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<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>ON CONFLICT clause</h2></div><p><b><a href="syntax/conflict-clause.html">conflict-clause:</a></b>
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 <img alt="syntax diagram conflict-clause" src="images/syntax/conflict-clause.gif" />
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<p>The ON CONFLICT clause is a
non-standard extension specific to SQLite 
that can appear in many other SQL commands.
It is given its own section in this document because it is not
part of standard SQL and therefore might not be familiar.</p>

<p>The ON CONFLICT clause described here has been a part of
SQLite since before version 3.0.0 (2004-06-18).  The phrase
"ON&nbsp;CONFLICT" is also part of <a href="lang_UPSERT.html">UPSERT</a>, which is an extension
to <a href="lang_insert.html">INSERT</a> added in version 3.24.0 (2018-06-04).  Do not
confuse these two separate uses of the "ON&nbsp;CONFLICT" phrase.

<p>The syntax for the ON CONFLICT clause is as shown above for
the CREATE TABLE command.  For the INSERT and
UPDATE commands, the keywords "ON CONFLICT" are replaced by "OR" so that
the syntax reads more naturally.  For example, instead of
"INSERT ON CONFLICT IGNORE" we have "INSERT OR IGNORE".
The keywords change but the meaning of the clause is the same
either way.</p>

<p>The ON CONFLICT clause applies to <a href="lang_createtable.html#uniqueconst">UNIQUE</a>, <a href="lang_createtable.html#notnullconst">NOT NULL</a>,
<a href="lang_createtable.html#ckconst">CHECK</a>, and <a href="lang_createtable.html#primkeyconst">PRIMARY KEY</a> constraints.
The ON CONFLICT algorithm does not
apply to <a href="foreignkeys.html">FOREIGN KEY constraints</a>.
There are five conflict resolution algorithm choices:
ROLLBACK, ABORT, FAIL, IGNORE, and REPLACE.
The default conflict resolution algorithm is ABORT.  This
is what they mean:</p>

<dl>
<dt><b>ROLLBACK</b></dt>
<dd><p> When an applicable constraint violation occurs, the ROLLBACK
resolution algorithm aborts the current SQL statement with
an SQLITE_CONSTRAINT error and rolls back the current transaction.
If no transaction is
active (other than the implied transaction that is created on every
command) then the ROLLBACK resolution algorithm works the same as the
ABORT algorithm.</p></dd>

<dt><b>ABORT</b></dt>
<dd><p> When an applicable constraint violation occurs, the ABORT
resolution algorithm aborts the current SQL statement
with an SQLITE_CONSTRAINT error and backs out any changes
made by the current SQL statement; but changes caused
by prior SQL statements within the same transaction are preserved and the
transaction remains active.
This is the default behavior and the behavior specified by the SQL
standard.</p></dd>

<dt><b>FAIL</b></dt>
<dd><p> When an applicable constraint violation occurs, the FAIL
resolution algorithm aborts the current SQL statement with an
SQLITE_CONSTRAINT error.  But the FAIL resolution does not
back out prior changes of the SQL statement that failed nor does
it end the transaction.
For example, if an UPDATE
statement encountered a constraint violation on the 100th row that
it attempts to update, then the first 99 row changes are preserved
but changes to rows 100 and beyond never occur.</p>

<p>The FAIL behavior only works for uniqueness, NOT NULL, and CHECK 
constraints.  A <a href="foreignkeys.html">foreign key constraint</a> violation causes an ABORT.
</p></dd>

<dt><b>IGNORE</b></dt>
<dd><p> When an applicable constraint violation occurs, 
the IGNORE resolution algorithm skips the one row that contains
the constraint violation and continues processing subsequent rows
of the SQL statement as if nothing went wrong.
Other rows before and after the row that
contained the constraint violation are inserted or updated
normally. No error is returned for uniqueness, NOT NULL, and
UNIQUE constraint errors when the IGNORE conflict resolution
algorithm is used.  However, the IGNORE conflict resolution
algorithm works like ABORT for <a href="foreignkeys.html">foreign key constraint</a> errors.
</p>
</dd>

<dt><b>REPLACE</b></dt>
<dd><p> When a <a href="lang_createtable.html#uniqueconst">UNIQUE</a> or <a href="lang_createtable.html#primkeyconst">PRIMARY KEY</a> constraint violation occurs, 
the REPLACE algorithm
deletes pre-existing rows that are causing the constraint violation
prior to inserting or updating the current row and the command continues 
executing normally.
If a <a href="lang_createtable.html#notnullconst">NOT NULL</a> constraint violation occurs, the REPLACE conflict
resolution replaces the NULL value with
the default value for that column, or if the column has no default
value, then the ABORT algorithm is used.
If a <a href="lang_createtable.html#ckconst">CHECK constraint</a> or <a href="foreignkeys.html">foreign key constraint</a> violation occurs, 
the REPLACE conflict resolution algorithm works like ABORT.</p>

<p>When the REPLACE conflict resolution strategy deletes rows in order to
satisfy a constraint, <a href="lang_createtrigger.html">delete triggers</a> fire if and only if
<a href="pragma.html#pragma_recursive_triggers">recursive triggers</a> are enabled.</p>

<p>The <a href="c3ref/update_hook.html">update hook</a> is not invoked for rows that
are deleted by the REPLACE conflict resolution strategy.  Nor does
REPLACE increment the <a href="c3ref/changes.html">change counter</a>.
The exceptional behaviors defined in this paragraph might change 
in a future release.</p>
</dl>

<p>The algorithm specified in the OR clause of an INSERT or UPDATE
overrides any algorithm specified in a CREATE TABLE.
If no algorithm is specified anywhere, the ABORT algorithm is used.</p>