0x04</b> &rarr;
The input is a BLOB that superficially appears to be <a href="json1.html#jsonbx">JSONB</a>.
</li><li> <b>0x08</b> &rarr;
The input is a BLOB that strictly conforms to the internal <a href="json1.html#jsonbx">JSONB</a> format.
</li></ul>

<p>By combining bits, the following useful values of Y can be derived:

</p><ul>
<li> <b>1</b> &rarr; X is RFC-8259 JSON text
</li><li> <b>2</b> &rarr; X is <a href="json1.html#json5">JSON5</a> text
</li><li> <b>4</b> &rarr; X is probably <a href="json1.html#jsonbx">JSONB</a>
</li><li> <b>5</b> &rarr; X is RFC-8259 JSON text or <a href="json1.html#jsonbx">JSONB</a>
</li><li> <b>6</b> &rarr; X is <a href="json1.html#json5">JSON5</a> text or <a href="json1.html#jsonbx">JSONB</a>
     &larr; <i>This is probably the value you want</i>
</li><li> <b>8</b> &rarr; X is strictly conforming <a href="json1.html#jsonbx">JSONB</a>
</li><li> <b>9</b> &rarr; X is RFC-8259 or strictly conforming <a href="json1.html#jsonbx">JSONB</a>
</li><li> <b>10</b> &rarr; X is JSON5 or strictly conforming <a href="json1.html#jsonbx">JSONB</a>
</li></ul>

<p>The Y parameter is optional. If omitted, it defaults to 1, which means
that the default behavior is to return true only if the input X is
strictly conforming RFC-8259 JSON text without any extensions.  This
makes the one-argument version of json_valid() compatible with older
versions of SQLite, prior to the addition of support for
<a href="json1.html#json5">JSON5</a> and <a href="json1.html#jsonbx">JSONB</a>.

</p><p>The difference between 0x04 and 0x08 bits in the Y parameter is that
0x04 only examines the outer wrapper of the BLOB to see if it superficially
looks like <a href="json1.html#jsonbx">JSONB</a>.  This is sufficient for must purposes and is very fast.
The 0x08 bit does a thorough examination of all internal details of the BLOB.
The 0x08 bit takes time that is linear in the size of the X input and is much
slower.  The 0x04 bit is recommended for most purposes.

</p><p>If you just want to know if a value is a plausible input to one of
the other JSON functions, a Y value of 6 is probably what you want to use.

</p><p>Any Y value less than 1 or greater than 15 raises an error, for the
latest version of json_valid().  However, future versions of json_valid()
might be enhanced to accept flag values outside of this range, having new
meanings that we have not yet thought of.

</p><p>If either X or Y inputs to json_valid() are NULL, then the function
returns NULL.

</p><p>Examples:

<ul>
<li><span class='jex'>json_valid('{"x":35}')</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; 1</span></li>

<li><span class='jex'>json_valid('{x:35}')</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; 0</span></li>

<li><span class='jex'>json_valid('{x:35}',6)</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; 1</span></li>

<li><span class='jex'>json_valid('{"x":35')</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; 0</span></li>

<li><span class='jex'>json_valid(NULL)</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; NULL</span></li>

</ul>


<a name="jquote"></a>

</p><h2 id="the_json_quote_function"><span>4.21. </span>The json_quote() function</h2>

<p>The json_quote(X) function converts the SQL value X (a number or a
string) into its corresponding JSON representation.  If X is a JSON value
returned by another JSON function, then this function is a no-op.

</p><p>Examples:

<ul>
<li><span class='jex'>json_quote(3.14159)</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; 3.14159</span></li>

<li><span class='jex'>json_quote('verdant')</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; '"verdant"'</span></li>

<li><span class='jex'>json_quote('[1]')</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; '"[1]"'</span></li>

<li><span class='jex'>json_quote(json('[1]'))</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; '[1]'</span></li>

<li><span class='jex'>json_quote('[1,')</span>
<span class='jans'>&rarr; '"[1,"'</span></li>

</ul>


<a name="jgrouparray"></a>
<a name="jgroupobject"></a>
<a name="jgrouparrayb"></a>
<a name="jgroupobjectb"></a>

</p><h2 id="array_and_object_aggregate_functions"><span>4.22. </span>Array and object aggregate functions</h2>

<p>The json_group_array(X) function is an
<a href="lang_aggfunc.html">aggregate SQL function</a> that returns a JSON array
comprised of all X values in the aggregation.
Similarly, the json_group_object(NAME,VALUE) function returns a JSON object
comprised of all NAME/VALUE pairs in the aggregation.
The "<tt>jsonb_</tt>" variants are the same except that they return their
result in the binary <a href="json1.html#jsonbx">JSONB</a> format.

<a name="jeach"></a>

<a name="jtree"></a>

</p><h2 id="the_json_each_and_json_tree_table_valued_functions"><span>4.23. </span>The json_each() and json_tree() table-valued functions</h2>

<p>The json_each(X) and json_tree(X) <a href="vtab.html#tabfunc2">table-valued functions</a> walk the
JSON value provided as their first argument and return one row for each
element.  The json_each(X) function only walks the immediate children
of the top-level array or object,
or just the top-level element itself if the top-level
element is a primitive value.
The json_tree(X) function recursively walks through the
JSON substructure starting with the top-level element.  

</p><p>The json_each(X,P) and json_tree(X,P) functions work just like
their one-argument counterparts except that they treat the element
identified by path P as the top-level element.

</p><p>The schema for the table returned by json_each() and json_tree() is
as follows:

</p><blockquote><pre>
CREATE TABLE json_tree(
    key ANY,             -- key for current element relative to its parent
    value ANY,           -- value for the current element
    type TEXT,           -- 'object','array','string','integer', etc.
    atom ANY,            -- value for primitive types, null for array & object
    id INTEGER,          -- integer ID for this element
    parent INTEGER,      -- integer ID for the parent of this element
    fullkey TEXT,        -- full path describing the current element
    path TEXT,           -- path to the container of the current row
    json JSON HIDDEN,    -- 1st input parameter: the raw JSON
    root TEXT HIDDEN     -- 2nd input parameter: the PATH at which to start
);
</pre></blockquote>

<p>
The "key" column is the integer array index for elements of a JSON array 
and the text label for elements of a JSON object.  The key column is
NULL in all other cases.

</p><p>
The "atom" column is the SQL value corresponding to primitive elements - 
elements other than JSON arrays and objects.  The "atom" column is NULL
for a JSON array or object.  The "value" column is the same as the
"atom" column for primitive JSON elements but takes on the text JSON value
for arrays and objects.

</p><p>
The "type" column is an SQL text value taken from ('null', 'true', 'false',
'integer', 'real', 'text', 'array', 'object') according to the type of
the current JSON element.

</p><p>
The "id" column is an integer that identifies a specific JSON element
within the complete JSON string.  The "id" integer is an internal housekeeping
number, the computation of which might change in future releases.  The
only guarantee is that the "id" column will be different for every row.

</p><p>
The "parent" column is always NULL for json_each().
For json_tree(),
the "parent" column is the "id" integer for the parent of the current
element, or NULL for the top-level JSON element or the element identified
by the root path in the second argument.

</p><p>
The "fullkey" column is a text path that uniquely identifies the current
row element within the original JSON string.  The complete key to the
true top-level element is returned even if an alternative starting point
is provided by the "root" argument.

</p><p>
The "path" column is the path to the array or object container that holds 
the current row, or the path to the current row in the case where the 
iteration starts on a primitive type and thus only provides a single
row of output.

</p><h3 id="examples_using_json_each_and_json_tree_"><span>4.23.1. </span>Examples using json_each() and json_tree()</h3>

<p>Suppose the table "CREATE TABLE user(name,phone)" stores zero or
more phone numbers as a JSON array object in the user.phone field.
To find all users who have any phone number with a 704 area code:

</p><blockquote><pre>
SELECT DISTINCT user.name
  FROM user, json_each(user.phone)
 WHERE json_each.value LIKE '704-%';
</pre></blockquote>

<p>Now suppose the user.phone field contains plain text if the user
has only a single phone number and a JSON array if the user has multiple
phone numbers.  The same question is posed: "Which users have a phone number
in the 704 area code?"  But now the json_each() function can only be called
for those users that have two or more phone numbers since json_each()
requires well-formed JSON as its first argument:

</p><blockquote><pre>
SELECT name FROM user WHERE phone LIKE '704-%'
UNION
SELECT user.name
  FROM user, json_each(user.phone)
 WHERE json_valid(user.phone)
   AND json_each.value LIKE '704-%';
</pre></blockquote>

<p>Consider a different database with "CREATE TABLE big(json JSON)".
To see a complete line-by-line decomposition of the data:

</p><blockquote><pre>
SELECT big.rowid, fullkey, value
  FROM big, json_tree(big.json)
 WHERE json_tree.type NOT IN ('object','array');
</pre></blockquote>

<p>In the previous, the "type NOT IN ('object','array')" term of the
WHERE clause suppresses containers and only lets through leaf elements.
The same effect could be achieved this way:

</p><blockquote><pre>
SELECT big.rowid, fullkey, atom
  FROM big, json_tree(big.json)
 WHERE atom IS NOT NULL;
</pre></blockquote>

<p>Suppose each entry in the BIG table is a JSON object 
with a '$.id' field that is a unique identifier
and a '$.partlist' field that can be a deeply nested object.
You want to find the id of every entry that contains one
or more references to uuid '6fa5181e-5721-11e5-a04e-57f3d7b32808' anywhere
in its '$.partlist'.

</p><blockquote><pre>
SELECT DISTINCT json_extract(big.json,'$.id')
  FROM big, json_tree(big.json, '$.partlist')
 WHERE json_tree.key='uuid'
   AND json_tree.value='6fa5181e-5721-11e5-a04e-57f3d7b32808';
</pre></blockquote>
<p align="center"><small><i>This page last modified on  <a href="https://sqlite.org/docsrc/honeypot" id="mtimelink"  data-href="https://sqlite.org/docsrc/finfo/pages/json1.in?m=f887124e7e">2024-05-05 15:23:53</a> UTC </small></i></p>

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<h1 align=center>SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1>

<p>SQLite understands most of the standard SQL
language.  But it does <a href="omitted.html">omit some features</a>
while at the same time
adding a few features of its own.  This document attempts to
describe precisely what parts of the SQL language SQLite does
and does not support.  A list of <a href="lang_keywords.html">SQL keywords</a> is
also provided.  The SQL language syntax is described by
<a href="syntaxdiagrams.html">syntax diagrams</a>.

<p>The following syntax documentation topics are available:</p>

<table width="100%" cellpadding="5" border="0">
<tr><td valign="top"><ul>

<div class='columns' style='columns: 17em auto;'>
<ul style='padding-top:0;'>
<li><a href='lang_aggfunc.html'>aggregate functions</a></li>
<li><a href='lang_altertable.html'>ALTER TABLE</a></li>
<li><a href='lang_analyze.html'>ANALYZE</a></li>
<li><a href='lang_attach.html'>ATTACH DATABASE</a></li>
<li><a href='lang_transaction.html'>BEGIN TRANSACTION</a></li>
<li><a href='lang_comment.html'>comment</a></li>
<li><a href='lang_transaction.html'>COMMIT TRANSACTION</a></li>
<li><a href='lang_corefunc.html'>core functions</a></li>
<li><a href='lang_createindex.html'>CREATE INDEX</a></li>
<li><a href='lang_createtable.html'>CREATE TABLE</a></li>
<li><a href='lang_createtrigger.html'>CREATE TRIGGER</a></li>
<li><a href='lang_createview.html'>CREATE VIEW</a></li>
<li><a href='lang_createvtab.html'>CREATE VIRTUAL TABLE</a></li>
<li><a href='lang_datefunc.html'>date and time functions</a></li>
<li><a href='lang_delete.html'>DELETE</a></li>
<li><a href='lang_detach.html'>DETACH DATABASE</a></li>
<li><a href='lang_dropindex.html'>DROP INDEX</a></li>
<li><a href='lang_droptable.html'>DROP TABLE</a></li>
<li><a href='lang_droptrigger.html'>DROP TRIGGER</a></li>
<li><a href='lang_dropview.html'>DROP VIEW</a></li>
<li><a href='lang_transaction.html'>END TRANSACTION</a></li>
<li><a href='lang_explain.html'>EXPLAIN</a></li>
<li><a href='lang_expr.html'>expression</a></li>
<li><a href='lang_indexedby.html'>INDEXED BY</a></li>
<li><a href='lang_insert.html'>INSERT</a></li>
<li><a href='json1.html'>JSON functions</a></li>
<li><a href='lang_keywords.html'>keywords</a></li>
<li><a href='lang_mathfunc.html'>math functions</a></li>
<li><a href='lang_conflict.html'>ON CONFLICT clause</a></li>
<li><a href='pragma.html#syntax'>PRAGMA</a></li>
<li><a href='lang_reindex.html'>REINDEX</a></li>
<li><a href='lang_savepoint.html'>RELEASE SAVEPOINT</a></li>
<li><a href='lang_replace.html'>REPLACE</a></li>
<li><a href='lang_returning.html'>RETURNING clause</a></li>
<li><a href='lang_transaction.html'>ROLLBACK TRANSACTION</a></li>
<li><a href='lang_savepoint.html'>SAVEPOINT</a></li>
<li><a href='lang_select.html'>SELECT</a></li>
<li><a href='lang_update.html'>UPDATE</a></li>
<li><a href='lang_upsert.html'>UPSERT</a></li>
<li><a href='lang_vacuum.html'>VACUUM</a></li>
<li><a href='windowfunctions.html'>window functions</a></li>
<li><a href='lang_with.html'>WITH clause</a></li>
</ul>
</div>

</ul></td></tr></table>

<p>The routines <a href="c3ref/prepare.html">sqlite3_prepare_v2()</a>, <a href="c3ref/prepare.html">sqlite3_prepare()</a>,
<a href="c3ref/prepare.html">sqlite3_prepare16()</a>, <a href="c3ref/prepare.html">sqlite3_prepare16_v2()</a>,
<a href="c3ref/exec.html">sqlite3_exec()</a>, and <a href="c3ref/free_table.html">sqlite3_get_table()</a> accept
an SQL statement list (sql-stmt-list) which is a semicolon-separated
list of statements.</p>

<p><b><a href="syntax/sql-stmt-list.html">sql-stmt-list:</a></b></p><div class='imgcontainer'>
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<p>Each SQL statement in the statement list is an instance of the
following:</p>

<p><b><a href="syntax/sql-stmt.html">sql-stmt:</a></b></p><div class='imgcontainer'>
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<p align="center"><small><i>This page last modified on  <a href="https://sqlite.org/docsrc/honeypot" id="mtimelink"  data-href="https://sqlite.org/docsrc/finfo/pages/lang.in?m=fa8ea6422f">2024-04-01 12:41:31</a> UTC </small></i></p>

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Built-in Aggregate Functions
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<h1 id="syntax"><span>1. </span>Syntax</h1>
<p><b><a href="syntax/aggregate-function-invocation.html">aggregate-function-invocation:</a></b>
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<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
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<p><b><a href="syntax/function-arguments.html">function-arguments:</a></b>
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<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
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<p><b><a href="syntax/over-clause.html">over-clause:</a></b>
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<p><b><a href="syntax/frame-spec.html">frame-spec:</a></b>
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</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
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<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
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<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
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</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
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</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
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<path d="M259,62L380,62L380,32L259,32Z"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
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<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x83fc0d55' onclick='hideorshow("x83fc0d55","xa2ca092e")'>show</button></p>
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<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x74083e06' onclick='hideorshow("x74083e06","x6ae29795")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x6ae29795' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
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</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x0f92d934' onclick='hideorshow("x0f92d934","xb3d76c7b")'>show</button></p>
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<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
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<p><b><a href="syntax/window-defn.html">window-defn:</a></b>
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<p><b><a href="syntax/frame-spec.html">frame-spec:</a></b>
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<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
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<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
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<polygon points="66,17 54,21 54,12" style="fill:rgb(0,0,0)"/>
<path d="M9,17L60,17"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
<path d="M66,17L111,17"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
</svg>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/filter-clause.html">filter-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x4ba4425e' onclick='hideorshow("x4ba4425e","xeb26b09e")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='xeb26b09e' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <div style="max-width:422px"><svg xmlns='http://www.w3.org/2000/svg' class="pikchr" viewBox="0 0 422.381 34.56">
<circle cx="5" cy="17" r="3.6"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
<polygon points="32,17 20,21 20,12" style="fill:rgb(0,0,0)"/>
<path d="M9,17L26,17"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
<path d="M47,32L93,32A15 15 0 0 0 108 17A15 15 0 0 0 93 2L47,2A15 15 0 0 0 32 17A15 15 0 0 0 47 32Z"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
<text x="70" y="17" text-anchor="middle" fill="rgb(0,0,0)" dominant-baseline="central">FILTER</text>
<polygon points="131,17 119,21 119,12" style="fill:rgb(0,0,0)"/>
<path d="M108,17L125,17"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
<path d="M146,32L146,32A15 15 0 0 0 161 17A15 15 0 0 0 146 2L146,2A15 15 0 0 0 131 17A15 15 0 0 0 146 32Z"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
<text x="146" y="17" text-anchor="middle" font-weight="bold" fill="rgb(0,0,0)" dominant-baseline="central">(</text>
<polygon points="184,17 173,21 173,12" style="fill:rgb(0,0,0)"/>
<path d="M161,17L178,17"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
<path d="M199,32L249,32A15 15 0 0 0 264 17A15 15 0 0 0 249 2L199,2A15 15 0 0 0 184 17A15 15 0 0 0 199 32Z"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
<text x="224" y="17" text-anchor="middle" fill="rgb(0,0,0)" dominant-baseline="central">WHERE</text>
<polygon points="287,17 275,21 275,12" style="fill:rgb(0,0,0)"/>
<path d="M264,17L281,17"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
<path d="M287,32L336,32L336,2L287,2Z"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
<text x="312" y="17" text-anchor="middle" fill="rgb(0,0,0)" dominant-baseline="central">expr</text>
<polygon points="359,17 348,21 348,12" style="fill:rgb(0,0,0)"/>
<path d="M336,17L353,17"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
<path d="M374,32A15 15 0 0 0 389 17A15 15 0 0 0 374 2A15 15 0 0 0 359 17A15 15 0 0 0 374 32Z"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
<text x="374" y="17" text-anchor="middle" font-weight="bold" fill="rgb(0,0,0)" dominant-baseline="central">)</text>
<polygon points="413,17 401,21 401,12" style="fill:rgb(0,0,0)"/>
<path d="M389,17L407,17"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
<circle cx="416" cy="17" r="3.6"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
</svg>
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x4815349c' onclick='hideorshow("x4815349c","x86ae0b3a")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x86ae0b3a' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <div style="max-width:798px"><svg xmlns='http://www.w3.org/2000/svg' class="pikchr" viewBox="0 0 798.451 99.576">
<circle cx="5" cy="17" r="3.6"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
<polygon points="32,17 20,21 20,12" style="fill:rgb(0,0,0)"/>
<path d="M9,17L26,17"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
<path d="M32,32L81,32L81,2L32,2Z"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
<text x="56" y="17" text-anchor="middle" fill="rgb(0,0,0)" dominant-baseline="central">expr</text>
<polygon points="111,44 100,48 100,40" style="fill:rgb(0,0,0)"/>
<path d="M81,17 L 89,17 Q 96,17 96,30 Q 96,44 101,44 L 105,44"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
<path d="M126,59L190,59A15 15 0 0 0 205 44L205,44A15 15 0 0 0 190 29L126,29A15 15 0 0 0 111 44L111,44A15 15 0 0 0 126 59Z"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
<text x="158" y="44" text-anchor="middle" fill="rgb(0,0,0)" dominant-baseline="central">COLLATE</text>
<polygon points="228,44 217,48 217,40" style="fill:rgb(0,0,0)"/>
<path d="M205,44L223,44"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
<path d="M244,59L349,59A15 15 0 0 0 364 44L364,44A15 15 0 0 0 349 29L244,29A15 15 0 0 0 228 44L228,44A15 15 0 0 0 244 59Z"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
<text x="296" y="44" text-anchor="middle" fill="rgb(0,0,0)" dominant-baseline="central">collation-name</text>
<polygon points="406,17 394,21 394,12" style="fill:rgb(0,0,0)"/>
<path d="M364,44 L 372,44 Q 379,44 379,30 Q 379,17 389,17 L 400,17"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
<polygon points="243,17 232,21 232,12" style="fill:rgb(0,0,0)"/>
<path d="M81,17L238,17"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
<path d="M243,17L394,17"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
<polygon points="447,82 436,86 436,77" style="fill:rgb(0,0,0)"/>
<path d="M406,17 L 413,17 Q 421,17 421,32 L 421,67 Q 421,82 431,82 L 441,82"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
<path d="M462,97L492,97A15 15 0 0 0 508 82A15 15 0 0 0 492 67L462,67A15 15 0 0 0 447 82A15 15 0 0 0 462 97Z"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
<text x="477" y="82" text-anchor="middle" fill="rgb(0,0,0)" dominant-baseline="central">DESC</text>
<polygon points="549,17 538,21 538,12" style="fill:rgb(0,0,0)"/>
<path d="M508,82 L 515,82 Q 523,82 523,67 L 523,32 Q 523,17 533,17 L 543,17"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
<path d="M462,59L479,59A15 15 0 0 0 494 44L494,44A15 15 0 0 0 479 29L462,29A15 15 0 0 0 447 44L447,44A15 15 0 0 0 462 59Z"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
<text x="471" y="44" text-anchor="middle" fill="rgb(0,0,0)" dominant-baseline="central">ASC</text>
<polygon points="447,44 436,48 436,40" style="fill:rgb(0,0,0)"/>
<path d="M421,29 L 421,36 Q 421,44 431,44 L 441,44"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
<path d="M494,44 L 508,44 Q 523,44 523,36 L 523,29"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
<polygon points="477,17 466,21 466,12" style="fill:rgb(0,0,0)"/>
<path d="M406,17L472,17"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
<path d="M477,17L538,17"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
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<path d="M549,17 L 557,17 Q 564,17 564,30 Q 564,44 574,44 L 585,44"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
<path d="M606,59L648,59A15 15 0 0 0 663 44L663,44A15 15 0 0 0 648 29L606,29A15 15 0 0 0 591 44L591,44A15 15 0 0 0 606 59Z"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
<text x="627" y="44" text-anchor="middle" fill="rgb(0,0,0)" dominant-baseline="central">NULLS</text>
<polygon points="686,44 674,48 674,40" style="fill:rgb(0,0,0)"/>
<path d="M663,44L680,44"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
<path d="M701,59L735,59A15 15 0 0 0 750 44L750,44A15 15 0 0 0 735 29L701,29A15 15 0 0 0 686 44L686,44A15 15 0 0 0 701 59Z"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
<text x="718" y="44" text-anchor="middle" fill="rgb(0,0,0)" dominant-baseline="central">FIRST</text>
<polygon points="791,17 780,21 780,12" style="fill:rgb(0,0,0)"/>
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<path d="M606,97L648,97A15 15 0 0 0 663 82A15 15 0 0 0 648 67L606,67A15 15 0 0 0 591 82A15 15 0 0 0 606 97Z"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
<text x="627" y="82" text-anchor="middle" fill="rgb(0,0,0)" dominant-baseline="central">NULLS</text>
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<path d="M701,97L727,97A15 15 0 0 0 742 82A15 15 0 0 0 727 67L701,67A15 15 0 0 0 686 82A15 15 0 0 0 701 97Z"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
<text x="714" y="82" text-anchor="middle" fill="rgb(0,0,0)" dominant-baseline="central">LAST</text>
<polygon points="591,82 579,86 579,77" style="fill:rgb(0,0,0)"/>
<path d="M564,29 L 564,67 Q 564,82 574,82 L 585,82"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
<path d="M742,82 L 754,82 Q 765,82 765,67 L 765,44 L 765,29"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
<polygon points="670,17 659,21 659,12" style="fill:rgb(0,0,0)"/>
<path d="M549,17L665,17"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
<path d="M670,17L780,17"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
</svg>
</div>
</div>
</div>


<p>
The aggregate functions shown below are available by default. 
There are two more aggregates grouped with the <a href="json1.html">JSON SQL functions</a>.
Applications can define custom aggregate functions using the
<a href="c3ref/create_function.html">sqlite3_create_function()</a> interface.
API.</p>

<p>
In any aggregate function that takes a single argument, that argument
can be preceded by the keyword DISTINCT.  In such cases, duplicate
elements are filtered before being passed into the aggregate function.
For example, the function "count(distinct X)" will return the number
of distinct values of column X instead of the total number of non-null
values in column X.
</p>

<a name="aggfilter"></a>

<p>
If a FILTER clause is provided, then only rows for which the <i>expr</i> is
true are included in the aggregate.
</p>

<a name="aggorderby"></a>

<p>
If an ORDER BY clause is provided, that clause determines the order in which
the inputs to the aggregate are processed.  For aggregate functions like max()
and count(), the input order does not matter.  But for things like
<a href="lang_aggfunc.html#group_concat">string_agg()</a> and <a href="json1.html#jgroupobject">json_group_object()</a>, the ORDER BY clause will make a
difference in the result.  If no ORDER BY clause is specified, the inputs to the
aggregate occur in an arbitrary order that might change from one invocation
to the next.
</p>

<p>
See also: <a href="lang_corefunc.html">scalar functions</a> and <a href="windowfunctions.html">window functions</a>.

<a name="aggfunclist"></a>

</p><h1 id="list_of_built_in_aggregate_functions"><span>2. </span>List of built-in aggregate functions</h1>

<div class='columns' style='columns: 11em auto;'>
<ul style='padding-top:0;'>
<li><a href='lang_aggfunc.html#avg'>avg(X)</a></li>
<li><a href='lang_aggfunc.html#count'>count(*)</a></li>
<li><a href='lang_aggfunc.html#count'>count(X)</a></li>
<li><a href='lang_aggfunc.html#group_concat'>group_concat(X)</a></li>
<li><a href='lang_aggfunc.html#group_concat'>group_concat(X,Y)</a></li>
<li><a href='lang_aggfunc.html#max_agg'>max(X)</a></li>
<li><a href='lang_aggfunc.html#min_agg'>min(X)</a></li>
<li><a href='lang_aggfunc.html#group_concat'>string_agg(X,Y)</a></li>
<li><a href='lang_aggfunc.html#sumunc'>sum(X)</a></li>
<li><a href='lang_aggfunc.html#sumunc'>total(X)</a></li>
</ul>
</div>


<h1 id="descriptions_of_built_in_aggregate_functions"><span>3. </span>Descriptions of built-in aggregate functions</h1>
<dl>

<a name="avg"></a>
<dt><p><b>avg(<i>X</i>)</b></dt><dd><p>
  The avg() function
  returns the average value of all non-NULL <i>X</i> within a
  group.  String and BLOB values that do not look like numbers are
  interpreted as 0.
  The result of avg() is always a floating point value whenever
  there is at least one non-NULL input even if all
  inputs are integers.  The result of avg() is NULL if
  there are no non-NULL inputs.  The result of avg() is computed
  as <a href="lang_aggfunc.html#sumunc">total()</a>/<a href="lang_aggfunc.html#count">count()</a> so all of the constraints that apply to
  <a href="lang_aggfunc.html#sumunc">total()</a> also apply to avg().
</dd>
<a name="count"></a>
<dt><p><b>count(<i>X</i>)<br />count(*)</b></dt><dd><p>
  The count(X) function returns
  a count of the number of times
  that <i>X</i> is not NULL in a group.  The count(*) function
  (with no arguments) returns the total number of rows in the group.
</dd>
<a name="group_concat"></a>
<dt><p><b>group_concat(<i>X</i>)<br />group_concat(<i>X</i>,<i>Y</i>)<br />string_agg(<i>X</i>,<i>Y</i>)</b></dt><dd><p>
  The group_concat() function returns
  a string which is the concatenation of
  all non-NULL values of <i>X</i>.  If parameter <i>Y</i> is present then
  it is used as the separator
  between instances of <i>X</i>.A comma (",") is used as the separator
  if <i>Y</i> is omitted.
  <p>
  The string_agg(X,Y) function is an alias
  for group_concat(X,Y).  String_agg() is compatible with PostgreSQL
  and SQL-Server and group_concat() is compatible with MySQL.
  <p>
  The order of the concatenated elements is arbitrary unless an
  ORDER BY argument is included immediately after the last parameter.
</dd>
<a name="max_agg"></a>
<dt><p><b>max(<i>X</i>)</b></dt><dd><p>
  The max() aggregate function
  returns the maximum value of all values in the group.
  The maximum value is the value that would be returned last in an
  ORDER BY on the same column.  Aggregate max() returns NULL 
  if and only if there are no non-NULL values in the group.
</dd>
<a name="min_agg"></a>
<dt><p><b>min(<i>X</i>)</b></dt><dd><p>
  The min() aggregate function
  returns the minimum non-NULL value of all values in the group.
  The minimum value is the first non-NULL value that would appear
  in an ORDER BY of the column.
  Aggregate min() returns NULL if and only if there are no non-NULL
  values in the group.
</dd>
<a name="sumunc"></a>
<dt><p><b>sum(<i>X</i>)<br />total(<i>X</i>)</b></dt><dd><p>
  The sum() and total() aggregate functions
  return the sum of all non-NULL values in the group.
  If there are no non-NULL input rows then sum() returns
  NULL but total() returns 0.0.
  NULL is not normally a helpful result for the sum of no rows
  but the SQL standard requires it and most other
  SQL database engines implement sum() that way so SQLite does it in the
  same way in order to be compatible.   The non-standard total() function
  is provided as a convenient way to work around this design problem
  in the SQL language.</p>

  <p>The result of total() is always a floating point value.
  The result of sum() is an integer value if all non-NULL inputs are integers.
  If any input to sum() is neither an integer nor a NULL,
  then sum() returns a floating point value
  which is an approximation of the mathematical sum.</p>

  <p>Sum() will throw an "integer overflow" exception if all inputs
  are integers or NULL
  and an integer overflow occurs at any point during the computation.
  No overflow error is ever raised if any prior input was a floating point
  value.
  Total() never throws an integer overflow.

  <p>When summing floating-point values, if the magnitudes of the values
  differ wildly then the resulting sum might be imprecise due to the fact that
  <a href="floatingpoint.html#fpapprox">IEEE 754 floating point values are approximations</a>.
  Use the decimal_sum(X) aggregate in the <a href="floatingpoint.html#decext">decimal extension</a> to obtain
  an exact summation of floating point numbers.  Consider this test case:

<p><blockquote><pre>
CREATE TABLE t1(x REAL);
INSERT INTO t1 VALUES(1.55e+308),(1.23),(3.2e-16),(-1.23),(-1.55e308);
SELECT sum(x), decimal_sum(x) FROM t1;
</pre></blockquote></p>

  <p>The large values &plusmn;1.55e+308 cancel each other out, but the
  cancellation does not occur until the end of the sum and in the meantime
  the large +1.55e+308 swamps the tiny 3.2e-16 value.  The end result is
  an imprecise result for the sum().  The decimal_sum() aggregate
  generates an exact answer, at the cost of additional CPU and memory usage.
  Note also that decimal_sum() is not built into the SQLite core; it is a
  <a href="loadext.html">loadable extension</a>.

  <p>If sum of inputs is too large to represent as a IEEE 754 floating
  point value, then a +Infinity or -Infinity result may be returned.
  If very large values with differing signs are used
  such that the SUM() or TOTAL() function is
  unable to determine if the correct result is +Infinity or -Infinity
  or some other value in between, then the result is NULL.  Hence, for
  example, the following query returns NULL:

<p><blockquote><pre>
WITH t1(x) AS (VALUES(1.0),(-9e+999),(2.0),(+9e+999),(3.0))
 SELECT sum(x) FROM t1;
</pre></blockquote></p>
</dd>

</dl>
<p align="center"><small><i>This page last modified on  <a href="https://sqlite.org/docsrc/honeypot" id="mtimelink"  data-href="https://sqlite.org/docsrc/finfo/pages/lang_aggfunc.in?m=d872d05e39">2023-12-05 14:43:20</a> UTC </small></i></p>

Added 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ALTER TABLE
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<h1 id="overview"><span>1. </span>Overview</h1>

<p><b><a href="syntax/alter-table-stmt.html">alter-table-stmt:</a></b>
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<p><b><a href="syntax/column-def.html">column-def:</a></b>
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<p><b><a href="syntax/column-constraint.html">column-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x4d609a22' onclick='hideorshow("x4d609a22","x3577858c")'>show</button></p>
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<p><b><a href="syntax/conflict-clause.html">conflict-clause:</a></b>
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<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
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<path d="M45,1066L173,1066L173,1036L45,1036Z"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
<text x="109" y="1051" text-anchor="middle" fill="rgb(0,0,0)" dominant-baseline="central">raise-function</text>
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<path d="M916,1051 L 924,1051 Q 931,1051 931,1036 L 931,32 Q 931,17 939,17 L 946,17"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
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</svg>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/filter-clause.html">filter-clause:</a></b>
<button id='xa242d1cf' onclick='hideorshow("xa242d1cf","xf01db535")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='xf01db535' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <div style="max-width:422px"><svg xmlns='http://www.w3.org/2000/svg' class="pikchr" viewBox="0 0 422.381 34.56">
<circle cx="5" cy="17" r="3.6"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
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<path d="M9,17L26,17"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
<path d="M47,32L93,32A15 15 0 0 0 108 17A15 15 0 0 0 93 2L47,2A15 15 0 0 0 32 17A15 15 0 0 0 47 32Z"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
<text x="70" y="17" text-anchor="middle" fill="rgb(0,0,0)" dominant-baseline="central">FILTER</text>
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<path d="M108,17L125,17"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
<path d="M146,32L146,32A15 15 0 0 0 161 17A15 15 0 0 0 146 2L146,2A15 15 0 0 0 131 17A15 15 0 0 0 146 32Z"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
<text x="146" y="17" text-anchor="middle" font-weight="bold" fill="rgb(0,0,0)" dominant-baseline="central">(</text>
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<path d="M199,32L249,32A15 15 0 0 0 264 17A15 15 0 0 0 249 2L199,2A15 15 0 0 0 184 17A15 15 0 0 0 199 32Z"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
<text x="224" y="17" text-anchor="middle" fill="rgb(0,0,0)" dominant-baseline="central">WHERE</text>
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<path d="M264,17L281,17"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
<path d="M287,32L336,32L336,2L287,2Z"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
<text x="312" y="17" text-anchor="middle" fill="rgb(0,0,0)" dominant-baseline="central">expr</text>
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<path d="M336,17L353,17"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
<path d="M374,32A15 15 0 0 0 389 17A15 15 0 0 0 374 2A15 15 0 0 0 359 17A15 15 0 0 0 374 32Z"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
<text x="374" y="17" text-anchor="middle" font-weight="bold" fill="rgb(0,0,0)" dominant-baseline="central">)</text>
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<circle cx="416" cy="17" r="3.6"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
</svg>
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/function-arguments.html">function-arguments:</a></b>
<button id='x200b6f54' onclick='hideorshow("x200b6f54","xd943c26e")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='xd943c26e' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <div style="max-width:456px"><svg xmlns='http://www.w3.org/2000/svg' class="pikchr" viewBox="0 0 456.566 223.344">
<circle cx="5" cy="56" r="3.6"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
<polygon points="32,56 20,60 20,52" style="fill:rgb(0,0,0)"/>
<path d="M9,56L26,56"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
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<path d="M32,56 L 38,56 Q 43,56 43,41 L 43,41 Q 43,26 52,26 L 61,26"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
<path d="M82,41L150,41A15 15 0 0 0 165 26L165,26A15 15 0 0 0 150 11L82,11A15 15 0 0 0 66 26L66,26A15 15 0 0 0 82 41Z"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
<text x="116" y="26" text-anchor="middle" fill="rgb(0,0,0)" dominant-baseline="central">DISTINCT</text>
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<text x="228" y="192" text-anchor="middle" font-weight="bold" fill="rgb(0,0,0)" dominant-baseline="central">*</text>
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<path d="M105,132L149,132A15 15 0 0 0 164 117L164,117A15 15 0 0 0 149 101L105,101A15 15 0 0 0 90 117L90,117A15 15 0 0 0 105 132Z"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
<text x="127" y="117" text-anchor="middle" fill="rgb(0,0,0)" dominant-baseline="central">ORDER</text>
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<path d="M245,132L375,132L375,101L245,101Z"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
<text x="310" y="117" text-anchor="middle" fill="rgb(0,0,0)" dominant-baseline="central">ordering-term</text>
<path d="M310,169A15 15 0 0 0 325 154A15 15 0 0 0 310 139A15 15 0 0 0 294 154A15 15 0 0 0 310 169Z"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
<text x="310" y="154" text-anchor="middle" font-weight="bold" fill="rgb(0,0,0)" dominant-baseline="central">,</text>
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</svg>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x9988546b' onclick='hideorshow("x9988546b","xbe7a6dc2")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='xbe7a6dc2' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <div style="max-width:798px"><svg xmlns='http://www.w3.org/2000/svg' class="pikchr" viewBox="0 0 798.451 99.576">
<circle cx="5" cy="17" r="3.6"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
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<path d="M9,17L26,17"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
<path d="M32,32L81,32L81,2L32,2Z"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
<text x="56" y="17" text-anchor="middle" fill="rgb(0,0,0)" dominant-baseline="central">expr</text>
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<path d="M126,59L190,59A15 15 0 0 0 205 44L205,44A15 15 0 0 0 190 29L126,29A15 15 0 0 0 111 44L111,44A15 15 0 0 0 126 59Z"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
<text x="158" y="44" text-anchor="middle" fill="rgb(0,0,0)" dominant-baseline="central">COLLATE</text>
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<text x="296" y="44" text-anchor="middle" fill="rgb(0,0,0)" dominant-baseline="central">collation-name</text>
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<path d="M243,17L394,17"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
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<path d="M462,97L492,97A15 15 0 0 0 508 82A15 15 0 0 0 492 67L462,67A15 15 0 0 0 447 82A15 15 0 0 0 462 97Z"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
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<path d="M701,59L735,59A15 15 0 0 0 750 44L750,44A15 15 0 0 0 735 29L701,29A15 15 0 0 0 686 44L686,44A15 15 0 0 0 701 59Z"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
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<path d="M742,82 L 754,82 Q 765,82 765,67 L 765,44 L 765,29"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
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<path d="M670,17L780,17"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
</svg>
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</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/over-clause.html">over-clause:</a></b>
<button id='xae2d7050' onclick='hideorshow("xae2d7050","x3f8a56df")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x3f8a56df' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <div style="max-width:600px"><svg xmlns='http://www.w3.org/2000/svg' class="pikchr" viewBox="0 0 600.706 418.392">
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<text x="62" y="17" text-anchor="middle" fill="rgb(0,0,0)" dominant-baseline="central">OVER</text>
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<p><b><a href="syntax/frame-spec.html">frame-spec:</a></b>
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<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
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</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
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<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
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<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
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</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x51a27004' onclick='hideorshow("x51a27004","xaa710ce9")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='xaa710ce9' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
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</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x002fa5ea' onclick='hideorshow("x002fa5ea","x22b50d0d")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x22b50d0d' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
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<path d="M32,32L193,32L193,2L32,2Z"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
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<path d="M587,62L721,62L721,32L587,32Z"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
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</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1d7cfc63' onclick='hideorshow("x1d7cfc63","xee87f645")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='xee87f645' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
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</svg>
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x9b7f43ba' onclick='hideorshow("x9b7f43ba","xdedfadcc")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='xdedfadcc' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <div style="max-width:620px"><svg xmlns='http://www.w3.org/2000/svg' class="pikchr" viewBox="0 0 620.333 255.312">
<circle cx="5" cy="17" r="3.6"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
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<path d="M9,17 L 16,17 Q 24,17 24,32 L 24,56 Q 24,71 34,71 L 45,71"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
<path d="M66,86L133,86A15 15 0 0 0 148 71A15 15 0 0 0 133 56L66,56A15 15 0 0 0 50 71A15 15 0 0 0 66 86Z"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
<text x="99" y="71" text-anchor="middle" fill="rgb(0,0,0)" dominant-baseline="central">NATURAL</text>
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<text x="259" y="71" text-anchor="middle" fill="rgb(0,0,0)" dominant-baseline="central">LEFT</text>
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<circle cx="614" cy="17" r="3.6"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
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<text x="310" y="17" text-anchor="middle" font-weight="bold" fill="rgb(0,0,0)" dominant-baseline="central">,</text>
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<text x="267" y="192" text-anchor="middle" fill="rgb(0,0,0)" dominant-baseline="central">INNER</text>
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<path d="M9,17 L 16,17 Q 24,17 24,32 L 24,223 Q 24,238 39,238 L 210,238 L 225,238"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
<path d="M246,253L287,253A15 15 0 0 0 303 238A15 15 0 0 0 287 222L246,222A15 15 0 0 0 231 238A15 15 0 0 0 246 253Z"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
<text x="267" y="238" text-anchor="middle" fill="rgb(0,0,0)" dominant-baseline="central">CROSS</text>
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<path d="M303,238L469,238"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
<path d="M475,238 L 482,238 Q 490,238 490,223 L 490,71 L 490,56"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
</svg>
</div>
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='xac712b32' onclick='hideorshow("xac712b32","x48947f3f")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x48947f3f' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <div style="max-width:798px"><svg xmlns='http://www.w3.org/2000/svg' class="pikchr" viewBox="0 0 798.451 99.576">
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<path d="M9,17L26,17"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
<path d="M32,32L81,32L81,2L32,2Z"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
<text x="56" y="17" text-anchor="middle" fill="rgb(0,0,0)" dominant-baseline="central">expr</text>
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<path d="M126,59L190,59A15 15 0 0 0 205 44L205,44A15 15 0 0 0 190 29L126,29A15 15 0 0 0 111 44L111,44A15 15 0 0 0 126 59Z"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
<text x="158" y="44" text-anchor="middle" fill="rgb(0,0,0)" dominant-baseline="central">COLLATE</text>
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<path d="M244,59L349,59A15 15 0 0 0 364 44L364,44A15 15 0 0 0 349 29L244,29A15 15 0 0 0 228 44L228,44A15 15 0 0 0 244 59Z"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
<text x="296" y="44" text-anchor="middle" fill="rgb(0,0,0)" dominant-baseline="central">collation-name</text>
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<path d="M81,17L238,17"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
<path d="M243,17L394,17"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
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<path d="M462,97L492,97A15 15 0 0 0 508 82A15 15 0 0 0 492 67L462,67A15 15 0 0 0 447 82A15 15 0 0 0 462 97Z"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
<text x="477" y="82" text-anchor="middle" fill="rgb(0,0,0)" dominant-baseline="central">DESC</text>
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<path d="M462,59L479,59A15 15 0 0 0 494 44L494,44A15 15 0 0 0 479 29L462,29A15 15 0 0 0 447 44L447,44A15 15 0 0 0 462 59Z"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
<text x="471" y="44" text-anchor="middle" fill="rgb(0,0,0)" dominant-baseline="central">ASC</text>
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<path d="M494,44 L 508,44 Q 523,44 523,36 L 523,29"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
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<path d="M477,17L538,17"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
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<path d="M606,59L648,59A15 15 0 0 0 663 44L663,44A15 15 0 0 0 648 29L606,29A15 15 0 0 0 591 44L591,44A15 15 0 0 0 606 59Z"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
<text x="627" y="44" text-anchor="middle" fill="rgb(0,0,0)" dominant-baseline="central">NULLS</text>
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<path d="M701,59L735,59A15 15 0 0 0 750 44L750,44A15 15 0 0 0 735 29L701,29A15 15 0 0 0 686 44L686,44A15 15 0 0 0 701 59Z"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
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<path d="M606,97L648,97A15 15 0 0 0 663 82A15 15 0 0 0 648 67L606,67A15 15 0 0 0 591 82A15 15 0 0 0 606 97Z"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
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<path d="M701,97L727,97A15 15 0 0 0 742 82A15 15 0 0 0 727 67L701,67A15 15 0 0 0 686 82A15 15 0 0 0 701 97Z"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
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<path d="M742,82 L 754,82 Q 765,82 765,67 L 765,44 L 765,29"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
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<path d="M670,17L780,17"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
</svg>
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='xefa2d93b' onclick='hideorshow("xefa2d93b","x4dafeebc")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x4dafeebc' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <div style="max-width:398px"><svg xmlns='http://www.w3.org/2000/svg' class="pikchr" viewBox="0 0 398.054 163.08">
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<path d="M9,17L39,17"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
<path d="M45,32L94,32L94,2L45,2Z"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
<text x="69" y="17" text-anchor="middle" fill="rgb(0,0,0)" dominant-baseline="central">expr</text>
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<path d="M151,70L155,70A15 15 0 0 0 170 55L170,55A15 15 0 0 0 155 39L151,39A15 15 0 0 0 136 55L136,55A15 15 0 0 0 151 70Z"  style="fill:none;stroke-width:2.16;stroke:rgb(0,0,0);" />
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<text x="265" y="55" text-anchor="middle" fill="rgb(0,0,0)" dominant-baseline="central">column-alias</text>
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<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
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<p><b><a href="syntax/window-defn.html">window-defn:</a></b>
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<p><b><a href="syntax/foreign-key-clause.html">foreign-key-clause:</a></b>
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<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
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<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
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<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
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</svg>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x99cc5adf' onclick='hideorshow("x99cc5adf","xaf63a11d")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='xaf63a11d' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
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</div>


<p>SQLite supports a limited subset of ALTER TABLE.
The ALTER TABLE command in SQLite allows
these alterations of an existing table:
it can be renamed;
a column can be renamed;
a column can be added to it;
or
a column can be dropped from it.

<a name="altertabrename"></a>

</p><h1 id="alter_table_rename"><span>2. </span>ALTER TABLE RENAME</h1>

<p> The RENAME TO syntax changes the name of <span class='yyterm'>table-name</span>
to <span class='yyterm'>new-table-name</span>.
This command 
cannot be used to move a table between attached databases, only to rename 
a table within the same database.
If the table being renamed has triggers or indices, then these remain
attached to the table after it has been renamed.

</p><blockquote style="background-color: #ffd0d0;">
<b>Compatibility Note:</b>
The behavior of ALTER TABLE when renaming a table was enhanced
in versions 3.25.0 (2018-09-15) and 3.26.0 (2018-12-01)
in order to carry the rename operation forward into triggers and
views that reference the renamed table.  This is considered an
improvement. Applications that depend on the older (and
arguably buggy) behavior can use the
<a href="pragma.html#pragma_legacy_alter_table">PRAGMA legacy_alter_table=ON</a> statement or the
<a href="c3ref/c_dbconfig_defensive.html#sqlitedbconfiglegacyaltertable">SQLITE_DBCONFIG_LEGACY_ALTER_TABLE</a> configuration parameter
on <a href="c3ref/db_config.html">sqlite3_db_config()</a> interface to make ALTER TABLE RENAME
behave as it did prior to version 3.25.0.
</blockquote>

<p>
Beginning with release 3.25.0 (2018-09-15), references to the table
within trigger bodies and view definitions are also renamed.
</p>

<p> Prior to version 3.26.0 (2018-12-01), FOREIGN KEY references
to a table that is renamed were only edited if the
<a href="pragma.html#pragma_foreign_keys">PRAGMA foreign_keys=ON</a>, or in other words if
<a href="foreignkeys.html">foreign key constraints</a> were being enforced.  With
<a href="pragma.html#pragma_foreign_keys">PRAGMA foreign_keys=OFF</a>, FOREIGN KEY constraints would not be changed
when the table that the foreign key referred to (the "<a href="foreignkeys.html#parentchild">parent table</a>")
was renamed.  Beginning with version 3.26.0, FOREIGN KEY constraints
are always converted when a table is renamed, unless the
<a href="pragma.html#pragma_legacy_alter_table">PRAGMA legacy_alter_table=ON</a> setting is engaged.  The following
table summarizes the difference:</p>

<blockquote>
<table border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="0">
<tr>
<th>PRAGMA foreign_keys
</th><th>PRAGMA legacy_alter_table
</th><th><a href="foreignkeys.html#parentchild">Parent Table</a>
references are updated
</th><th>SQLite version
</th></tr><tr><td align="center">Off</td><td align="center">Off</td><td align="center">No</td><td align="center">&lt; 3.26.0
</td></tr><tr><td align="center">Off</td><td align="center">Off</td><td align="center">Yes</td><td align="center">&gt;= 3.26.0
</td></tr><tr><td align="center">On</td><td align="center">Off</td><td align="center">Yes</td><td align="center">all
</td></tr><tr><td align="center">Off</td><td align="center">On</td><td align="center">No</td><td align="center">all
</td></tr><tr><td align="center">On</td><td align="center">On</td><td align="center">Yes</td><td align="center">all
</td></tr></table>
</blockquote>

<a name="altertabmvcol"></a>

<h1 id="alter_table_rename_column"><span>3. </span>ALTER TABLE RENAME COLUMN</h1>

<p> The RENAME COLUMN TO syntax changes the
<span class='yyterm'>column-name</span> of table <span class='yyterm'>table-name</span>
into <span class='yyterm'>new-column-name</span>.  The column name is changed both
within the table definition itself and also within all indexes, triggers,
and views that reference the column.  If the column name change would
result in a semantic ambiguity in a trigger or view, then the RENAME
COLUMN fails with an error and no changes are applied.

<a name="altertabaddcol"></a>

</p><h1 id="alter_table_add_column"><span>4. </span>ALTER TABLE ADD COLUMN</h1>

<p> The ADD COLUMN syntax
is used to add a new column to an existing table.
The new column is always appended to the end of the list of existing columns.
The <a href="syntax/column-def.html">column-def</a> rule defines the characteristics of the new column.
The new column may take any of the forms permissible in a <a href="lang_createtable.html">CREATE TABLE</a>
statement, with the following restrictions:
</p><ul>
<li>The column may not have a PRIMARY KEY or UNIQUE constraint.</li>
<li>The column may not have a default value of CURRENT_TIME, CURRENT_DATE, 
    CURRENT_TIMESTAMP, or an expression in parentheses.</li>
<li>If a NOT NULL constraint is specified, then the column must have a
    default value other than NULL.
</li><li>If <a href="foreignkeys.html">foreign key constraints</a> are <a href="pragma.html#pragma_foreign_keys">enabled</a> and
    a column with a <a href="syntax/foreign-key-clause.html">REFERENCES clause</a>
    is added, the column must have a default value of NULL.
</li><li>The column may not be <a href="gencol.html">GENERATED ALWAYS ... STORED</a>,
though VIRTUAL columns are allowed.
</li></ul>

<p>When adding a column with a <a href="lang_createtable.html#ckconst">CHECK constraint</a>, or a NOT NULL constraint
on a <a href="gencol.html">generated column</a>, the added constraints are tested against all 
preexisting rows in the table and the ADD COLUMN fails
if any constraint fails.  The testing of added constraints
against preexisting rows is a new enhancement as of SQLite version
3.37.0 (2021-11-27).</p>

<p>The ALTER TABLE command works by modifying the SQL text of the schema
stored in the <a href="schematab.html">sqlite_schema table</a>.
No changes are made to table content for renames or column addition without
constraints.
Because of this,
the execution time of such ALTER TABLE commands is independent of
the amount of data in the table and such commands will 
run as quickly on a table with 10 million rows as on a table with 1 row.
When adding new columns that have CHECK constraints, or adding generated
columns with NOT NULL constraints, or when deleting columns, then all
existing data in the table must be either read (to test new constraints
against existing rows) or written (to remove deleted columns).  In those
cases, the ALTER TABLE command takes time that is proportional to the
amount of content in the table being altered.
</p>

<p>After ADD COLUMN has been run on a database, that database will not
be readable by SQLite version 3.1.3 (2005-02-20) and earlier.</p>

<a name="altertabdropcol"></a>

<h1 id="alter_table_drop_column"><span>5. </span>ALTER TABLE DROP COLUMN</h1>

<p> The DROP COLUMN syntax
is used to remove an existing column from a table.
The DROP COLUMN command removes the named column from the table,
and rewrites its content to purge the data associated
with that column.
The DROP COLUMN command only works if the column is not referenced
by any other parts of the schema and is not a PRIMARY KEY and
does not have a UNIQUE constraint.
Possible reasons why the DROP COLUMN command can fail include:
</p><ul>
<li>The column is a PRIMARY KEY or part of one.
</li><li>The column has a UNIQUE constraint.
</li><li>The column is indexed.
</li><li>The column is named in the WHERE clause of a <a href="partialindex.html">partial index</a>.
</li><li>The column is named in a table or column <a href="lang_createtable.html#ckconst">CHECK constraint</a>
not associated with the column being dropped.
</li><li>The column is used in a <a href="foreignkeys.html">foreign key constraint</a>.
</li><li>The column is used in the expression of a <a href="gencol.html">generated column</a>.
</li><li>The column appears in a trigger or view.
</li></ul>

<h2 id="how_it_works"><span>5.1. </span>How It Works</h2>

<p>SQLite stores the schema as plain text in the <a href="schematab.html">sqlite_schema table</a>.
The DROP COLUMN command (and all of the other variations of ALTER TABLE
as well) modify that text and then attempt to reparse the entire schema.
The command is only successful if the schema is still valid after the
text has been modified.  In the case of the DROP COLUMN command, the
only text modified is that the column definition is removed from the
CREATE TABLE statement.  The DROP COLUMN command will fail if there
are any traces of the column in other parts of the schema that will
prevent the schema from parsing after the CREATE TABLE statement has
been modified.

</p><h1 id="disable_error_checking_using_pragma_writable_schema_on"><span>6. </span>Disable Error Checking Using PRAGMA writable_schema=ON</h1>

<p>ALTER TABLE will normally fail and make no changes if it encounters
any entries in the <a href="schematab.html">sqlite_schema table</a> that do not parse.  For
example, if there is a malformed VIEW or TRIGGER associated with
table named "tbl1", then an attempt to rename "tbl1" to "tbl1neo" will
fail because the associated views and triggers could not be parsed.

</p><p>Beginning with SQLite 3.38.0 (2022-02-22), this error checking
can be disabled by setting "<a href="pragma.html#pragma_writable_schema">PRAGMA writable_schema=ON;</a>".  When
the schema is writable, ALTER TABLE silently ignores any rows of the
sqlite_schema table that do not parse.

<a name="otheralter"></a>

</p><h1 id="making_other_kinds_of_table_schema_changes"><span>7. </span>Making Other Kinds Of Table Schema Changes</h1>

<p> The only schema altering commands directly supported by SQLite are the
"<a href="lang_altertable.html#altertabrename">rename table</a>", "<a href="lang_altertable.html#altertabmvcol">rename column</a>", "<a href="lang_altertable.html#altertabaddcol">add column</a>", "<a href="lang_altertable.html#altertabdropcol">drop column</a>"
commands shown above.  However, applications
can make other arbitrary changes to the format of a table using a simple
sequence of operations.
The steps to make arbitrary changes to the schema design of some table X
are as follows:

</p><ol>
<li><p>
If foreign key constraints are enabled, disable them using <a href="pragma.html#pragma_foreign_keys">PRAGMA foreign_keys=OFF</a>.

</p></li><li><p>
Start a transaction.

</p></li><li><p>
Remember the format of all indexes, triggers, and views associated with table X.
This information will be needed in step 8 below.  One way to do this is
to run a query like the following:
SELECT type, sql FROM sqlite_schema WHERE tbl_name='X'.

</p></li><li><p>
Use <a href="lang_createtable.html">CREATE TABLE</a> to construct a new table "new_X" that is in the desired
revised format of table X.  Make sure that the name "new_X" does not collide
with any existing table name, of course.

</p></li><li><p>
Transfer content from X into new_X using a statement
like: INSERT INTO new_X SELECT ... FROM X.

</p></li><li><p>
Drop the old table X:  <a href="lang_droptable.html">DROP TABLE X</a>.

</p></li><li><p>
Change the name of new_X to X using: ALTER TABLE new_X RENAME TO X.

</p></li><li><p>
Use <a href="lang_createindex.html">CREATE INDEX</a>, <a href="lang_createtrigger.html">CREATE TRIGGER</a>, and <a href="lang_createview.html">CREATE VIEW</a>
to reconstruct indexes, triggers, and views
associated with table X.  Perhaps use the old format of the triggers,
indexes, and views saved from step 3 above as a guide, making changes
as appropriate for the alteration.

</p></li><li><p>If any views refer to table X in a way that is affected by the
schema change, then drop those views using <a href="lang_dropview.html">DROP VIEW</a> and recreate them
with whatever changes are necessary to accommodate the schema change
using <a href="lang_createview.html">CREATE VIEW</a>.

</p></li><li><p>
If foreign key constraints were originally enabled
then run <a href="pragma.html#pragma_foreign_key_check">PRAGMA foreign_key_check</a> to verify that the schema
change did not break any foreign key constraints.


</p></li><li><p>
Commit the transaction started in step 2.

</p></li><li><p>
If foreign keys constraints were originally enabled, reenable them now.
</p></li></ol>

<a name="caution"></a>

<p>
<b>Caution:</b>
Take care to follow the procedure above precisely.  The boxes below
summarize two procedures for modifying a table definition.  At first
glance, they both appear to accomplish the same thing.  However, the
procedure on the right does not always work, especially with the
enhanced <a href="lang_altertable.html#altertabrename">rename table</a> capabilities added by versions 3.25.0 and
3.26.0.  In the procedure on the right, the initial rename of the
table to a temporary name might corrupt references to that table in
triggers, views, and foreign key constraints.  The safe procedure on
the left constructs the revised table definition using a new temporary
name, then renames the table into its final name, which does not break
links.

</p><center>
<table border="1" cellpadding="10" cellspacing="0">
<tr>
<td valign="top">
<ol>
<li>Create new table
</li><li>Copy data
</li><li>Drop old table
</li><li>Rename new into old
</li></ol>
</td><td valign="top">
<ol>
<li>Rename old table
</li><li>Create new table
</li><li>Copy data
</li><li>Drop old table
</li></ol>
</td></tr><tr>
<th>&uarr;<br>Correct
</th><th>&uarr;<br>Incorrect
</th></tr></table>
</center>

<p>The 12-step <a href="lang_altertable.html#otheralter">generalized ALTER TABLE procedure</a>
above will work even if the
schema change causes the information stored in the table to change.
So the full 12-step procedure above is appropriate for dropping a column,
changing the order of columns, adding or removing a UNIQUE constraint
or PRIMARY KEY, adding CHECK or FOREIGN KEY or NOT NULL constraints,
or changing the datatype for a column, for example.  However, a simpler
and faster procedure can optionally be used for
some changes that do no affect the on-disk content in any way.
The following simpler procedure is appropriate for removing
CHECK or FOREIGN KEY or NOT NULL constraints,
or adding, removing, or changing default values on
a column.

</p><ol>
<li><p> Start a transaction.

</p></li><li><p> Run <a href="pragma.html#pragma_schema_version">PRAGMA schema_version</a> to determine the current schema
version number.  This number will be needed for step 6 below.

</p></li><li><p> Activate schema editing using 
<a href="pragma.html#pragma_writable_schema">PRAGMA writable_schema=ON</a>.

</p></li><li><p> Run an <a href="lang_update.html">UPDATE</a> statement to change the definition of table X
in the <a href="schematab.html">sqlite_schema table</a>: 
UPDATE sqlite_schema SET sql=... WHERE type='table' AND name='X';
</p><p><em>Caution:</em>  Making a change to the sqlite_schema table like this will
render the database corrupt and unreadable if the change contains
a syntax error.  It is suggested that careful testing of the UPDATE
statement be done on a separate blank database prior to using it on
a database containing important data.

</p></li><li><p> If the change to table X also affects other tables or indexes or
triggers are views within schema, then run <a href="lang_update.html">UPDATE</a> statements to modify
those other tables indexes and views too.  For example, if the name of
a column changes, all FOREIGN KEY constraints, triggers, indexes, and
views that refer to that column must be modified.
</p><p><em>Caution:</em>  Once again, making changes to the sqlite_schema 
table like this will render the database corrupt and unreadable if the 
change contains an error.  Carefully test this entire procedure
on a separate test database prior to using it on
a database containing important data and/or make backup copies of
important databases prior to running this procedure.

</p></li><li><p> Increment the schema version number using
<a href="pragma.html#pragma_schema_version">PRAGMA schema_version=X</a> where X is one
more than the old schema version number found in step 2 above.

</p></li><li><p> Disable schema editing using 
<a href="pragma.html#pragma_writable_schema">PRAGMA writable_schema=OFF</a>.

</p></li><li><p> (Optional) Run <a href="pragma.html#pragma_integrity_check">PRAGMA integrity_check</a> to verify that the
schema changes did not damage the database.

</p></li><li><p> Commit the transaction started on step 1 above.
</p></li></ol>

<p>If some future version of SQLite adds new ALTER TABLE capabilities, 
those capabilities will very likely use one of the two procedures
outlined above.

<a name="altertableishard"></a>

</p><h1 id="why_alter_table_is_such_a_problem_for_sqlite"><span>8. </span>Why ALTER TABLE is such a problem for SQLite</h1>

<p>Most SQL database engines store the schema already parsed into
various system tables.  On those database engines, ALTER TABLE merely 
has to make modifications to the corresponding system tables.

</p><p>SQLite is different in that it stores the schema
in the <a href="schematab.html">sqlite_schema</a> table as the original text of the CREATE
statements that define the schema.  Hence ALTER TABLE needs
to revise the text of the CREATE statement.  Doing
so can be tricky for certain "creative" schema designs.

</p><p>The SQLite approach of storing the schema as text has advantages
for an embedded relational database.  For one, it means that the
schema takes up less space in the database file.  This is important
since a common SQLite usage pattern is to have many small,
separate database files instead of putting everything in one
big global database file, which is the usual approach for client/server
database engines.
Since the schema is duplicated in each separate database file, it is
important to keep the schema representation compact.

</p><p>Storing the schema as text rather than as parsed tables also
give flexibility to the implementation.  Since the internal parse
of the schema is regenerated each time the database is opened, the
internal representation of the schema can change from one release
to the next.  This is important, as sometimes new features require
enhancements to the internal schema represen