System.Data.SQLite
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Artifact 95162c1da360533f40ab54a85a840bd4c1023419:


/********************************************************
 * ADO.NET 2.0 Data Provider for SQLite Version 3.X
 * Written by Robert Simpson (robert@blackcastlesoft.com)
 *
 * Released to the public domain, use at your own risk!
 ********************************************************/

namespace System.Data.SQLite
{
  using System;
  using System.Data;
  using System.Data.Common;
  using System.Diagnostics;
  using System.Collections.Generic;
  using System.Globalization;
  using System.ComponentModel;
  using System.Reflection;
  using System.Runtime.InteropServices;
  using System.IO;
  using System.Text;
  using System.Threading;

  /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

  /// <summary>
  /// This class represents a single value to be returned
  /// from the <see cref="SQLiteDataReader" /> class via
  /// its <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetBlob" />,
  /// <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetBoolean" />,
  /// <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetByte" />,
  /// <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetBytes" />,
  /// <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetChar" />,
  /// <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetChars" />,
  /// <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetDateTime" />,
  /// <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetDecimal" />,
  /// <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetDouble" />,
  /// <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetFloat" />,
  /// <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetGuid" />,
  /// <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetInt16" />,
  /// <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetInt32" />,
  /// <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetInt64" />,
  /// <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetString" />, or
  /// <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetValue" /> method.  If the value of the
  /// associated public field of this class is null upon returning from the
  /// callback, the null value will only be used if the return type for the
  /// <see cref="SQLiteDataReader" /> method called is not a value type.
  /// If the value to be returned from the <see cref="SQLiteDataReader" />
  /// method is unsuitable (e.g. null with a value type), an exception will
  /// be thrown.
  /// </summary>
  public sealed class SQLiteDataReaderValue
  {
      /// <summary>
      /// The value to be returned from the
      /// <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetBlob" /> method -OR- null to
      /// indicate an error.
      /// </summary>
      public SQLiteBlob BlobValue;

      /// <summary>
      /// The value to be returned from the
      /// <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetBoolean" /> method -OR- null to
      /// indicate an error.
      /// </summary>
      public bool? BooleanValue;

      /// <summary>
      /// The value to be returned from the
      /// <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetByte" /> method -OR- null to
      /// indicate an error.
      /// </summary>
      public byte? ByteValue;

      /// <summary>
      /// The value to be returned from the
      /// <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetBytes" /> method.
      /// </summary>
      public byte[] BytesValue;

      /// <summary>
      /// The value to be returned from the
      /// <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetChar" /> method -OR- null to
      /// indicate an error.
      /// </summary>
      public char? CharValue;

      /// <summary>
      /// The value to be returned from the
      /// <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetChars" /> method.
      /// </summary>
      public char[] CharsValue;

      /// <summary>
      /// The value to be returned from the
      /// <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetDateTime" /> method -OR- null to
      /// indicate an error.
      /// </summary>
      public DateTime? DateTimeValue;

      /// <summary>
      /// The value to be returned from the
      /// <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetDecimal" /> method -OR- null to
      /// indicate an error.
      /// </summary>
      public decimal? DecimalValue;

      /// <summary>
      /// The value to be returned from the
      /// <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetDouble" /> method -OR- null to
      /// indicate an error.
      /// </summary>
      public double? DoubleValue;

      /// <summary>
      /// The value to be returned from the
      /// <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetFloat" /> method -OR- null to
      /// indicate an error.
      /// </summary>
      public float? FloatValue;

      /// <summary>
      /// The value to be returned from the
      /// <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetGuid" /> method -OR- null to
      /// indicate an error.
      /// </summary>
      public Guid? GuidValue;

      /// <summary>
      /// The value to be returned from the
      /// <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetInt16" /> method -OR- null to
      /// indicate an error.
      /// </summary>
      public short? Int16Value;

      /// <summary>
      /// The value to be returned from the
      /// <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetInt32" /> method -OR- null to
      /// indicate an error.
      /// </summary>
      public int? Int32Value;

      /// <summary>
      /// The value to be returned from the
      /// <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetInt64" /> method -OR- null to
      /// indicate an error.
      /// </summary>
      public long? Int64Value;

      /// <summary>
      /// The value to be returned from the
      /// <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetString" /> method.
      /// </summary>
      public string StringValue;

      /// <summary>
      /// The value to be returned from the
      /// <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetValue" /> method.
      /// </summary>
      public object Value;
  }

  /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

  /// <summary>
  /// This class represents the parameters that are provided
  /// to the <see cref="SQLiteDataReader" /> methods, with
  /// the exception of the column index (provided separately).
  /// </summary>
  public abstract class SQLiteReadEventArgs : EventArgs
  {
      // nothing.
  }

  /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

  /// <summary>
  /// This class represents the parameters that are provided to
  /// the <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetBlob" /> method, with
  /// the exception of the column index (provided separately).
  /// </summary>
  public class SQLiteReadBlobEventArgs : SQLiteReadEventArgs
  {
      #region Private Data
      /// <summary>
      /// Provides the underlying storage for the
      /// <see cref="ReadOnly" /> property.
      /// </summary>
      private bool readOnly;
      #endregion

      /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

      #region Private Constructors
      /// <summary>
      /// Constructs an instance of this class to pass into a user-defined
      /// callback associated with the <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetBlob" />
      /// method.
      /// </summary>
      /// <param name="readOnly">
      /// The value that was originally specified for the "readOnly"
      /// parameter to the <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetBlob" /> method.
      /// </param>
      internal SQLiteReadBlobEventArgs(
          bool readOnly
          )
      {
          this.readOnly = readOnly;
      }
      #endregion

      /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

      #region Public Properties
      /// <summary>
      /// The value that was originally specified for the "readOnly"
      /// parameter to the <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetBlob" /> method.
      /// </summary>
      public bool ReadOnly
      {
          get { return readOnly; }
          set { readOnly = value; }
      }
      #endregion
  }

  /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

  /// <summary>
  /// This class represents the parameters that are provided
  /// to the <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetBytes" /> and
  /// <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetChars" /> methods, with
  /// the exception of the column index (provided separately).
  /// </summary>
  public class SQLiteReadArrayEventArgs : SQLiteReadEventArgs
  {
      #region Private Data
      /// <summary>
      /// Provides the underlying storage for the
      /// <see cref="DataOffset" /> property.
      /// </summary>
      private long dataOffset;

      /// <summary>
      /// Provides the underlying storage for the
      /// <see cref="ByteBuffer" /> property.
      /// </summary>
      private byte[] byteBuffer;

      /// <summary>
      /// Provides the underlying storage for the
      /// <see cref="CharBuffer" /> property.
      /// </summary>
      private char[] charBuffer;

      /// <summary>
      /// Provides the underlying storage for the
      /// <see cref="BufferOffset" /> property.
      /// </summary>
      private int bufferOffset;

      /// <summary>
      /// Provides the underlying storage for the
      /// <see cref="Length" /> property.
      /// </summary>
      private int length;
      #endregion

      /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

      #region Private Constructors
      /// <summary>
      /// Constructs an instance of this class to pass into a user-defined
      /// callback associated with the <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetBytes" />
      /// method.
      /// </summary>
      /// <param name="dataOffset">
      /// The value that was originally specified for the "dataOffset"
      /// parameter to the <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetBytes" /> or
      /// <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetChars" /> methods.
      /// </param>
      /// <param name="byteBuffer">
      /// The value that was originally specified for the "buffer"
      /// parameter to the <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetBytes" />
      /// method.
      /// </param>
      /// <param name="bufferOffset">
      /// The value that was originally specified for the "bufferOffset"
      /// parameter to the <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetBytes" /> or
      /// <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetChars" /> methods.
      /// </param>
      /// <param name="length">
      /// The value that was originally specified for the "length"
      /// parameter to the <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetBytes" /> or
      /// <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetChars" /> methods.
      /// </param>
      internal SQLiteReadArrayEventArgs(
          long dataOffset,
          byte[] byteBuffer,
          int bufferOffset,
          int length
          )
      {
          this.dataOffset = dataOffset;
          this.byteBuffer = byteBuffer;
          this.bufferOffset = bufferOffset;
          this.length = length;
      }

      /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

      /// <summary>
      /// Constructs an instance of this class to pass into a user-defined
      /// callback associated with the <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetChars" />
      /// method.
      /// </summary>
      /// <param name="dataOffset">
      /// The value that was originally specified for the "dataOffset"
      /// parameter to the <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetBytes" /> or
      /// <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetChars" /> methods.
      /// </param>
      /// <param name="charBuffer">
      /// The value that was originally specified for the "buffer"
      /// parameter to the <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetChars" />
      /// method.
      /// </param>
      /// <param name="bufferOffset">
      /// The value that was originally specified for the "bufferOffset"
      /// parameter to the <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetBytes" /> or
      /// <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetChars" /> methods.
      /// </param>
      /// <param name="length">
      /// The value that was originally specified for the "length"
      /// parameter to the <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetBytes" /> or
      /// <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetChars" /> methods.
      /// </param>
      internal SQLiteReadArrayEventArgs(
          long dataOffset,
          char[] charBuffer,
          int bufferOffset,
          int length
          )
      {
          this.dataOffset = dataOffset;
          this.charBuffer = charBuffer;
          this.bufferOffset = bufferOffset;
          this.length = length;
      }
      #endregion

      /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

      #region Public Properties
      /// <summary>
      /// The value that was originally specified for the "dataOffset"
      /// parameter to the <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetBytes" /> or
      /// <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetChars" /> methods.
      /// </summary>
      public long DataOffset
      {
          get { return dataOffset; }
          set { dataOffset = value; }
      }

      /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

      /// <summary>
      /// The value that was originally specified for the "buffer"
      /// parameter to the <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetBytes" />
      /// method.
      /// </summary>
      public byte[] ByteBuffer
      {
          get { return byteBuffer; }
      }

      /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

      /// <summary>
      /// The value that was originally specified for the "buffer"
      /// parameter to the <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetChars" />
      /// method.
      /// </summary>
      public char[] CharBuffer
      {
          get { return charBuffer; }
      }

      /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

      /// <summary>
      /// The value that was originally specified for the "bufferOffset"
      /// parameter to the <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetBytes" /> or
      /// <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetChars" /> methods.
      /// </summary>
      public int BufferOffset
      {
          get { return bufferOffset; }
          set { bufferOffset = value; }
      }

      /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

      /// <summary>
      /// The value that was originally specified for the "length"
      /// parameter to the <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetBytes" /> or
      /// <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetChars" /> methods.
      /// </summary>
      public int Length
      {
          get { return length; }
          set { length = value; }
      }
      #endregion
  }

  /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

  /// <summary>
  /// This class represents the parameters and return values for the
  /// <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetBlob" />,
  /// <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetBoolean" />,
  /// <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetByte" />,
  /// <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetBytes" />,
  /// <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetChar" />,
  /// <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetChars" />,
  /// <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetDateTime" />,
  /// <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetDecimal" />,
  /// <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetDouble" />,
  /// <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetFloat" />,
  /// <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetGuid" />,
  /// <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetInt16" />,
  /// <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetInt32" />,
  /// <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetInt64" />,
  /// <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetString" />, and
  /// <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetValue" /> methods.
  /// </summary>
  public class SQLiteReadValueEventArgs : SQLiteReadEventArgs
  {
      #region Private Data
      /// <summary>
      /// Provides the underlying storage for the
      /// <see cref="MethodName" /> property.
      /// </summary>
      private string methodName;

      /// <summary>
      /// Provides the underlying storage for the
      /// <see cref="ExtraEventArgs" /> property.
      /// </summary>
      private SQLiteReadEventArgs extraEventArgs;

      /// <summary>
      /// Provides the underlying storage for the
      /// <see cref="Value" /> property.
      /// </summary>
      private SQLiteDataReaderValue value;
      #endregion

      /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

      #region Private Constructors
      /// <summary>
      /// Constructs a new instance of this class.  Depending on the method
      /// being called, the <paramref name="extraEventArgs" /> and/or
      /// <paramref name="value" /> parameters may be null.
      /// </summary>
      /// <param name="methodName">
      /// The name of the <see cref="SQLiteDataReader" /> method that was
      /// responsible for invoking this callback.
      /// </param>
      /// <param name="extraEventArgs">
      /// If the <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetBytes" /> or
      /// <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetChars" /> method is being called,
      /// this object will contain the array related parameters for that
      /// method.  If the <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetBlob" /> method is
      /// being called, this object will contain the blob related parameters
      /// for that method.
      /// </param>
      /// <param name="value">
      /// This may be used by the callback to set the return value for the
      /// called <see cref="SQLiteDataReader" /> method.
      /// </param>
      internal SQLiteReadValueEventArgs(
          string methodName,
          SQLiteReadEventArgs extraEventArgs,
          SQLiteDataReaderValue value
          )
      {
          this.methodName = methodName;
          this.extraEventArgs = extraEventArgs;
          this.value = value;
      }
      #endregion

      /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

      #region Public Properties
      /// <summary>
      /// The name of the <see cref="SQLiteDataReader" /> method that was
      /// responsible for invoking this callback.
      /// </summary>
      public string MethodName
      {
          get { return methodName; }
      }

      /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

      /// <summary>
      /// If the <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetBytes" /> or
      /// <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetChars" /> method is being called,
      /// this object will contain the array related parameters for that
      /// method.  If the <see cref="SQLiteDataReader.GetBlob" /> method is
      /// being called, this object will contain the blob related parameters
      /// for that method.
      /// </summary>
      public SQLiteReadEventArgs ExtraEventArgs
      {
          get { return extraEventArgs; }
      }

      /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

      /// <summary>
      /// This may be used by the callback to set the return value for the
      /// called <see cref="SQLiteDataReader" /> method.
      /// </summary>
      public SQLiteDataReaderValue Value
      {
          get { return value; }
      }
      #endregion
  }

  /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

  /// <summary>
  /// This represents a method that will be called in response to a request to
  /// bind a parameter to a command.  If an exception is thrown, it will cause
  /// the parameter binding operation to fail -AND- it will continue to unwind
  /// the call stack.
  /// </summary>
  /// <param name="convert">
  /// The <see cref="SQLiteConvert" /> instance in use.
  /// </param>
  /// <param name="command">
  /// The <see cref="SQLiteCommand" /> instance in use.
  /// </param>
  /// <param name="flags">
  /// The flags associated with the <see cref="SQLiteConnection" /> instance
  /// in use.
  /// </param>
  /// <param name="parameter">
  /// The <see cref="SQLiteParameter" /> instance being bound to the command.
  /// </param>
  /// <param name="typeName">
  /// The database type name associated with this callback.
  /// </param>
  /// <param name="index">
  /// The ordinal of the parameter being bound to the command.
  /// </param>
  /// <param name="userData">
  /// The data originally used when registering this callback.
  /// </param>
  /// <param name="complete">
  /// Non-zero if the default handling for the parameter binding call should
  /// be skipped (i.e. the parameter should not be bound at all).  Great care
  /// should be used when setting this to non-zero.
  /// </param>
  public delegate void SQLiteBindValueCallback(
      SQLiteConvert convert,
      SQLiteCommand command,
      SQLiteConnectionFlags flags,
      SQLiteParameter parameter,
      string typeName,
      int index,
      object userData,
      out bool complete
  );

  /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

  /// <summary>
  /// This represents a method that will be called in response to a request
  /// to read a value from a data reader.  If an exception is thrown, it will
  /// cause the data reader operation to fail -AND- it will continue to unwind
  /// the call stack.
  /// </summary>
  /// <param name="convert">
  /// The <see cref="SQLiteConvert" /> instance in use.
  /// </param>
  /// <param name="dataReader">
  /// The <see cref="SQLiteDataReader" /> instance in use.
  /// </param>
  /// <param name="flags">
  /// The flags associated with the <see cref="SQLiteConnection" /> instance
  /// in use.
  /// </param>
  /// <param name="eventArgs">
  /// The parameter and return type data for the column being read from the
  /// data reader.
  /// </param>
  /// <param name="typeName">
  /// The database type name associated with this callback.
  /// </param>
  /// <param name="index">
  /// The zero based index of the column being read from the data reader.
  /// </param>
  /// <param name="userData">
  /// The data originally used when registering this callback.
  /// </param>
  /// <param name="complete">
  /// Non-zero if the default handling for the data reader call should be
  /// skipped.  If this is set to non-zero and the necessary return value
  /// is unavailable or unsuitable, an exception will be thrown.
  /// </param>
  public delegate void SQLiteReadValueCallback(
      SQLiteConvert convert,
      SQLiteDataReader dataReader,
      SQLiteConnectionFlags flags,
      SQLiteReadEventArgs eventArgs,
      string typeName,
      int index,
      object userData,
      out bool complete
  );

  /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

  /// <summary>
  /// This class represents the custom data type handling callbacks
  /// for a single type name.
  /// </summary>
  public sealed class SQLiteTypeCallbacks
  {
      #region Private Data
      /// <summary>
      /// Provides the underlying storage for the
      /// <see cref="TypeName" /> property.
      /// </summary>
      private string typeName;

      /// <summary>
      /// Provides the underlying storage for the
      /// <see cref="BindValueCallback" /> property.
      /// </summary>
      private SQLiteBindValueCallback bindValueCallback;

      /// <summary>
      /// Provides the underlying storage for the
      /// <see cref="ReadValueCallback" /> property.
      /// </summary>
      private SQLiteReadValueCallback readValueCallback;

      /// <summary>
      /// Provides the underlying storage for the
      /// <see cref="BindValueUserData" /> property.
      /// </summary>
      private object bindValueUserData;

      /// <summary>
      /// Provides the underlying storage for the
      /// <see cref="ReadValueUserData" /> property.
      /// </summary>
      private object readValueUserData;
      #endregion

      /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

      #region Private Constructors
      /// <summary>
      /// Constructs an instance of this class.
      /// </summary>
      /// <param name="bindValueCallback">
      /// The custom paramater binding callback.  This parameter may be null.
      /// </param>
      /// <param name="readValueCallback">
      /// The custom data reader value callback.  This parameter may be null.
      /// </param>
      /// <param name="bindValueUserData">
      /// The extra data to pass into the parameter binding callback.  This
      /// parameter may be null.
      /// </param>
      /// <param name="readValueUserData">
      /// The extra data to pass into the data reader value callback.  This
      /// parameter may be null.
      /// </param>
      private SQLiteTypeCallbacks(
          SQLiteBindValueCallback bindValueCallback,
          SQLiteReadValueCallback readValueCallback,
          object bindValueUserData,
          object readValueUserData
          )
      {
          this.bindValueCallback = bindValueCallback;
          this.readValueCallback = readValueCallback;
          this.bindValueUserData = bindValueUserData;
          this.readValueUserData = readValueUserData;
      }
      #endregion

      /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

      #region Static "Factory" Methods
      /// <summary>
      /// Creates an instance of the <see cref="SQLiteTypeCallbacks" /> class.
      /// </summary>
      /// <param name="bindValueCallback">
      /// The custom paramater binding callback.  This parameter may be null.
      /// </param>
      /// <param name="readValueCallback">
      /// The custom data reader value callback.  This parameter may be null.
      /// </param>
      /// <param name="bindValueUserData">
      /// The extra data to pass into the parameter binding callback.  This
      /// parameter may be null.
      /// </param>
      /// <param name="readValueUserData">
      /// The extra data to pass into the data reader value callback.  This
      /// parameter may be null.
      /// </param>
      public static SQLiteTypeCallbacks Create(
          SQLiteBindValueCallback bindValueCallback,
          SQLiteReadValueCallback readValueCallback,
          object bindValueUserData,
          object readValueUserData
          )
      {
          return new SQLiteTypeCallbacks(
              bindValueCallback, readValueCallback, bindValueUserData,
              readValueUserData);
      }
      #endregion

      /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

      #region Public Properties
      /// <summary>
      /// The database type name that the callbacks contained in this class
      /// will apply to.  This value may not be null.
      /// </summary>
      public string TypeName
      {
          get { return typeName; }
          internal set { typeName = value; }
      }

      /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

      /// <summary>
      /// The custom paramater binding callback.  This value may be null.
      /// </summary>
      public SQLiteBindValueCallback BindValueCallback
      {
          get { return bindValueCallback; }
      }

      /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

      /// <summary>
      /// The custom data reader value callback.  This value may be null.
      /// </summary>
      public SQLiteReadValueCallback ReadValueCallback
      {
          get { return readValueCallback; }
      }

      /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

      /// <summary>
      /// The extra data to pass into the parameter binding callback.  This
      /// value may be null.
      /// </summary>
      public object BindValueUserData
      {
          get { return bindValueUserData; }
      }

      /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

      /// <summary>
      /// The extra data to pass into the data reader value callback.  This
      /// value may be null.
      /// </summary>
      public object ReadValueUserData
      {
          get { return readValueUserData; }
      }
      #endregion
  }

  /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

  /// <summary>
  /// This class represents the mappings between database type names
  /// and their associated custom data type handling callbacks.
  /// </summary>
  internal sealed class SQLiteTypeCallbacksMap
      : Dictionary<string, SQLiteTypeCallbacks>
  {
      /// <summary>
      /// Constructs an (empty) instance of this class.
      /// </summary>
      public SQLiteTypeCallbacksMap()
          : base(new TypeNameStringComparer())
      {
          // do nothing.
      }
  }

  /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

  /// <summary>
  /// Event data for connection event handlers.
  /// </summary>
  public class ConnectionEventArgs : EventArgs
  {
      /// <summary>
      /// The type of event being raised.
      /// </summary>
      public readonly SQLiteConnectionEventType EventType;

      /// <summary>
      /// The <see cref="StateChangeEventArgs" /> associated with this event, if any.
      /// </summary>
      public readonly StateChangeEventArgs EventArgs;

      /// <summary>
      /// The transaction associated with this event, if any.
      /// </summary>
      public readonly IDbTransaction Transaction;

      /// <summary>
      /// The command associated with this event, if any.
      /// </summary>
      public readonly IDbCommand Command;

      /// <summary>
      /// The data reader associated with this event, if any.
      /// </summary>
      public readonly IDataReader DataReader;

      /// <summary>
      /// The critical handle associated with this event, if any.
      /// </summary>
#if !PLATFORM_COMPACTFRAMEWORK
      public readonly CriticalHandle CriticalHandle;
#else
      public readonly object CriticalHandle;
#endif

      /// <summary>
      /// Command or message text associated with this event, if any.
      /// </summary>
      public readonly string Text;

      /// <summary>
      /// Extra data associated with this event, if any.
      /// </summary>
      public readonly object Data;

      /// <summary>
      /// Constructs the object.
      /// </summary>
      /// <param name="eventType">The type of event being raised.</param>
      /// <param name="eventArgs">The base <see cref="EventArgs" /> associated
      /// with this event, if any.</param>
      /// <param name="transaction">The transaction associated with this event, if any.</param>
      /// <param name="command">The command associated with this event, if any.</param>
      /// <param name="dataReader">The data reader associated with this event, if any.</param>
      /// <param name="criticalHandle">The critical handle associated with this event, if any.</param>
      /// <param name="text">The command or message text, if any.</param>
      /// <param name="data">The extra data, if any.</param>
      internal ConnectionEventArgs(
          SQLiteConnectionEventType eventType,
          StateChangeEventArgs eventArgs,
          IDbTransaction transaction,
          IDbCommand command,
          IDataReader dataReader,
#if !PLATFORM_COMPACTFRAMEWORK
          CriticalHandle criticalHandle,
#else
          object criticalHandle,
#endif
          string text,
          object data
          )
      {
          EventType = eventType;
          EventArgs = eventArgs;
          Transaction = transaction;
          Command = command;
          DataReader = dataReader;
          CriticalHandle = criticalHandle;
          Text = text;
          Data = data;
      }
  }

  /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

  /// <summary>
  /// Raised when an event pertaining to a connection occurs.
  /// </summary>
  /// <param name="sender">The connection involved.</param>
  /// <param name="e">Extra information about the event.</param>
  public delegate void SQLiteConnectionEventHandler(object sender, ConnectionEventArgs e);

  /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

  /// <summary>
  /// SQLite implentation of DbConnection.
  /// </summary>
  /// <remarks>
  /// The <see cref="ConnectionString" /> property can contain the following parameter(s), delimited with a semi-colon:
  /// <list type="table">
  /// <listheader>
  /// <term>Parameter</term>
  /// <term>Values</term>
  /// <term>Required</term>
  /// <term>Default</term>
  /// </listheader>
  /// <item>
  /// <description>Data Source</description>
  /// <description>
  /// This may be a file name, the string ":memory:", or any supported URI (starting with SQLite 3.7.7).
  /// Starting with release 1.0.86.0, in order to use more than one consecutive backslash (e.g. for a
  /// UNC path), each of the adjoining backslash characters must be doubled (e.g. "\\Network\Share\test.db"
  /// would become "\\\\Network\Share\test.db").
  /// </description>
  /// <description>Y</description>
  /// <description></description>
  /// </item>
  /// <item>
  /// <description>Uri</description>
  /// <description>
  /// If specified, this must be a file name that starts with "file://", "file:", or "/".  Any leading
  /// "file://" or "file:" prefix will be stripped off and the resulting file name will be used to open
  /// the database.
  /// </description>
  /// <description>N</description>
  /// <description>null</description>
  /// </item>
  /// <item>
  /// <description>FullUri</description>
  /// <description>
  /// If specified, this must be a URI in a format recognized by the SQLite core library (starting with
  /// SQLite 3.7.7).  It will be passed verbatim to the SQLite core library.
  /// </description>
  /// <description>N</description>
  /// <description>null</description>
  /// </item>
  /// <item>
  /// <description>Version</description>
  /// <description>3</description>
  /// <description>N</description>
  /// <description>3</description>
  /// </item>
  /// <item>
  /// <description>UseUTF16Encoding</description>
  /// <description>
  /// <b>True</b> - The UTF-16 encoding should be used.
  /// <br/>
  /// <b>False</b> - The UTF-8 encoding should be used.
  /// </description>
  /// <description>N</description>
  /// <description>False</description>
  /// </item>
  /// <item>
  /// <description>DefaultDbType</description>
  /// <description>
  /// This is the default <see cref="DbType" /> to use when one cannot be determined based on the
  /// column metadata and the configured type mappings.
  /// </description>
  /// <description>N</description>
  /// <description>null</description>
  /// </item>
  /// <item>
  /// <description>DefaultTypeName</description>
  /// <description>
  /// This is the default type name to use when one cannot be determined based on the column metadata
  /// and the configured type mappings.
  /// </description>
  /// <description>N</description>
  /// <description>null</description>
  /// </item>
  /// <item>
  /// <description>NoDefaultFlags</description>
  /// <description>
  /// <b>True</b> - Do not combine the specified (or existing) connection flags with the value of the
  /// <see cref="DefaultFlags" /> property.
  /// <br/>
  /// <b>False</b> - Combine the specified (or existing) connection flags with the value of the
  /// <see cref="DefaultFlags" /> property.
  /// </description>
  /// <description>N</description>
  /// <description>False</description>
  /// </item>
  /// <item>
  /// <description>NoSharedFlags</description>
  /// <description>
  /// <b>True</b> - Do not combine the specified (or existing) connection flags with the value of the
  /// <see cref="SharedFlags" /> property.
  /// <br/>
  /// <b>False</b> - Combine the specified (or existing) connection flags with the value of the
  /// <see cref="SharedFlags" /> property.
  /// </description>
  /// <description>N</description>
  /// <description>False</description>
  /// </item>
  /// <item>
  /// <description>VfsName</description>
  /// <description>
  /// The name of the VFS to use when opening the database connection.
  /// If this is not specified, the default VFS will be used.
  /// </description>
  /// <description>N</description>
  /// <description>null</description>
  /// </item>
  /// <item>
  /// <description>ZipVfsVersion</description>
  /// <description>
  /// If non-null, this is the "version" of ZipVFS to use.  This requires
  /// the System.Data.SQLite interop assembly -AND- primary managed assembly
  /// to be compiled with the INTEROP_INCLUDE_ZIPVFS option; otherwise, this
  /// property does nothing.  The valid values are "v2" and "v3".  Using
  /// anyother value will cause an exception to be thrown.  Please see the
  /// ZipVFS documentation for more information on how to use this parameter.
  /// </description>
  /// <description>N</description>
  /// <description>null</description>
  /// </item>
  /// <item>
  /// <description>DateTimeFormat</description>
  /// <description>
  /// <b>Ticks</b> - Use the value of DateTime.Ticks.<br/>
  /// <b>ISO8601</b> - Use the ISO-8601 format.  Uses the "yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss.FFFFFFFK" format for UTC
  /// DateTime values and "yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss.FFFFFFF" format for local DateTime values).<br/>
  /// <b>JulianDay</b> - The interval of time in days and fractions of a day since January 1, 4713 BC.<br/>
  /// <b>UnixEpoch</b> - The whole number of seconds since the Unix epoch (January 1, 1970).<br/>
  /// <b>InvariantCulture</b> - Any culture-independent string value that the .NET Framework can interpret as a valid DateTime.<br/>
  /// <b>CurrentCulture</b> - Any string value that the .NET Framework can interpret as a valid DateTime using the current culture.</description>
  /// <description>N</description>
  /// <description>ISO8601</description>
  /// </item>
  /// <item>
  /// <description>DateTimeKind</description>
  /// <description>
  /// <b>Unspecified</b> - Not specified as either UTC or local time.
  /// <br/>
  /// <b>Utc</b> - The time represented is UTC.
  /// <br/>
  /// <b>Local</b> - The time represented is local time.
  /// </description>
  /// <description>N</description>
  /// <description>Unspecified</description>
  /// </item>
  /// <item>
  /// <description>DateTimeFormatString</description>
  /// <description>
  /// The exact DateTime format string to use for all formatting and parsing of all DateTime
  /// values for this connection.
  /// </description>
  /// <description>N</description>
  /// <description>null</description>
  /// </item>
  /// <item>
  /// <description>BaseSchemaName</description>
  /// <description>
  /// Some base data classes in the framework (e.g. those that build SQL queries dynamically)
  /// assume that an ADO.NET provider cannot support an alternate catalog (i.e. database) without supporting
  /// alternate schemas as well; however, SQLite does not fit into this model.  Therefore, this value is used
  /// as a placeholder and removed prior to preparing any SQL statements that may contain it.
  /// </description>
  /// <description>N</description>
  /// <description>sqlite_default_schema</description>
  /// </item>
  /// <item>
  /// <description>BinaryGUID</description>
  /// <description>
  /// <b>True</b> - Store GUID columns in binary form
  /// <br/>
  /// <b>False</b> - Store GUID columns as text
  /// </description>
  /// <description>N</description>
  /// <description>True</description>
  /// </item>
  /// <item>
  /// <description>Cache Size</description>
  /// <description>
  /// If the argument N is positive then the suggested cache size is set to N.
  /// If the argument N is negative, then the number of cache pages is adjusted
  /// to use approximately abs(N*4096) bytes of memory. Backwards compatibility
  /// note: The behavior of cache_size with a negative N was different in SQLite
  /// versions prior to 3.7.10. In version 3.7.9 and earlier, the number of
  /// pages in the cache was set to the absolute value of N.
  /// </description>
  /// <description>N</description>
  /// <description>-2000</description>
  /// </item>
  /// <item>
  /// <description>Synchronous</description>
  /// <description>
  /// <b>Normal</b> - Normal file flushing behavior
  /// <br/>
  /// <b>Full</b> - Full flushing after all writes
  /// <br/>
  /// <b>Off</b> - Underlying OS flushes I/O's
  /// </description>
  /// <description>N</description>
  /// <description>Full</description>
  /// </item>
  /// <item>
  /// <description>Page Size</description>
  /// <description>{size in bytes}</description>
  /// <description>N</description>
  /// <description>4096</description>
  /// </item>
  /// <item>
  /// <description>Password</description>
  /// <description>
  /// {password} - Using this parameter requires that the legacy CryptoAPI based
  /// codec (or the SQLite Encryption Extension) be enabled at compile-time for
  /// both the native interop assembly and the core managed assemblies; otherwise,
  /// using this parameter may result in an exception being thrown when attempting
  /// to open the connection.
  /// </description>
  /// <description>N</description>
  /// <description></description>
  /// </item>
  /// <item>
  /// <description>HexPassword</description>
  /// <description>
  /// {hexPassword} - Must contain a sequence of zero or more hexadecimal encoded
  /// byte values without a leading "0x" prefix.  Using this parameter requires
  /// that the legacy CryptoAPI based codec (or the SQLite Encryption Extension)
  /// be enabled at compile-time for both the native interop assembly and the
  /// core managed assemblies; otherwise, using this parameter may result in an
  /// exception being thrown when attempting to open the connection.
  /// </description>
  /// <description>N</description>
  /// <description></description>
  /// </item>
  /// <item>
  /// <description>Enlist</description>
  /// <description>
  /// <b>Y</b> - Automatically enlist in distributed transactions
  /// <br/>
  /// <b>N</b> - No automatic enlistment
  /// </description>
  /// <description>N</description>
  /// <description>Y</description>
  /// </item>
  /// <item>
  /// <description>Pooling</description>
  /// <description>
  /// <b>True</b> - Use connection pooling.<br/>
  /// <b>False</b> - Do not use connection pooling.<br/><br/>
  /// <b>WARNING:</b> When using the default connection pool implementation,
  /// setting this property to True should be avoided by applications that make
  /// use of COM (either directly or indirectly) due to possible deadlocks that
  /// can occur during the finalization of some COM objects.
  /// </description>
  /// <description>N</description>
  /// <description>False</description>
  /// </item>
  /// <item>
  /// <description>FailIfMissing</description>
  /// <description>
  /// <b>True</b> - Don't create the database if it does not exist, throw an error instead
  /// <br/>
  /// <b>False</b> - Automatically create the database if it does not exist
  /// </description>
  /// <description>N</description>
  /// <description>False</description>
  /// </item>
  /// <item>
  /// <description>Max Page Count</description>
  /// <description>{size in pages} - Limits the maximum number of pages (limits the size) of the database</description>
  /// <description>N</description>
  /// <description>0</description>
  /// </item>
  /// <item>
  /// <description>Legacy Format</description>
  /// <description>
  /// <b>True</b> - Use the more compatible legacy 3.x database format
  /// <br/>
  /// <b>False</b> - Use the newer 3.3x database format which compresses numbers more effectively
  /// </description>
  /// <description>N</description>
  /// <description>False</description>
  /// </item>
  /// <item>
  /// <description>Default Timeout</description>
  /// <description>{time in seconds}<br/>The default command timeout</description>
  /// <description>N</description>
  /// <description>30</description>
  /// </item>
  /// <item>
  /// <description>BusyTimeout</description>
  /// <description>{time in milliseconds}<br/>Sets the busy timeout for the core library.</description>
  /// <description>N</description>
  /// <description>0</description>
  /// </item>
  /// <item>
  /// <description>WaitTimeout</description>
  /// <description>{time in milliseconds}<br/>
  /// <b>EXPERIMENTAL</b> -- The wait timeout to use with
  /// <see cref="WaitForEnlistmentReset" /> method.  This is only used when
  /// waiting for the enlistment to be reset prior to enlisting in a transaction,
  /// and then only when the appropriate connection flag is set.</description>
  /// <description>N</description>
  /// <description>30000</description>
  /// </item>
  /// <item>
  /// <description>Journal Mode</description>
  /// <description>
  /// <b>Delete</b> - Delete the journal file after a commit.
  /// <br/>
  /// <b>Persist</b> - Zero out and leave the journal file on disk after a
  /// commit.
  /// <br/>
  /// <b>Off</b> - Disable the rollback journal entirely.  This saves disk I/O
  /// but at the expense of database safety and integrity.  If the application
  /// using SQLite crashes in the middle of a transaction when this journaling
  /// mode is set, then the database file will very likely go corrupt.
  /// <br/>
  /// <b>Truncate</b> - Truncate the journal file to zero-length instead of
  /// deleting it.
  /// <br/>
  /// <b>Memory</b> - Store the journal in volatile RAM.  This saves disk I/O
  /// but at the expense of database safety and integrity.  If the application
  /// using SQLite crashes in the middle of a transaction when this journaling
  /// mode is set, then the database file will very likely go corrupt.
  /// <br/>
  /// <b>Wal</b> - Use a write-ahead log instead of a rollback journal.
  /// </description>
  /// <description>N</description>
  /// <description>Delete</description>
  /// </item>
  /// <item>
  /// <description>Read Only</description>
  /// <description>
  /// <b>True</b> - Open the database for read only access
  /// <br/>
  /// <b>False</b> - Open the database for normal read/write access
  /// </description>
  /// <description>N</description>
  /// <description>False</description>
  /// </item>
  /// <item>
  /// <description>Max Pool Size</description>
  /// <description>The maximum number of connections for the given connection string that can be in the connection pool</description>
  /// <description>N</description>
  /// <description>100</description>
  /// </item>
  /// <item>
  /// <description>Default IsolationLevel</description>
  /// <description>The default transaciton isolation level</description>
  /// <description>N</description>
  /// <description>Serializable</description>
  /// </item>
  /// <item>
  /// <description>Foreign Keys</description>
  /// <description>Enable foreign key constraints</description>
  /// <description>N</description>
  /// <description>False</description>
  /// </item>
  /// <item>
  /// <description>Flags</description>
  /// <description>Extra behavioral flags for the connection.  See the <see cref="SQLiteConnectionFlags" /> enumeration for possible values.</description>
  /// <description>N</description>
  /// <description>Default</description>
  /// </item>
  /// <item>
  /// <description>SetDefaults</description>
  /// <description>
  /// <b>True</b> - Apply the default connection settings to the opened database.<br/>
  /// <b>False</b> - Skip applying the default connection settings to the opened database.
  /// </description>
  /// <description>N</description>
  /// <description>True</description>
  /// </item>
  /// <item>
  /// <description>ToFullPath</description>
  /// <description>
  /// <b>True</b> - Attempt to expand the data source file name to a fully qualified path before opening.
  /// <br/>
  /// <b>False</b> - Skip attempting to expand the data source file name to a fully qualified path before opening.
  /// </description>
  /// <description>N</description>
  /// <description>True</description>
  /// </item>
  /// <item>
  /// <description>PrepareRetries</description>
  /// <description>
  /// The maximum number of retries when preparing SQL to be executed.  This
  /// normally only applies to preparation errors resulting from the database
  /// schema being changed.
  /// </description>
  /// <description>N</description>
  /// <description>3</description>
  /// </item>
  /// <item>
  /// <description>ProgressOps</description>
  /// <description>
  /// The approximate number of virtual machine instructions between progress
  /// events.  In order for progress events to actually fire, the event handler
  /// must be added to the <see cref="Progress" /> event as well.
  /// </description>
  /// <description>N</description>
  /// <description>0</description>
  /// </item>
  /// <item>
  /// <description>Recursive Triggers</description>
  /// <description>
  /// <b>True</b> - Enable the recursive trigger capability.
  /// <b>False</b> - Disable the recursive trigger capability.
  /// </description>
  /// <description>N</description>
  /// <description>False</description>
  /// </item>
  /// </list>
  /// </remarks>
  public sealed partial class SQLiteConnection : DbConnection, ICloneable, IDisposable
  {
    #region Private Constants
    /// <summary>
    /// The "invalid value" for the <see cref="DbType" /> enumeration used
    /// by the <see cref="DefaultDbType" /> property.  This constant is shared
    /// by this class and the SQLiteConnectionStringBuilder class.
    /// </summary>
    internal const DbType BadDbType = (DbType)(-1);

    /// <summary>
    /// The default "stub" (i.e. placeholder) base schema name to use when
    /// returning column schema information.  Used as the initial value of
    /// the BaseSchemaName property.  This should start with "sqlite_*"
    /// because those names are reserved for use by SQLite (i.e. they cannot
    /// be confused with the names of user objects).
    /// </summary>
    internal const string DefaultBaseSchemaName = "sqlite_default_schema";

    private const string MemoryFileName = ":memory:";

    internal const IsolationLevel DeferredIsolationLevel = IsolationLevel.ReadCommitted;
    internal const IsolationLevel ImmediateIsolationLevel = IsolationLevel.Serializable;

    private const SQLiteConnectionFlags FallbackDefaultFlags = SQLiteConnectionFlags.Default;
    private const SQLiteSynchronousEnum DefaultSynchronous = SQLiteSynchronousEnum.Default;
    private const SQLiteJournalModeEnum DefaultJournalMode = SQLiteJournalModeEnum.Default;
    private const IsolationLevel DefaultIsolationLevel = IsolationLevel.Serializable;
    internal const SQLiteDateFormats DefaultDateTimeFormat = SQLiteDateFormats.Default;
    internal const DateTimeKind DefaultDateTimeKind = DateTimeKind.Unspecified;
    internal const string DefaultDateTimeFormatString = null;
    private const string DefaultDataSource = null;
    private const string DefaultUri = null;
    private const string DefaultFullUri = null;
    private const string DefaultHexPassword = null;
    private const string DefaultPassword = null;
    private const int DefaultVersion = 3;
    private const int DefaultPageSize = 4096;
    private const int DefaultMaxPageCount = 0;
    private const int DefaultCacheSize = -2000;
    private const int DefaultMaxPoolSize = 100;
    private const int DefaultConnectionTimeout = 30;
    private const int DefaultBusyTimeout = 0;
    private const int DefaultWaitTimeout = 30000;
    private const bool DefaultNoDefaultFlags = false;
    private const bool DefaultNoSharedFlags = false;
    private const bool DefaultFailIfMissing = false;
    private const bool DefaultReadOnly = false;
    internal const bool DefaultBinaryGUID = true;
    private const bool DefaultUseUTF16Encoding = false;
    private const bool DefaultToFullPath = true;
    private const bool DefaultPooling = false; // TODO: Maybe promote this to static property?
    private const bool DefaultLegacyFormat = false;
    private const bool DefaultForeignKeys = false;
    private const bool DefaultRecursiveTriggers = false;
    private const bool DefaultEnlist = true;
    private const bool DefaultSetDefaults = true;
    internal const int DefaultPrepareRetries = 3;
    private const string DefaultVfsName = null;
    private const int DefaultProgressOps = 0;

#if INTEROP_INCLUDE_ZIPVFS
    private const string ZipVfs_Automatic = "automatic";
    private const string ZipVfs_V2 = "v2";
    private const string ZipVfs_V3 = "v3";

    private const string DefaultZipVfsVersion = null;
#endif

    private const int SQLITE_FCNTL_CHUNK_SIZE = 6;
    private const int SQLITE_FCNTL_WIN32_AV_RETRY = 9;

    private const string _dataDirectory = "|DataDirectory|";

    private static string _defaultCatalogName = "main";
    private static string _defaultMasterTableName = "sqlite_master";

    private static string _temporaryCatalogName = "temp";
    private static string _temporaryMasterTableName = "sqlite_temp_master";
    #endregion

    ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

    #region Private Static Data
    /// <summary>
    /// The managed assembly containing this type.
    /// </summary>
    private static readonly Assembly _assembly = typeof(SQLiteConnection).Assembly;

    /// <summary>
    /// Object used to synchronize access to the static instance data
    /// for this class.
    /// </summary>
    private static readonly object _syncRoot = new object();

    /// <summary>
    /// Static variable to store the connection event handlers to call.
    /// </summary>
    private static event SQLiteConnectionEventHandler _handlers;

    /// <summary>
    /// The extra connection flags to be used for all opened connections.
    /// </summary>
    private static SQLiteConnectionFlags _sharedFlags;

    /// <summary>
    /// The <see cref="SQLiteConnection" /> instance (for this thread) that
    /// had the most recent call to <see cref="SQLiteConnection.Open" />.
    /// </summary>
#if !PLATFORM_COMPACTFRAMEWORK
    [ThreadStatic()]
#endif
    private static SQLiteConnection _lastConnectionInOpen;

#if SQLITE_STANDARD && !PLATFORM_COMPACTFRAMEWORK
    /// <summary>
    /// Used to hold the active library version number of SQLite.
    /// </summary>
    private static int _versionNumber;
#endif
    #endregion

    ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

    #region Private Data
    /// <summary>
    /// State of the current connection
    /// </summary>
    private ConnectionState _connectionState;

    /// <summary>
    /// The connection string
    /// </summary>
    private string _connectionString;

#if DEBUG
    /// <summary>
    /// This string will contain enough information to identify this connection,
    /// e.g. the database file name, original thread, etc.  It is not currently
    /// exposed via the public interface as it is intended for use only when
    /// debugging this library.
    /// </summary>
    private string _debugString;
#endif

    /// <summary>
    /// Nesting level of the transactions open on the connection
    /// </summary>
    internal int _transactionLevel;

    /// <summary>
    /// Transaction counter for the connection.  Currently, this is only used
    /// to build SAVEPOINT names.
    /// </summary>
    internal int _transactionSequence;

    /// <summary>
    /// If this flag is non-zero, the <see cref="Dispose()" /> method will have
    /// no effect; however, the <see cref="Close" /> method will continue to
    /// behave as normal.
    /// </summary>
    internal bool _noDispose;

    /// <summary>
    /// If set, then the connection is currently being disposed.
    /// </summary>
    private bool _disposing;

    /// <summary>
    /// The default isolation level for new transactions
    /// </summary>
    private IsolationLevel _defaultIsolation;

#if !PLATFORM_COMPACTFRAMEWORK
    /// <summary>
    /// This object is used with lock statements to synchronize access to the
    /// <see cref="_enlistment" /> field, below.
    /// </summary>
    internal readonly object _enlistmentSyncRoot = new object();

    /// <summary>
    /// Whether or not the connection is enlisted in a distrubuted transaction
    /// </summary>
    internal SQLiteEnlistment _enlistment;
#endif

    /// <summary>
    /// The per-connection mappings between type names and <see cref="DbType" />
    /// values.  These mappings override the corresponding global mappings.
    /// </summary>
    internal SQLiteDbTypeMap _typeNames;

    /// <summary>
    /// The per-connection mappings between type names and optional callbacks
    /// for parameter binding and value reading.
    /// </summary>
    private SQLiteTypeCallbacksMap _typeCallbacks;

    /// <summary>
    /// The base SQLite object to interop with
    /// </summary>
    internal SQLiteBase _sql;
    /// <summary>
    /// The database filename minus path and extension
    /// </summary>
    private string _dataSource;

#if INTEROP_CODEC || INTEROP_INCLUDE_SEE
    /// <summary>
    /// Temporary password storage, emptied after the database has been opened
    /// </summary>
    private byte[] _password;
#endif

    /// <summary>
    /// The "stub" (i.e. placeholder) base schema name to use when returning
    /// column schema information.
    /// </summary>
    internal string _baseSchemaName;

    /// <summary>
    /// The extra behavioral flags for this connection, if any.  See the
    /// <see cref="SQLiteConnectionFlags" /> enumeration for a list of
    /// possible values.
    /// </summary>
    private SQLiteConnectionFlags _flags;

    /// <summary>
    /// The cached values for all settings that have been fetched on behalf
    /// of this connection.  This cache may be cleared by calling the
    /// <see cref="ClearCachedSettings" /> method.
    /// </summary>
    private Dictionary<string, object> _cachedSettings;

    /// <summary>
    /// The default databse type for this connection.  This value will only
    /// be used if the <see cref="SQLiteConnectionFlags.UseConnectionTypes" />
    /// flag is set.
    /// </summary>
    private DbType? _defaultDbType;

    /// <summary>
    /// The default databse type name for this connection.  This value will only
    /// be used if the <see cref="SQLiteConnectionFlags.UseConnectionTypes" />
    /// flag is set.
    /// </summary>
    private string _defaultTypeName;

    /// <summary>
    /// The name of the VFS to be used when opening the database connection.
    /// </summary>
    private string _vfsName;

    /// <summary>
    /// Default command timeout
    /// </summary>
    private int _defaultTimeout = DefaultConnectionTimeout;

    /// <summary>
    /// The default busy timeout to use with the SQLite core library.  This is
    /// only used when opening a connection.
    /// </summary>
    private int _busyTimeout = DefaultBusyTimeout;

#if !PLATFORM_COMPACTFRAMEWORK
    /// <summary>
    /// The default wait timeout to use with <see cref="WaitForEnlistmentReset" />
    /// method.  This is only used when waiting for the enlistment to be reset
    /// prior to enlisting in a transaction, and then only when the appropriate
    /// connection flag is set.
    /// </summary>
    private int _waitTimeout = DefaultWaitTimeout;
#endif

    /// <summary>
    /// The maximum number of retries when preparing SQL to be executed.  This
    /// normally only applies to preparation errors resulting from the database
    /// schema being changed.
    /// </summary>
    internal int _prepareRetries = DefaultPrepareRetries;

    /// <summary>
    /// The approximate number of virtual machine instructions between progress
    /// events.  In order for progress events to actually fire, the event handler
    /// must be added to the <see cref="SQLiteConnection.Progress" /> event as
    /// well.  This value will only be used when opening the database.
    /// </summary>
    private int _progressOps = DefaultProgressOps;

    /// <summary>
    /// Non-zero if the built-in (i.e. framework provided) connection string
    /// parser should be used when opening the connection.
    /// </summary>
    private bool _parseViaFramework;

    internal bool _binaryGuid;

    internal int _version;

    private event SQLiteProgressEventHandler _progressHandler;
    private event SQLiteAuthorizerEventHandler _authorizerHandler;
    private event SQLiteUpdateEventHandler _updateHandler;
    private event SQLiteCommitHandler _commitHandler;
    private event SQLiteTraceEventHandler _traceHandler;
    private event EventHandler _rollbackHandler;

    private SQLiteProgressCallback _progressCallback;
    private SQLiteAuthorizerCallback _authorizerCallback;
    private SQLiteUpdateCallback _updateCallback;
    private SQLiteCommitCallback _commitCallback;
    private SQLiteTraceCallback _traceCallback;
    private SQLiteRollbackCallback _rollbackCallback;
    #endregion

    ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

    private static string GetDefaultCatalogName()
    {
        return _defaultCatalogName;
    }

    ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

    private static bool IsDefaultCatalogName(
        string catalogName
        )
    {
        return String.Compare(catalogName, GetDefaultCatalogName(),
            StringComparison.OrdinalIgnoreCase) == 0;
    }

    ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

    private static string GetTemporaryCatalogName()
    {
        return _temporaryCatalogName;
    }

    ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

    private static bool IsTemporaryCatalogName(
        string catalogName
        )
    {
        return String.Compare(catalogName, GetTemporaryCatalogName(),
            StringComparison.OrdinalIgnoreCase) == 0;
    }

    ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

    private static string GetMasterTableName(
        bool temporary
        )
    {
        return temporary ? _temporaryMasterTableName : _defaultMasterTableName;
    }

    ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

    /// <summary>
    /// This event is raised whenever the database is opened or closed.
    /// </summary>
    public override event StateChangeEventHandler StateChange;

    ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

    ///<overloads>
    /// Constructs a new SQLiteConnection object
    /// </overloads>
    /// <summary>
    /// Default constructor
    /// </summary>
    public SQLiteConnection()
      : this((string)null)
    {
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Initializes the connection with the specified connection string.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="connectionString">The connection string to use.</param>
    public SQLiteConnection(string connectionString)
        : this(connectionString, false)
    {
        // do nothing.
    }

#if INTEROP_VIRTUAL_TABLE
    /// <summary>
    /// Initializes the connection with a pre-existing native connection handle.
    /// This constructor overload is intended to be used only by the private
    /// <see cref="SQLiteModule.CreateOrConnect" /> method.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="db">
    /// The native connection handle to use.
    /// </param>
    /// <param name="fileName">
    /// The file name corresponding to the native connection handle.
    /// </param>
    /// <param name="ownHandle">
    /// Non-zero if this instance owns the native connection handle and
    /// should dispose of it when it is no longer needed.
    /// </param>
    internal SQLiteConnection(IntPtr db, string fileName, bool ownHandle)
        : this()
    {
        _sql = new SQLite3(
            SQLiteDateFormats.Default, DateTimeKind.Unspecified, null,
            db, fileName, ownHandle);

        _flags = SQLiteConnectionFlags.None;

        _connectionState = (db != IntPtr.Zero) ?
            ConnectionState.Open : ConnectionState.Closed;

        _connectionString = null; /* unknown */

#if DEBUG
        _debugString = HelperMethods.StringFormat(
            CultureInfo.InvariantCulture,
            "db = {0}, fileName = {1}, ownHandle = {2}",
            db, fileName, ownHandle);
#endif
    }
#endif

    /// <summary>
    /// Initializes the connection with the specified connection string.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="connectionString">
    /// The connection string to use.
    /// </param>
    /// <param name="parseViaFramework">
    /// Non-zero to parse the connection string using the built-in (i.e.
    /// framework provided) parser when opening the connection.
    /// </param>
    public SQLiteConnection(string connectionString, bool parseViaFramework)
    {
      _noDispose = false;

#if (SQLITE_STANDARD || USE_INTEROP_DLL || PLATFORM_COMPACTFRAMEWORK) && PRELOAD_NATIVE_LIBRARY
      UnsafeNativeMethods.Initialize();
#endif

      SQLiteLog.Initialize(typeof(SQLiteConnection).Name);

#if !PLATFORM_COMPACTFRAMEWORK && !INTEROP_LEGACY_CLOSE && SQLITE_STANDARD
      //
      // NOTE: Check if the sqlite3_close_v2() native API should be available
      //       to use.  This must be done dynamically because the delegate set
      //       here is used by the SQLiteConnectionHandle class, which is a
      //       CriticalHandle derived class (i.e. protected by a constrained
      //       execution region).  Therefore, if the underlying native entry
      //       point is unavailable, an exception will be raised even if it is
      //       never actually called (i.e. because the runtime eagerly prepares
      //       all the methods in the call graph of the constrained execution
      //       region).
      //
      lock (_syncRoot)
      {
          if (_versionNumber == 0)
          {
              _versionNumber = SQLite3.SQLiteVersionNumber;

              if (_versionNumber >= 3007014)
                  SQLiteConnectionHandle.closeConnection = SQLiteBase.CloseConnectionV2;
          }
      }
#endif

      _cachedSettings = new Dictionary<string, object>(
          new TypeNameStringComparer());

      _typeNames = new SQLiteDbTypeMap();
      _typeCallbacks = new SQLiteTypeCallbacksMap();
      _parseViaFramework = parseViaFramework;
      _flags = SQLiteConnectionFlags.None;
      _defaultDbType = null;
      _defaultTypeName = null;
      _vfsName = null;
      _connectionState = ConnectionState.Closed;
      _connectionString = null;

      if (connectionString != null)
        ConnectionString = connectionString;
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Clones the settings and connection string from an existing connection.  If the existing connection is already open, this
    /// function will open its own connection, enumerate any attached databases of the original connection, and automatically
    /// attach to them.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="connection">The connection to copy the settings from.</param>
    public SQLiteConnection(SQLiteConnection connection)
      : this(connection.ConnectionString, connection.ParseViaFramework)
    {
#if DEBUG
      _debugString = connection._debugString;
#endif

      if (connection.State == ConnectionState.Open)
      {
        Open();

        // Reattach all attached databases from the existing connection
        using (DataTable tbl = connection.GetSchema("Catalogs"))
        {
          foreach (DataRow row in tbl.Rows)
          {
            string str = row[0].ToString();

            if (!IsDefaultCatalogName(str) && !IsTemporaryCatalogName(str))
            {
              using (SQLiteCommand cmd = CreateCommand())
              {
                cmd.CommandText = HelperMethods.StringFormat(CultureInfo.InvariantCulture, "ATTACH DATABASE '{0}' AS [{1}]", row[1], row[0]);
                cmd.ExecuteNonQuery();
              }
            }
          }
        }
      }
    }

    ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

    /// <summary>
    /// Attempts to lookup the native handle associated with the connection.  An exception will
    /// be thrown if this cannot be accomplished.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="connection">
    /// The connection associated with the desired native handle.
    /// </param>
    /// <returns>
    /// The native handle associated with the connection or <see cref="IntPtr.Zero" /> if it
    /// cannot be determined.
    /// </returns>
    private static SQLiteConnectionHandle GetNativeHandle(
        SQLiteConnection connection
        )
    {
        if (connection == null)
            throw new ArgumentNullException("connection");

        SQLite3 sqlite3 = connection._sql as SQLite3;

        if (sqlite3 == null)
            throw new InvalidOperationException("Connection has no wrapper");

        SQLiteConnectionHandle handle = sqlite3._sql;

        if (handle == null)
            throw new InvalidOperationException("Connection has an invalid handle.");

        IntPtr handlePtr = handle;

        if (handlePtr == IntPtr.Zero)
        {
            throw new InvalidOperationException(
                "Connection has an invalid handle pointer.");
        }

        return handle;
    }

    ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

    /// <summary>
    /// Raises the <see cref="Changed" /> event.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="connection">
    /// The connection associated with this event.  If this parameter is not
    /// null and the specified connection cannot raise events, then the
    /// registered event handlers will not be invoked.
    /// </param>
    /// <param name="e">
    /// A <see cref="ConnectionEventArgs" /> that contains the event data.
    /// </param>
    internal static void OnChanged(
        SQLiteConnection connection,
        ConnectionEventArgs e
        )
    {
#if !PLATFORM_COMPACTFRAMEWORK
        if ((connection != null) && !connection.CanRaiseEvents)
            return;
#endif

        SQLiteConnectionEventHandler handlers;

        lock (_syncRoot)
        {
            if (_handlers != null)
                handlers = _handlers.Clone() as SQLiteConnectionEventHandler;
            else
                handlers = null;
        }

        if (handlers != null) handlers(connection, e);
    }

    ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

    /// <summary>
    /// This event is raised when events related to the lifecycle of a
    /// SQLiteConnection object occur.
    /// </summary>
    public static event SQLiteConnectionEventHandler Changed
    {
        add
        {
            lock (_syncRoot)
            {
                // Remove any copies of this event handler from registered
                // list.  This essentially means that a handler will be
                // called only once no matter how many times it is added.
                _handlers -= value;

                // Add this to the list of event handlers.
                _handlers += value;
            }
        }
        remove
        {
            lock (_syncRoot)
            {
                _handlers -= value;
            }
        }
    }

    ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

    /// <summary>
    /// This property is used to obtain or set the custom connection pool
    /// implementation to use, if any.  Setting this property to null will
    /// cause the default connection pool implementation to be used.
    /// </summary>
    public static ISQLiteConnectionPool ConnectionPool
    {
        get { return SQLiteConnectionPool.GetConnectionPool(); }
        set { SQLiteConnectionPool.SetConnectionPool(value); }
    }

    ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

    /// <summary>
    /// Creates and returns a new managed database connection handle.  This
    /// method is intended to be used by implementations of the
    /// <see cref="ISQLiteConnectionPool" /> interface only.  In theory, it
    /// could be used by other classes; however, that usage is not supported.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="nativeHandle">
    /// This must be a native database connection handle returned by the
    /// SQLite core library and it must remain valid and open during the
    /// entire duration of the calling method.
    /// </param>
    /// <returns>
    /// The new managed database connection handle or null if it cannot be
    /// created.
    /// </returns>
    public static object CreateHandle(
        IntPtr nativeHandle
        )
    {
        SQLiteConnectionHandle result;

        try
        {
            // do nothing.
        }
        finally /* NOTE: Thread.Abort() protection. */
        {
            result = (nativeHandle != IntPtr.Zero) ?
                new SQLiteConnectionHandle(nativeHandle, true) : null;
        }

        if (result != null)
        {
            SQLiteConnection.OnChanged(null, new ConnectionEventArgs(
                SQLiteConnectionEventType.NewCriticalHandle, null,
                null, null, null, result, null, new object[] {
                typeof(SQLiteConnection), nativeHandle }));
        }

        return result;
    }

    ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

    #region Backup API Members
    /// <summary>
    /// Backs up the database, using the specified database connection as the
    /// destination.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="destination">The destination database connection.</param>
    /// <param name="destinationName">The destination database name.</param>
    /// <param name="sourceName">The source database name.</param>
    /// <param name="pages">
    /// The number of pages to copy at a time -OR- a negative value to copy all
    /// pages.  When a negative value is used, the <paramref name="callback" />
    /// may never be invoked.
    /// </param>
    /// <param name="callback">
    /// The method to invoke between each step of the backup process.  This
    /// parameter may be null (i.e. no callbacks will be performed).  If the
    /// callback returns false -OR- throws an exception, the backup is canceled.
    /// </param>
    /// <param name="retryMilliseconds">
    /// The number of milliseconds to sleep after encountering a locking error
    /// during the backup process.  A value less than zero means that no sleep
    /// should be performed.
    /// </param>
    public void BackupDatabase(
        SQLiteConnection destination,
        string destinationName,
        string sourceName,
        int pages,
        SQLiteBackupCallback callback,
        int retryMilliseconds
        )
    {
        CheckDisposed();

        if (_connectionState != ConnectionState.Open)
            throw new InvalidOperationException(
                "Source database is not open.");

        if (destination == null)
            throw new ArgumentNullException("destination");

        if (destination._connectionState != ConnectionState.Open)
            throw new ArgumentException(
                "Destination database is not open.", "destination");

        if (destinationName == null)
            throw new ArgumentNullException("destinationName");

        if (sourceName == null)
            throw new ArgumentNullException("sourceName");

        SQLiteBase sqliteBase = _sql;

        if (sqliteBase == null)
            throw new InvalidOperationException(
                "Connection object has an invalid handle.");

        SQLiteBackup backup = null;

        try
        {
            backup = sqliteBase.InitializeBackup(
                destination, destinationName, sourceName); /* throw */

            bool retry = false;

            while (sqliteBase.StepBackup(backup, pages, ref retry)) /* throw */
            {
                //
                // NOTE: If a callback was supplied by our caller, call it.
                //       If it returns false, halt the backup process.
                //
                if ((callback != null) && !callback(this, sourceName,
                        destination, destinationName, pages,
                        sqliteBase.RemainingBackup(backup),
                        sqliteBase.PageCountBackup(backup), retry))
                {
                    break;
                }

                //
                // NOTE: If we need to retry the previous operation, wait for
                //       the number of milliseconds specified by our caller
                //       unless the caller used a negative number, in that case
                //       skip sleeping at all because we do not want to block
                //       this thread forever.
                //
                if (retry && (retryMilliseconds >= 0))
                    Thread.Sleep(retryMilliseconds);

                //
                // NOTE: There is no point in calling the native API to copy
                //       zero pages as it does nothing; therefore, stop now.
                //
                if (pages == 0)
                    break;
            }
        }
        catch (Exception e)
        {
            if (HelperMethods.LogBackup(_flags))
            {
                SQLiteLog.LogMessage(HelperMethods.StringFormat(
                    CultureInfo.CurrentCulture,
                    "Caught exception while backing up database: {0}", e));
            }

            throw;
        }
        finally
        {
            if (backup != null)
                sqliteBase.FinishBackup(backup); /* throw */
        }
    }
    #endregion

    ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

    #region Per-Connection Settings
    /// <summary>
    /// Clears the per-connection cached settings.
    /// </summary>
    /// <returns>
    /// The total number of per-connection settings cleared.
    /// </returns>
    public int ClearCachedSettings()
    {
        CheckDisposed();

        int result = -1; /* NO SETTINGS */

        if (_cachedSettings != null)
        {
            result = _cachedSettings.Count;
            _cachedSettings.Clear();
        }

        return result;
    }

    ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

    /// <summary>
    /// Queries and returns the value of the specified setting, using the
    /// cached setting names and values for this connection, when available.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="name">
    /// The name of the setting.
    /// </param>
    /// <param name="default">
    /// The value to be returned if the setting has not been set explicitly
    /// or cannot be determined.
    /// </param>
    /// <param name="value">
    /// The value of the cached setting is stored here if found; otherwise,
    /// the value of <paramref name="default" /> is stored here.
    /// </param>
    /// <returns>
    /// Non-zero if the cached setting was found; otherwise, zero.
    /// </returns>
    internal bool TryGetCachedSetting(
        string name,     /* in */
        object @default, /* in */
        out object value /* out */
        )
    {
        if ((name == null) || (_cachedSettings == null))
        {
            value = @default;
            return false;
        }

        return _cachedSettings.TryGetValue(name, out value);
    }

    ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

    /// <summary>
    /// Adds or sets the cached setting specified by <paramref name="name" />
    /// to the value specified by <paramref name="value" />.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="name">
    /// The name of the cached setting to add or replace.
    /// </param>
    /// <param name="value">
    /// The new value of the cached setting.
    /// </param>
    internal void SetCachedSetting(
        string name, /* in */
        object value /* in */
        )
    {
        if ((name == null) || (_cachedSettings == null))
            return;

        _cachedSettings[name] = value;
    }
    #endregion

    ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

    #region Per-Connection Type Mappings
    /// <summary>
    /// Clears the per-connection type mappings.
    /// </summary>
    /// <returns>
    /// The total number of per-connection type mappings cleared.
    /// </returns>
    public int ClearTypeMappings()
    {
        CheckDisposed();

        int result = -1; /* NO MAPPINGS */

        if (_typeNames != null)
            result = _typeNames.Clear();

        return result;
    }

    ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

    /// <summary>
    /// Returns the per-connection type mappings.
    /// </summary>
    /// <returns>
    /// The per-connection type mappings -OR- null if they are unavailable.
    /// </returns>
    public Dictionary<string, object> GetTypeMappings()
    {
        CheckDisposed();

        Dictionary<string, object> result = null;

        if (_typeNames != null)
        {
            result = new Dictionary<string, object>(_typeNames.Count, _typeNames.Comparer);

            foreach (KeyValuePair<string, SQLiteDbTypeMapping> pair in _typeNames)
            {
                SQLiteDbTypeMapping mapping = pair.Value;

                object typeName = null; /* System.String */
                object dataType = null; /* System.Data.DbType */
                object primary = null;  /* System.Boolean */

                if (mapping != null)
                {
                    typeName = mapping.typeName;
                    dataType = mapping.dataType;
                    primary = mapping.primary;
                }

                result.Add(pair.Key, new object[] { typeName, dataType, primary });
            }
        }

        return result;
    }

    ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

    /// <summary>
    /// Adds a per-connection type mapping, possibly replacing one or more
    /// that already exist.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="typeName">
    /// The case-insensitive database type name (e.g. "MYDATE").  The value
    /// of this parameter cannot be null.  Using an empty string value (or
    /// a string value consisting entirely of whitespace) for this parameter
    /// is not recommended.
    /// </param>
    /// <param name="dataType">
    /// The <see cref="DbType" /> value that should be associated with the
    /// specified type name.
    /// </param>
    /// <param name="primary">
    /// Non-zero if this mapping should be considered to be the primary one
    /// for the specified <see cref="DbType" />.
    /// </param>
    /// <returns>
    /// A negative value if nothing was done.  Zero if no per-connection type
    /// mappings were replaced (i.e. it was a pure add operation).  More than
    /// zero if some per-connection type mappings were replaced.
    /// </returns>
    public int AddTypeMapping(
        string typeName,
        DbType dataType,
        bool primary
        )
    {
        CheckDisposed();

        if (typeName == null)
            throw new ArgumentNullException("typeName");

        int result = -1; /* NO MAPPINGS */

        if (_typeNames != null)
        {
            result = 0;

            if (primary && _typeNames.ContainsKey(dataType))
                result += _typeNames.Remove(dataType) ? 1 : 0;

            if (_typeNames.ContainsKey(typeName))
                result += _typeNames.Remove(typeName) ? 1 : 0;

            _typeNames.Add(new SQLiteDbTypeMapping(typeName, dataType, primary));
        }

        return result;
    }
    #endregion

    ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

    #region Per-Connection Type Callbacks
    /// <summary>
    /// Clears the per-connection type callbacks.
    /// </summary>
    /// <returns>
    /// The total number of per-connection type callbacks cleared.
    /// </returns>
    public int ClearTypeCallbacks()
    {
        CheckDisposed();

        int result = -1; /* NO CALLBACKS */

        if (_typeCallbacks != null)
        {
            result = _typeCallbacks.Count;
            _typeCallbacks.Clear();
        }

        return result;
    }

    ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

    /// <summary>
    /// Attempts to get the per-connection type callbacks for the specified
    /// database type name.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="typeName">
    /// The database type name.
    /// </param>
    /// <param name="callbacks">
    /// Upon success, this parameter will contain the object holding the
    /// callbacks for the database type name.  Upon failure, this parameter
    /// will be null.
    /// </param>
    /// <returns>
    /// Non-zero upon success; otherwise, zero.
    /// </returns>
    public bool TryGetTypeCallbacks(
        string typeName,
        out SQLiteTypeCallbacks callbacks
        )
    {
        CheckDisposed();

        if (typeName == null)
            throw new ArgumentNullException("typeName");

        if (_typeCallbacks == null)
        {
            callbacks = null;
            return false;
        }

        return _typeCallbacks.TryGetValue(typeName, out callbacks);
    }

    ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

    /// <summary>
    /// Sets, resets, or clears the per-connection type callbacks for the
    /// specified database type name.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="typeName">
    /// The database type name.
    /// </param>
    /// <param name="callbacks">
    /// The object holding the callbacks for the database type name.  If
    /// this parameter is null, any callbacks for the database type name
    /// will be removed if they are present.
    /// </param>
    /// <returns>
    /// Non-zero if callbacks were set or removed; otherwise, zero.
    /// </returns>
    public bool SetTypeCallbacks(
        string typeName,
        SQLiteTypeCallbacks callbacks
        )
    {
        CheckDisposed();

        if (typeName == null)
            throw new ArgumentNullException("typeName");

        if (_typeCallbacks == null)
            return false;

        if (callbacks == null)
            return _typeCallbacks.Remove(typeName);

        callbacks.TypeName = typeName;
        _typeCallbacks[typeName] = callbacks;

        return true;
    }
    #endregion

    ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

    /// <summary>
    /// Attempts to bind the specified <see cref="SQLiteFunction" /> object
    /// instance to this connection.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="functionAttribute">
    /// The <see cref="SQLiteFunctionAttribute" /> object instance containing
    /// the metadata for the function to be bound.
    /// </param>
    /// <param name="function">
    /// The <see cref="SQLiteFunction" /> object instance that implements the
    /// function to be bound.
    /// </param>
    public void BindFunction(
        SQLiteFunctionAttribute functionAttribute,
        SQLiteFunction function
        )
    {
        CheckDisposed();

        if (_sql == null)
            throw new InvalidOperationException(
                "Database connection not valid for binding functions.");

        _sql.BindFunction(functionAttribute, function, _flags);
    }

    ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

    /// <summary>
    /// Attempts to bind the specified <see cref="SQLiteFunction" /> object
    /// instance to this connection.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="functionAttribute">
    /// The <see cref="SQLiteFunctionAttribute" /> object instance containing
    /// the metadata for the function to be bound.
    /// </param>
    /// <param name="callback1">
    /// A <see cref="Delegate" /> object instance that helps implement the
    /// function to be bound.  For scalar functions, this corresponds to the
    /// <see cref="SQLiteInvokeDelegate" /> type.  For aggregate functions,
    /// this corresponds to the <see cref="SQLiteStepDelegate" /> type.  For
    /// collation functions, this corresponds to the
    /// <see cref="SQLiteCompareDelegate" /> type.
    /// </param>
    /// <param name="callback2">
    /// A <see cref="Delegate" /> object instance that helps implement the
    /// function to be bound.  For aggregate functions, this corresponds to the
    /// <see cref="SQLiteFinalDelegate" /> type.  For other callback types, it
    /// is not used and must be null.
    /// </param>
    public void BindFunction(
        SQLiteFunctionAttribute functionAttribute,
        Delegate callback1,
        Delegate callback2
        )
    {
        CheckDisposed();

        if (_sql == null)
            throw new InvalidOperationException(
                "Database connection not valid for binding functions.");

        _sql.BindFunction(functionAttribute,
            new SQLiteDelegateFunction(callback1, callback2), _flags);
    }

    ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

    /// <summary>
    /// Attempts to unbind the specified <see cref="SQLiteFunction" /> object
    /// instance to this connection.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="functionAttribute">
    /// The <see cref="SQLiteFunctionAttribute" /> object instance containing
    /// the metadata for the function to be unbound.
    /// </param>
    /// <returns>Non-zero if the function was unbound.</returns>
    public bool UnbindFunction(
        SQLiteFunctionAttribute functionAttribute
        )
    {
        CheckDisposed();

        if (_sql == null)
            throw new InvalidOperationException(
                "Database connection not valid for unbinding functions.");

        return _sql.UnbindFunction(functionAttribute, _flags);
    }

    ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

    /// <summary>
    /// This method unbinds all registered (known) functions -OR- all previously
    /// bound user-defined functions from this connection.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="registered">
    /// Non-zero to unbind all registered (known) functions -OR- zero to unbind
    /// all functions currently bound to the connection.
    /// </param>
    /// <returns>
    /// Non-zero if all the specified user-defined functions were unbound.
    /// </returns>
    public bool UnbindAllFunctions(
        bool registered
        )
    {
        CheckDisposed();

        if (_sql == null)
            throw new InvalidOperationException(
                "Database connection not valid for unbinding functions.");

        return SQLiteFunction.UnbindAllFunctions(_sql, _flags, registered);
    }

    ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

    [Conditional("CHECK_STATE")]
    internal static void Check(SQLiteConnection connection)
    {
        if (connection == null)
            throw new ArgumentNullException("connection");

        connection.CheckDisposed();

        if (connection._connectionState != ConnectionState.Open)
            throw new InvalidOperationException("The connection is not open.");

        SQLite3 sql = connection._sql as SQLite3;

        if (sql == null)
            throw new InvalidOperationException("The connection handle wrapper is null.");

        SQLiteConnectionHandle handle = sql._sql;

        if (handle == null)
            throw new InvalidOperationException("The connection handle is null.");

        if (handle.IsInvalid)
            throw new InvalidOperationException("The connection handle is invalid.");

        if (handle.IsClosed)
            throw new InvalidOperationException("The connection handle is closed.");
    }

    ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

    /// <summary>
    /// Parses a connection string into component parts using the custom
    /// connection string parser.  An exception may be thrown if the syntax
    /// of the connection string is incorrect.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="connectionString">
    /// The connection string to parse.
    /// </param>
    /// <param name="parseViaFramework">
    /// Non-zero to parse the connection string using the algorithm provided
    /// by the framework itself.  This is not applicable when running on the
    /// .NET Compact Framework.
    /// </param>
    /// <param name="allowNameOnly">
    /// Non-zero if names are allowed without values.
    /// </param>
    /// <returns>
    /// The list of key/value pairs corresponding to the parameters specified
    /// within the connection string.
    /// </returns>
    internal static SortedList<string, string> ParseConnectionString(
        string connectionString,
        bool parseViaFramework,
        bool allowNameOnly
        )
    {
        return ParseConnectionString(
            null, connectionString, parseViaFramework, allowNameOnly);
    }

    ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

    /// <summary>
    /// Parses a connection string into component parts using the custom
    /// connection string parser.  An exception may be thrown if the syntax
    /// of the connection string is incorrect.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="connection">
    /// The connection that will be using the parsed connection string.
    /// </param>
    /// <param name="connectionString">
    /// The connection string to parse.
    /// </param>
    /// <param name="parseViaFramework">
    /// Non-zero to parse the connection string using the algorithm provided
    /// by the framework itself.  This is not applicable when running on the
    /// .NET Compact Framework.
    /// </param>
    /// <param name="allowNameOnly">
    /// Non-zero if names are allowed without values.
    /// </param>
    /// <returns>
    /// The list of key/value pairs corresponding to the parameters specified
    /// within the connection string.
    /// </returns>
    private static SortedList<string, string> ParseConnectionString(
        SQLiteConnection connection,
        string connectionString,
        bool parseViaFramework,
        bool allowNameOnly
        )
    {
        return parseViaFramework ?
            ParseConnectionStringViaFramework(connection, connectionString, false) :
            ParseConnectionString(connection, connectionString, allowNameOnly);
    }

    ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

    private void SetupSQLiteBase(SortedList<string, string> opts)
    {
        object enumValue;

        enumValue = TryParseEnum(
            typeof(SQLiteDateFormats), FindKey(opts, "DateTimeFormat",
            DefaultDateTimeFormat.ToString()), true);

        SQLiteDateFormats dateFormat = (enumValue is SQLiteDateFormats) ?
            (SQLiteDateFormats)enumValue : DefaultDateTimeFormat;

        enumValue = TryParseEnum(
            typeof(DateTimeKind), FindKey(opts, "DateTimeKind",
            DefaultDateTimeKind.ToString()), true);

        DateTimeKind kind = (enumValue is DateTimeKind) ?
            (DateTimeKind)enumValue : DefaultDateTimeKind;

        string dateTimeFormat = FindKey(opts, "DateTimeFormatString",
            DefaultDateTimeFormatString);

        //
        // NOTE: SQLite automatically sets the encoding of the database
        //       to UTF16 if called from sqlite3_open16().
        //
        if (SQLiteConvert.ToBoolean(FindKey(opts, "UseUTF16Encoding",
                  DefaultUseUTF16Encoding.ToString())))
        {
            _sql = new SQLite3_UTF16(
                dateFormat, kind, dateTimeFormat, IntPtr.Zero, null,
                false);
        }
        else
        {
            _sql = new SQLite3(
                dateFormat, kind, dateTimeFormat, IntPtr.Zero, null,
                false);
        }
    }

    ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

    #region IDisposable Members
    /// <summary>
    /// Disposes and finalizes the connection, if applicable.
    /// </summary>
    public new void Dispose()
    {
        if (_noDispose)
            return;

        base.Dispose();
    }
    #endregion

    ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

    #region IDisposable "Pattern" Members
    private bool disposed;
    private void CheckDisposed() /* throw */
    {
#if THROW_ON_DISPOSED
        if (disposed)
            throw new ObjectDisposedException(typeof(SQLiteConnection).Name);
#endif
    }

    ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

    /// <summary>
    /// Cleans up resources (native and managed) associated with the current instance.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="disposing">
    /// Zero when being disposed via garbage collection; otherwise, non-zero.
    /// </param>
    protected override void Dispose(bool disposing)
    {
#if !NET_COMPACT_20 && TRACE_WARNING
        if ((_flags & SQLiteConnectionFlags.TraceWarning) == SQLiteConnectionFlags.TraceWarning)
        {
            if (_noDispose)
            {
                System.Diagnostics.Trace.WriteLine(HelperMethods.StringFormat(
                    CultureInfo.CurrentCulture,
                    "WARNING: Disposing of connection \"{0}\" with the no-dispose flag set.",
                    _connectionString));
            }
        }
#endif

        _disposing = true;

        try
        {
            if (!disposed)
            {
                //if (disposing)
                //{
                //    ////////////////////////////////////
                //    // dispose managed resources here...
                //    ////////////////////////////////////
                //}

                //////////////////////////////////////
                // release unmanaged resources here...
                //////////////////////////////////////

                Close();
            }
        }
        finally
        {
            base.Dispose(disposing);

            //
            // NOTE: Everything should be fully disposed at this point.
            //
            disposed = true;
        }
    }
    #endregion

    ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

#if PLATFORM_COMPACTFRAMEWORK
    /// <summary>
    /// Obsolete
    /// </summary>
    public override int ConnectionTimeout
    {
      get
      {
        CheckDisposed();
        return DefaultConnectionTimeout;
      }
    }
#endif

    /// <summary>
    /// Creates a clone of the connection.  All attached databases and user-defined functions are cloned.  If the existing connection is open, the cloned connection
    /// will also be opened.
    /// </summary>
    /// <returns></returns>
    public object Clone()
    {
      CheckDisposed();
      return new SQLiteConnection(this);
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Creates a database file.  This just creates a zero-byte file which SQLite
    /// will turn into a database when the file is opened properly.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="databaseFileName">The file to create</param>
    static public void CreateFile(string databaseFileName)
    {
      FileStream fs = File.Create(databaseFileName);
      fs.Close();
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Raises the state change event when the state of the connection changes
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="newState">The new connection state.  If this is different
    /// from the previous state, the <see cref="StateChange" /> event is
    /// raised.</param>
    /// <param name="eventArgs">The event data created for the raised event, if
    /// it was actually raised.</param>
    internal void OnStateChange(
        ConnectionState newState,
        ref StateChangeEventArgs eventArgs
        )
    {
        ConnectionState oldState = _connectionState;

        _connectionState = newState;

        if ((StateChange != null) && (newState != oldState))
        {
            StateChangeEventArgs localEventArgs =
                new StateChangeEventArgs(oldState, newState);

            StateChange(this, localEventArgs);

            eventArgs = localEventArgs;
        }
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Determines and returns the fallback default isolation level when one cannot be
    /// obtained from an existing connection instance.
    /// </summary>
    /// <returns>
    /// The fallback default isolation level for this connection instance -OR-
    /// <see cref="IsolationLevel.Unspecified" /> if it cannot be determined.
    /// </returns>
    private static IsolationLevel GetFallbackDefaultIsolationLevel()
    {
        return DefaultIsolationLevel;
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Determines and returns the default isolation level for this connection instance.
    /// </summary>
    /// <returns>
    /// The default isolation level for this connection instance -OR-
    /// <see cref="IsolationLevel.Unspecified" /> if it cannot be determined.
    /// </returns>
    internal IsolationLevel GetDefaultIsolationLevel()
    {
        return _defaultIsolation;
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// OBSOLETE.  Creates a new SQLiteTransaction if one isn't already active on the connection.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="isolationLevel">This parameter is ignored.</param>
    /// <param name="deferredLock">When TRUE, SQLite defers obtaining a write lock until a write operation is requested.
    /// When FALSE, a writelock is obtained immediately.  The default is TRUE, but in a multi-threaded multi-writer
    /// environment, one may instead choose to lock the database immediately to avoid any possible writer deadlock.</param>
    /// <returns>Returns a SQLiteTransaction object.</returns>
    [Obsolete("Use one of the standard BeginTransaction methods, this one will be removed soon")]
    public SQLiteTransaction BeginTransaction(IsolationLevel isolationLevel, bool deferredLock)
    {
      CheckDisposed();
      return (SQLiteTransaction)BeginDbTransaction(deferredLock == false ? ImmediateIsolationLevel : DeferredIsolationLevel);
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// OBSOLETE.  Creates a new SQLiteTransaction if one isn't already active on the connection.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="deferredLock">When TRUE, SQLite defers obtaining a write lock until a write operation is requested.
    /// When FALSE, a writelock is obtained immediately.  The default is false, but in a multi-threaded multi-writer
    /// environment, one may instead choose to lock the database immediately to avoid any possible writer deadlock.</param>
    /// <returns>Returns a SQLiteTransaction object.</returns>
    [Obsolete("Use one of the standard BeginTransaction methods, this one will be removed soon")]
    public SQLiteTransaction BeginTransaction(bool deferredLock)
    {
      CheckDisposed();
      return (SQLiteTransaction)BeginDbTransaction(deferredLock == false ? ImmediateIsolationLevel : DeferredIsolationLevel);
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Creates a new <see cref="SQLiteTransaction" /> if one isn't already active on the connection.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="isolationLevel">Supported isolation levels are Serializable, ReadCommitted and Unspecified.</param>
    /// <remarks>
    /// Unspecified will use the default isolation level specified in the connection string.  If no isolation level is specified in the
    /// connection string, Serializable is used.
    /// Serializable transactions are the default.  In this mode, the engine gets an immediate lock on the database, and no other threads
    /// may begin a transaction.  Other threads may read from the database, but not write.
    /// With a ReadCommitted isolation level, locks are deferred and elevated as needed.  It is possible for multiple threads to start
    /// a transaction in ReadCommitted mode, but if a thread attempts to commit a transaction while another thread
    /// has a ReadCommitted lock, it may timeout or cause a deadlock on both threads until both threads' CommandTimeout's are reached.
    /// </remarks>
    /// <returns>Returns a SQLiteTransaction object.</returns>
    public new SQLiteTransaction BeginTransaction(IsolationLevel isolationLevel)
    {
      CheckDisposed();
      return (SQLiteTransaction)BeginDbTransaction(isolationLevel);
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Creates a new <see cref="SQLiteTransaction" /> if one isn't already
    /// active on the connection.
    /// </summary>
    /// <returns>Returns the new transaction object.</returns>
    public new SQLiteTransaction BeginTransaction()
    {
      CheckDisposed();
      return (SQLiteTransaction)BeginDbTransaction(_defaultIsolation);
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Forwards to the local <see cref="BeginTransaction(IsolationLevel)" /> function
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="isolationLevel">Supported isolation levels are Unspecified, Serializable, and ReadCommitted</param>
    /// <returns></returns>
    protected override DbTransaction BeginDbTransaction(IsolationLevel isolationLevel)
    {
      if (_connectionState != ConnectionState.Open)
        throw new InvalidOperationException();

      if (isolationLevel == IsolationLevel.Unspecified) isolationLevel = _defaultIsolation;
      isolationLevel = GetEffectiveIsolationLevel(isolationLevel);

      if (isolationLevel != ImmediateIsolationLevel && isolationLevel != DeferredIsolationLevel)
        throw new ArgumentException("isolationLevel");

      SQLiteTransaction transaction;

      if ((_flags & SQLiteConnectionFlags.AllowNestedTransactions)
            == SQLiteConnectionFlags.AllowNestedTransactions)
      {
          transaction = new SQLiteTransaction2(
              this, isolationLevel != ImmediateIsolationLevel);
      }
      else
      {
          transaction = new SQLiteTransaction(
              this, isolationLevel != ImmediateIsolationLevel);
      }

      OnChanged(this, new ConnectionEventArgs(
          SQLiteConnectionEventType.NewTransaction, null, transaction,
          null, null, null, null, null));

      return transaction;
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// This method is not implemented; however, the <see cref="Changed" />
    /// event will still be raised.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="databaseName"></param>
    public override void ChangeDatabase(string databaseName)
    {
      CheckDisposed();

      OnChanged(this, new ConnectionEventArgs(
          SQLiteConnectionEventType.ChangeDatabase, null, null, null, null,
          null, databaseName, null));

      throw new NotImplementedException(); // NOTE: For legacy compatibility.
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// When the database connection is closed, all commands linked to this connection are automatically reset.
    /// </summary>
    public override void Close()
    {
      CheckDisposed();

      OnChanged(this, new ConnectionEventArgs(
          SQLiteConnectionEventType.Closing, null, null, null, null, null,
          null, null));

      if (_sql != null)
      {
#if !PLATFORM_COMPACTFRAMEWORK
        lock (_enlistmentSyncRoot) /* TRANSACTIONAL */
        {
          SQLiteEnlistment enlistment = _enlistment;
          _enlistment = null;

          if (enlistment != null)
          {
            // If the connection is enlisted in a transaction scope and the scope is still active,
            // we cannot truly shut down this connection until the scope has completed.  Therefore make a
            // hidden connection temporarily to hold open the connection until the scope has completed.
            SQLiteConnection cnn = new SQLiteConnection();

#if DEBUG
            cnn._debugString = HelperMethods.StringFormat(
                CultureInfo.InvariantCulture,
                "closeThreadId = {0}, {1}{2}{2}{3}",
                HelperMethods.GetThreadId(), _sql,
                Environment.NewLine, _debugString);
#endif

            cnn._sql = _sql;
            cnn._transactionLevel = _transactionLevel;
            cnn._transactionSequence = _transactionSequence;
            cnn._enlistment = enlistment;
            cnn._connectionState = _connectionState;
            cnn._version = _version;

            SQLiteTransaction transaction = enlistment._transaction;

            if (transaction != null)
                transaction._cnn = cnn;

            enlistment._disposeConnection = true;

            _sql = null;
          }
        }
#endif
        if (_sql != null)
        {
          _sql.Close(_disposing);
          _sql = null;
        }
        _transactionLevel = 0;
        _transactionSequence = 0;
      }

      StateChangeEventArgs eventArgs = null;
      OnStateChange(ConnectionState.Closed, ref eventArgs);

      OnChanged(this, new ConnectionEventArgs(
          SQLiteConnectionEventType.Closed, eventArgs, null, null, null,
          null, null, null));
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Returns the number of pool entries for the file name associated with this connection.
    /// </summary>
    public int PoolCount
    {
        get
        {
            if (_sql == null) return 0;
            return _sql.CountPool();
        }
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Clears the connection pool associated with the connection.  Any other active connections using the same database file
    /// will be discarded instead of returned to the pool when they are closed.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="connection"></param>
    public static void ClearPool(SQLiteConnection connection)
    {
      if (connection._sql == null) return;
      connection._sql.ClearPool();
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Clears all connection pools.  Any active connections will be discarded instead of sent to the pool when they are closed.
    /// </summary>
    public static void ClearAllPools()
    {
      SQLiteConnectionPool.ClearAllPools();
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// The connection string containing the parameters for the connection
    /// </summary>
    /// <remarks>
    /// For the complete list of supported connection string properties,
    /// please see <see cref="SQLiteConnection" />.
    /// </remarks>
#if !PLATFORM_COMPACTFRAMEWORK
    [RefreshProperties(RefreshProperties.All), DefaultValue("")]
    [Editor("SQLite.Designer.SQLiteConnectionStringEditor, SQLite.Designer, Version=" + SQLite3.DesignerVersion + ", Culture=neutral, PublicKeyToken=db937bc2d44ff139", "System.Drawing.Design.UITypeEditor, System.Drawing, Version=2.0.0.0, Culture=neutral, PublicKeyToken=b03f5f7f11d50a3a")]
#endif
    public override string ConnectionString
    {
      get
      {
        CheckDisposed();
        return _connectionString;
      }
      set
      {
        CheckDisposed();

        if (value == null)
          throw new ArgumentNullException();

        else if (_connectionState != ConnectionState.Closed)
          throw new InvalidOperationException();

        _connectionString = value;
      }
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Create a new <see cref="SQLiteCommand" /> and associate it with this connection.
    /// </summary>
    /// <returns>Returns a new command object already assigned to this connection.</returns>
    public new SQLiteCommand CreateCommand()
    {
      CheckDisposed();
      return new SQLiteCommand(this);
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Forwards to the local <see cref="CreateCommand" /> function.
    /// </summary>
    /// <returns></returns>
    protected override DbCommand CreateDbCommand()
    {
      return CreateCommand();
    }

#if INTEROP_SESSION_EXTENSION
    /// <summary>
    /// Attempts to create a new <see cref="ISQLiteSession" /> object instance
    /// using this connection and the specified database name.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="databaseName">
    /// The name of the database for the newly created session.
    /// </param>
    /// <returns>
    /// The newly created session -OR- null if it cannot be created.
    /// </returns>
    public ISQLiteSession CreateSession(
        string databaseName
        )
    {
        CheckDisposed();

        return new SQLiteSession(GetNativeHandle(this), _flags, databaseName);
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Attempts to create a new <see cref="ISQLiteChangeSet" /> object instance
    /// using this connection and the specified raw data.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="rawData">
    /// The raw data that contains a change set (or patch set).
    /// </param>
    /// <returns>
    /// The newly created change set -OR- null if it cannot be created.
    /// </returns>
    public ISQLiteChangeSet CreateChangeSet(
        byte[] rawData
        )
    {
        CheckDisposed();

        return new SQLiteMemoryChangeSet(rawData, GetNativeHandle(this), _flags);
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Attempts to create a new <see cref="ISQLiteChangeSet" /> object instance
    /// using this connection and the specified stream.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="inputStream">
    /// The stream where the raw data that contains a change set (or patch set)
    /// may be read.
    /// </param>
    /// <param name="outputStream">
    /// The stream where the raw data that contains a change set (or patch set)
    /// may be written.
    /// </param>
    /// <returns>
    /// The newly created change set -OR- null if it cannot be created.
    /// </returns>
    public ISQLiteChangeSet CreateChangeSet(
        Stream inputStream,
        Stream outputStream
        )
    {
        CheckDisposed();

        return new SQLiteStreamChangeSet(
            inputStream, outputStream, GetNativeHandle(this), _flags);
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Attempts to create a new <see cref="ISQLiteChangeGroup" /> object
    /// instance using this connection.
    /// </summary>
    /// <returns>
    /// The newly created change group -OR- null if it cannot be created.
    /// </returns>
    public ISQLiteChangeGroup CreateChangeGroup()
    {
        CheckDisposed();

        return new SQLiteChangeGroup(_flags);
    }
#endif

    /// <summary>
    /// Returns the data source file name without extension or path.
    /// </summary>
#if !PLATFORM_COMPACTFRAMEWORK
    [DesignerSerializationVisibility(DesignerSerializationVisibility.Hidden)]
#endif
    public override string DataSource
    {
      get
      {
        CheckDisposed();
        return _dataSource;
      }
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Returns the fully qualified path and file name for the currently open
    /// database, if any.
    /// </summary>
#if !PLATFORM_COMPACTFRAMEWORK
    [DesignerSerializationVisibility(DesignerSerializationVisibility.Hidden)]
#endif
    public string FileName
    {
        get
        {
            CheckDisposed();

            if (_sql == null)
                throw new InvalidOperationException(
                    "Database connection not valid for getting file name.");

            return _sql.GetFileName(GetDefaultCatalogName());
        }
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Returns the string "main".
    /// </summary>
#if !PLATFORM_COMPACTFRAMEWORK
    [DesignerSerializationVisibility(DesignerSerializationVisibility.Hidden)]
#endif
    public override string Database
    {
      get
      {
        CheckDisposed();
        return GetDefaultCatalogName();
      }
    }

    internal static string MapUriPath(string path)
    {
        if (path.StartsWith ("file://", StringComparison.OrdinalIgnoreCase))
            return path.Substring (7);
      else if (path.StartsWith ("file:", StringComparison.OrdinalIgnoreCase))
            return path.Substring (5);
      else if (path.StartsWith ("/", StringComparison.OrdinalIgnoreCase))
            return path;
      else
            throw new InvalidOperationException ("Invalid connection string: invalid URI");
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Determines if the legacy connection string parser should be used.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="connection">
    /// The connection that will be using the parsed connection string.
    /// </param>
    /// <returns>
    /// Non-zero if the legacy connection string parser should be used.
    /// </returns>
    private static bool ShouldUseLegacyConnectionStringParser(
        SQLiteConnection connection
        )
    {
        string name = "No_SQLiteConnectionNewParser";
        object value;

        if ((connection != null) &&
            connection.TryGetCachedSetting(name, null, out value))
        {
            return (value != null);
        }

        if ((connection == null) &&
            TryGetLastCachedSetting(name, null, out value))
        {
            return (value != null);
        }

        value = UnsafeNativeMethods.GetSettingValue(name, null);

        if (connection != null)
            connection.SetCachedSetting(name, value);
        else
            SetLastCachedSetting(name, value);

        return (value != null);
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Parses a connection string into component parts using the custom
    /// connection string parser.  An exception may be thrown if the syntax
    /// of the connection string is incorrect.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="connectionString">
    /// The connection string to parse.
    /// </param>
    /// <param name="allowNameOnly">
    /// Non-zero if names are allowed without values.
    /// </param>
    /// <returns>
    /// The list of key/value pairs corresponding to the parameters specified
    /// within the connection string.
    /// </returns>
    private static SortedList<string, string> ParseConnectionString(
        string connectionString,
        bool allowNameOnly
        )
    {
        return ParseConnectionString(null, connectionString, allowNameOnly);
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Parses a connection string into component parts using the custom
    /// connection string parser.  An exception may be thrown if the syntax
    /// of the connection string is incorrect.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="connection">
    /// The connection that will be using the parsed connection string.
    /// </param>
    /// <param name="connectionString">
    /// The connection string to parse.
    /// </param>
    /// <param name="allowNameOnly">
    /// Non-zero if names are allowed without values.
    /// </param>
    /// <returns>
    /// The list of key/value pairs corresponding to the parameters specified
    /// within the connection string.
    /// </returns>
    private static SortedList<string, string> ParseConnectionString(
        SQLiteConnection connection,
        string connectionString,
        bool allowNameOnly
        )
    {
      string s = connectionString;
      int n;
      SortedList<string, string> ls = new SortedList<string, string>(StringComparer.OrdinalIgnoreCase);

      // First split into semi-colon delimited values.
      string error = null;
      string[] arParts;

      if (ShouldUseLegacyConnectionStringParser(connection))
          arParts = SQLiteConvert.Split(s, ';');
      else
          arParts = SQLiteConvert.NewSplit(s, ';', true, ref error);

      if (arParts == null)
      {
          throw new ArgumentException(HelperMethods.StringFormat(
              CultureInfo.CurrentCulture,
              "Invalid ConnectionString format, cannot parse: {0}", (error != null) ?
              error : "could not split connection string into properties"));
      }

      int x = (arParts != null) ? arParts.Length : 0;
      // For each semi-colon piece, split into key and value pairs by the presence of the = sign
      for (n = 0; n < x; n++)
      {
        if (arParts[n] == null)
          continue;

        arParts[n] = arParts[n].Trim();

        if (arParts[n].Length == 0)
          continue;

        int indexOf = arParts[n].IndexOf('=');

        if (indexOf != -1)
          ls.Add(UnwrapString(arParts[n].Substring(0, indexOf).Trim()), UnwrapString(arParts[n].Substring(indexOf + 1).Trim()));
        else if (allowNameOnly)
          ls.Add(UnwrapString(arParts[n].Trim()), String.Empty);
        else
          throw new ArgumentException(HelperMethods.StringFormat(CultureInfo.CurrentCulture, "Invalid ConnectionString format for part \"{0}\", no equal sign found", arParts[n]));
      }
      return ls;
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Parses a connection string using the built-in (i.e. framework provided)
    /// connection string parser class and returns the key/value pairs.  An
    /// exception may be thrown if the connection string is invalid or cannot be
    /// parsed.  When compiled for the .NET Compact Framework, the custom
    /// connection string parser is always used instead because the framework
    /// provided one is unavailable there.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="connection">
    /// The connection that will be using the parsed connection string.
    /// </param>
    /// <param name="connectionString">
    /// The connection string to parse.
    /// </param>
    /// <param name="strict">
    /// Non-zero to throw an exception if any connection string values are not of
    /// the <see cref="String" /> type.  This is not applicable when running on
    /// the .NET Compact Framework.
    /// </param>
    /// <returns>The list of key/value pairs.</returns>
    private static SortedList<string, string> ParseConnectionStringViaFramework(
        SQLiteConnection connection,
        string connectionString,
        bool strict
        )
    {
#if !PLATFORM_COMPACTFRAMEWORK
        DbConnectionStringBuilder connectionStringBuilder
            = new DbConnectionStringBuilder();

        connectionStringBuilder.ConnectionString = connectionString; /* throw */

        SortedList<string, string> result =
            new SortedList<string, string>(StringComparer.OrdinalIgnoreCase);

        foreach (string keyName in connectionStringBuilder.Keys)
        {
            object value = connectionStringBuilder[keyName];
            string keyValue = null;

            if (value is string)
            {
                keyValue = (string)value;
            }
            else if (strict)
            {
                throw new ArgumentException(
                    "connection property value is not a string",
                    keyName);
            }
            else if (value != null)
            {
                keyValue = value.ToString();
            }

            result.Add(keyName, keyValue);
        }

        return result;
#else
        //
        // NOTE: On the .NET Compact Framework, always use our custom connection
        //       string parser as the built-in (i.e. framework provided) one is
        //       unavailable.
        //
        return ParseConnectionString(connection, connectionString, false);
#endif
    }

#if !PLATFORM_COMPACTFRAMEWORK
    /// <summary>
    /// Manual distributed transaction enlistment support
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="transaction">The distributed transaction to enlist in</param>
    public override void EnlistTransaction(System.Transactions.Transaction transaction)
    {
        CheckDisposed();

        bool waitForEnlistmentReset;
        int waitTimeout;

        lock (_enlistmentSyncRoot) /* TRANSACTIONAL */
        {
            waitForEnlistmentReset = ((_flags & SQLiteConnectionFlags.WaitForEnlistmentReset) ==
                SQLiteConnectionFlags.WaitForEnlistmentReset);

            waitTimeout = _waitTimeout;
        }

        if (waitForEnlistmentReset)
            /* IGNORED */
            WaitForEnlistmentReset(waitTimeout, null);

        lock (_enlistmentSyncRoot) /* TRANSACTIONAL */
        {
            if (_enlistment != null && transaction == _enlistment._scope)
                return;
            else if (_enlistment != null)
                throw new ArgumentException("Already enlisted in a transaction");

            if (_transactionLevel > 0 && transaction != null)
                throw new ArgumentException("Unable to enlist in transaction, a local transaction already exists");
            else if (transaction == null)
                throw new ArgumentNullException("Unable to enlist in transaction, it is null");

            bool strictEnlistment = ((_flags & SQLiteConnectionFlags.StrictEnlistment) ==
                SQLiteConnectionFlags.StrictEnlistment);

            _enlistment = new SQLiteEnlistment(this, transaction,
                GetFallbackDefaultIsolationLevel(), strictEnlistment,
                strictEnlistment);

            OnChanged(this, new ConnectionEventArgs(
                SQLiteConnectionEventType.EnlistTransaction, null, null, null, null,
                null, null, new object[] { _enlistment }));
        }
    }
#endif

#if !PLATFORM_COMPACTFRAMEWORK
    /// <summary>
    /// <b>EXPERIMENTAL</b> --
    /// Waits for the enlistment associated with this connection to be reset.
    /// This method always throws <see cref="NotImplementedException" /> when
    /// running on the .NET Compact Framework.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="timeoutMilliseconds">
    /// The approximate maximum number of milliseconds to wait before timing
    /// out the wait operation.
    /// </param>
    /// <param name="returnOnDisposed">
    /// The return value to use if the connection has been disposed; if this
    /// value is null, <see cref="ObjectDisposedException" /> will be raised
    /// if the connection has been disposed.
    /// </param>
    /// <returns>
    /// Non-zero if the enlistment assciated with this connection was reset;
    /// otherwise, zero.  It should be noted that this method returning a
    /// non-zero value does not necessarily guarantee that the connection
    /// can enlist in a new transaction (i.e. due to potentical race with
    /// other threads); therefore, callers should generally use try/catch
    /// when calling the <see cref="EnlistTransaction" /> method.
    /// </returns>
#else
    /// <summary>
    /// <b>EXPERIMENTAL</b> --
    /// Waits for the enlistment associated with this connection to be reset.
    /// This method always throws <see cref="NotImplementedException" /> when
    /// running on the .NET Compact Framework.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="timeoutMilliseconds">
    /// The approximate maximum number of milliseconds to wait before timing
    /// out the wait operation.
    /// </param>
    /// <param name="returnOnDisposed">
    /// The return value to use if the connection has been disposed; if this
    /// value is null, <see cref="ObjectDisposedException" /> will be raised
    /// if the connection has been disposed.
    /// </param>
    /// <returns>
    /// Non-zero if the enlistment assciated with this connection was reset;
    /// otherwise, zero.  It should be noted that this method returning a
    /// non-zero value does not necessarily guarantee that the connection
    /// can enlist in a new transaction (i.e. due to potentical race with
    /// other threads); therefore, callers should generally use try/catch
    /// when calling the EnlistTransaction method.
    /// </returns>
#endif
    public bool WaitForEnlistmentReset(
        int timeoutMilliseconds,
        bool? returnOnDisposed
        )
    {
        if (returnOnDisposed == null)
            CheckDisposed();
        else if(disposed)
            return (bool)returnOnDisposed;

#if !PLATFORM_COMPACTFRAMEWORK
        if (timeoutMilliseconds < 0)
            throw new ArgumentException("timeout cannot be negative");

        const int defaultMilliseconds = 100;
        int sleepMilliseconds;

        if (timeoutMilliseconds == 0)
        {
            sleepMilliseconds = 0;
        }
        else
        {
            sleepMilliseconds = Math.Min(
                timeoutMilliseconds / 10, defaultMilliseconds);

            if (sleepMilliseconds == 0)
                sleepMilliseconds = defaultMilliseconds;
        }

        DateTime start = DateTime.UtcNow;

        while (true)
        {
            //
            // NOTE: Attempt to acquire the necessary lock without blocking.
            //       This method will treat a failure to obtain the lock the
            //       same as the enlistment not being reset yet.  Both will
            //       advance toward the timeout.
            //
            bool locked = Monitor.TryEnter(_enlistmentSyncRoot);

            try
            {
                if (locked)
                {
                    //
                    // NOTE: Is there still an enlistment?  If not, we are
                    //       done.  There is a potential race condition in
                    //       the caller if another thread is able to setup
                    //       a new enlistment at any point prior to our
                    //       caller fully dealing with the result of this
                    //       method.  However, that should generally never
                    //       happen because this class is not intended to
                    //       be used by multiple concurrent threads, with
                    //       the notable exception of an active enlistment
                    //       being asynchronously committed or rolled back
                    //       by the .NET Framework.
                    //
                    if (_enlistment == null)
                        return true;
                }
            }
            finally
            {
                if (locked)
                {
                    Monitor.Exit(_enlistmentSyncRoot);
                    locked = false;
                }
            }

            //
            // NOTE: A timeout value of zero is special.  It means never
            //       sleep.
            //
            if (sleepMilliseconds == 0)
                return false;

            //
            // NOTE: How much time has elapsed since we first starting
            //       waiting?
            //
            DateTime now = DateTime.UtcNow;
            TimeSpan elapsed = now.Subtract(start);

            //
            // NOTE: Are we done wait?
            //
            double totalMilliseconds = elapsed.TotalMilliseconds;

            if ((totalMilliseconds < 0) || /* Time went backward? */
                (totalMilliseconds >= (double)timeoutMilliseconds))
            {
                return false;
            }

            //
            // NOTE: Sleep for a bit and then try again.
            //
            Thread.Sleep(sleepMilliseconds);
        }
#else
        throw new NotImplementedException();
#endif
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Looks for a key in the array of key/values of the parameter string.  If not found, return the specified default value
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="items">The list to look in</param>
    /// <param name="key">The key to find</param>
    /// <param name="defValue">The default value to return if the key is not found</param>
    /// <returns>The value corresponding to the specified key, or the default value if not found.</returns>
    static internal string FindKey(SortedList<string, string> items, string key, string defValue)
    {
      string ret;

      if (String.IsNullOrEmpty(key)) return defValue;
      if (items.TryGetValue(key, out ret)) return ret;
      if (items.TryGetValue(key.Replace(" ", String.Empty), out ret)) return ret;
      if (items.TryGetValue(key.Replace(" ", "_"), out ret)) return ret;

      return defValue;
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Attempts to convert the string value to an enumerated value of the specified type.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="type">The enumerated type to convert the string value to.</param>
    /// <param name="value">The string value to be converted.</param>
    /// <param name="ignoreCase">Non-zero to make the conversion case-insensitive.</param>
    /// <returns>The enumerated value upon success or null upon error.</returns>
    internal static object TryParseEnum(
        Type type,
        string value,
        bool ignoreCase
        )
    {
        if (!String.IsNullOrEmpty(value))
        {
            try
            {
                return Enum.Parse(type, value, ignoreCase);
            }
            catch
            {
                // do nothing.
            }
        }

        return null;
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Attempts to convert an input string into a byte value.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="value">
    /// The string value to be converted.
    /// </param>
    /// <param name="style">
    /// The number styles to use for the conversion.
    /// </param>
    /// <param name="result">
    /// Upon sucess, this will contain the parsed byte value.
    /// Upon failure, the value of this parameter is undefined.
    /// </param>
    /// <returns>
    /// Non-zero upon success; zero on failure.
    /// </returns>
    private static bool TryParseByte(
        string value,
        NumberStyles style,
        out byte result
        )
    {
#if !PLATFORM_COMPACTFRAMEWORK
        return byte.TryParse(value, style, null, out result);
#else
        try
        {
            result = byte.Parse(value, style);
            return true;
        }
        catch
        {
            result = 0;
            return false;
        }
#endif
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Change a configuration option value for the database.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="option">
    /// The database configuration option to change.
    /// </param>
    /// <param name="value">
    /// The new value for the specified configuration option.
    /// </param>
    public void SetConfigurationOption(
        SQLiteConfigDbOpsEnum option,
        object value
        )
    {
        CheckDisposed();

        if (_sql == null)
        {
            throw new InvalidOperationException(
                "Database connection not valid for changing a configuration option.");
        }

        if ((option == SQLiteConfigDbOpsEnum.SQLITE_DBCONFIG_ENABLE_LOAD_EXTENSION) &&
            ((_flags & SQLiteConnectionFlags.NoLoadExtension) == SQLiteConnectionFlags.NoLoadExtension))
        {
            throw new SQLiteException("Loading extensions is disabled for this database connection.");
        }

        SQLiteErrorCode rc = _sql.SetConfigurationOption(option, value);

        if (rc != SQLiteErrorCode.Ok)
            throw new SQLiteException(rc, null);
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Enables or disabled extension loading.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="enable">
    /// True to enable loading of extensions, false to disable.
    /// </param>
    public void EnableExtensions(
        bool enable
        )
    {
        CheckDisposed();

        if (_sql == null)
            throw new InvalidOperationException(HelperMethods.StringFormat(
                CultureInfo.CurrentCulture,
                "Database connection not valid for {0} extensions.",
                enable ? "enabling" : "disabling"));

        if ((_flags & SQLiteConnectionFlags.NoLoadExtension) == SQLiteConnectionFlags.NoLoadExtension)
            throw new SQLiteException("Loading extensions is disabled for this database connection.");

        _sql.SetLoadExtension(enable);
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Loads a SQLite extension library from the named dynamic link library file.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="fileName">
    /// The name of the dynamic link library file containing the extension.
    /// </param>
    public void LoadExtension(
        string fileName
        )
    {
        CheckDisposed();

        LoadExtension(fileName, null);
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Loads a SQLite extension library from the named dynamic link library file.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="fileName">
    /// The name of the dynamic link library file containing the extension.
    /// </param>
    /// <param name="procName">
    /// The name of the exported function used to initialize the extension.
    /// If null, the default "sqlite3_extension_init" will be used.
    /// </param>
    public void LoadExtension(
        string fileName,
        string procName
        )
    {
        CheckDisposed();

        if (_sql == null)
            throw new InvalidOperationException(
                "Database connection not valid for loading extensions.");

        if ((_flags & SQLiteConnectionFlags.NoLoadExtension) == SQLiteConnectionFlags.NoLoadExtension)
            throw new SQLiteException("Loading extensions is disabled for this database connection.");

        _sql.LoadExtension(fileName, procName);
    }

#if INTEROP_VIRTUAL_TABLE
    /// <summary>
    /// Creates a disposable module containing the implementation of a virtual
    /// table.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="module">
    /// The module object to be used when creating the disposable module.
    /// </param>
    public void CreateModule(
        SQLiteModule module
        )
    {
        CheckDisposed();

        if (_sql == null)
            throw new InvalidOperationException(
                "Database connection not valid for creating modules.");

        if ((_flags & SQLiteConnectionFlags.NoCreateModule) == SQLiteConnectionFlags.NoCreateModule)
            throw new SQLiteException("Creating modules is disabled for this database connection.");

        _sql.CreateModule(module, _flags);
    }
#endif

    /// <summary>
    /// Parses a string containing a sequence of zero or more hexadecimal
    /// encoded byte values and returns the resulting byte array.  The
    /// "0x" prefix is not allowed on the input string.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="text">
    /// The input string containing zero or more hexadecimal encoded byte
    /// values.
    /// </param>
    /// <returns>
    /// A byte array containing the parsed byte values or null if an error
    /// was encountered.
    /// </returns>
    internal static byte[] FromHexString(
        string text
        )
    {
        string error = null;

        return FromHexString(text, ref error);
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Creates and returns a string containing the hexadecimal encoded byte
    /// values from the input array.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="array">
    /// The input array of bytes.
    /// </param>
    /// <returns>
    /// The resulting string or null upon failure.
    /// </returns>
    internal static string ToHexString(
        byte[] array
        )
    {
        if (array == null)
            return null;

        StringBuilder result = new StringBuilder();

        int length = array.Length;

        for (int index = 0; index < length; index++)
#if NET_COMPACT_20
            result.Append(HelperMethods.StringFormat(
                CultureInfo.InvariantCulture,
                "{0:x2}", array[index]));
#else
            result.AppendFormat("{0:x2}", array[index]);
#endif

        return result.ToString();
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Parses a string containing a sequence of zero or more hexadecimal
    /// encoded byte values and returns the resulting byte array.  The
    /// "0x" prefix is not allowed on the input string.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="text">
    /// The input string containing zero or more hexadecimal encoded byte
    /// values.
    /// </param>
    /// <param name="error">
    /// Upon failure, this will contain an appropriate error message.
    /// </param>
    /// <returns>
    /// A byte array containing the parsed byte values or null if an error
    /// was encountered.
    /// </returns>
    private static byte[] FromHexString(
        string text,
        ref string error
        )
    {
        if (text == null)
        {
            error = "string is null";
            return null;
        }

        if (text.Length % 2 != 0)
        {
            error = "string contains an odd number of characters";
            return null;
        }

        byte[] result = new byte[text.Length / 2];

        for (int index = 0; index < text.Length; index += 2)
        {
            string value = text.Substring(index, 2);

            if (!TryParseByte(value,
                    NumberStyles.HexNumber, out result[index / 2]))
            {
                error = HelperMethods.StringFormat(
                    CultureInfo.CurrentCulture,
                    "string contains \"{0}\", which cannot be converted to a byte value",
                    value);

                return null;
            }
        }

        return result;
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// This method figures out what the default connection pool setting should
    /// be based on the connection flags.  When present, the "Pooling" connection
    /// string property value always overrides the value returned by this method.
    /// </summary>
    /// <returns>
    /// Non-zero if the connection pool should be enabled by default; otherwise,
    /// zero.
    /// </returns>
    private bool GetDefaultPooling()
    {
        bool result = DefaultPooling;

        if (result) /* NOTE: True branch not reached in the default build. */
        {
            if ((_flags & SQLiteConnectionFlags.NoConnectionPool) == SQLiteConnectionFlags.NoConnectionPool)
                result = false;

            if ((_flags & SQLiteConnectionFlags.UseConnectionPool) == SQLiteConnectionFlags.UseConnectionPool)
                result = true;
        }
        else
        {
            if ((_flags & SQLiteConnectionFlags.UseConnectionPool) == SQLiteConnectionFlags.UseConnectionPool)
                result = true;

            if ((_flags & SQLiteConnectionFlags.NoConnectionPool) == SQLiteConnectionFlags.NoConnectionPool)
                result = false;
        }

        return result;
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Determines the transaction isolation level that should be used by
    /// the caller, primarily based upon the one specified by the caller.
    /// If mapping of transaction isolation levels is enabled, the returned
    /// transaction isolation level may be significantly different than the
    /// originally specified one.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="isolationLevel">
    /// The originally specified transaction isolation level.
    /// </param>
    /// <returns>
    /// The transaction isolation level that should be used.
    /// </returns>
    private IsolationLevel GetEffectiveIsolationLevel(
        IsolationLevel isolationLevel
        )
    {
        if ((_flags & SQLiteConnectionFlags.MapIsolationLevels)
                != SQLiteConnectionFlags.MapIsolationLevels)
        {
            return isolationLevel;
        }

        switch (isolationLevel)
        {
            case IsolationLevel.Unspecified:
            case IsolationLevel.Chaos:
            case IsolationLevel.ReadUncommitted:
            case IsolationLevel.ReadCommitted:
                return DeferredIsolationLevel;
            case IsolationLevel.RepeatableRead:
            case IsolationLevel.Serializable:
            case IsolationLevel.Snapshot:
                return ImmediateIsolationLevel;
            default:
                return GetFallbackDefaultIsolationLevel();
        }
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Opens the connection using the parameters found in the <see cref="ConnectionString" />.
    /// </summary>
    public override void Open()
    {
      CheckDisposed();

      _lastConnectionInOpen = this; /* THREAD-SAFE: per-thread datum. */

      OnChanged(this, new ConnectionEventArgs(
          SQLiteConnectionEventType.Opening, null, null, null, null, null,
          null, null));

      if (_connectionState != ConnectionState.Closed)
        throw new InvalidOperationException();

      Close();

      SortedList<string, string> opts = ParseConnectionString(
          this, _connectionString, _parseViaFramework, false);

      OnChanged(this, new ConnectionEventArgs(
          SQLiteConnectionEventType.ConnectionString, null, null, null, null,
          null, _connectionString, new object[] { opts }));

      object enumValue;

      enumValue = TryParseEnum(typeof(SQLiteConnectionFlags), FindKey(opts, "Flags", null), true);

      //
      // BUGFIX: Always preserve the pre-existing instance flags.  This is OK
      //         because when the connection object is initially created, they
      //         are "None"; therefore, OR-ing the connection string property
      //         flags with the instance flags would produce exactly the same
      //         result.  If the "Flags" connection string property is absent,
      //         OR-ing the the instance flags with the static DefaultFlags is
      //         done instead.  This is OK for the same reason as before: when
      //         the connection object is initially created, they are "None"
      //         by default.  If they are different now, they must have been
      //         manually set by the application.
      //
      bool noDefaultFlags = SQLiteConvert.ToBoolean(FindKey(opts, "NoDefaultFlags", DefaultNoDefaultFlags.ToString()));

      if (enumValue is SQLiteConnectionFlags)
          _flags |= (SQLiteConnectionFlags)enumValue;
      else if (!noDefaultFlags)
          _flags |= DefaultFlags;

      bool noSharedFlags = SQLiteConvert.ToBoolean(FindKey(opts, "NoSharedFlags", DefaultNoSharedFlags.ToString()));
      if (!noSharedFlags) { lock (_syncRoot) { _flags |= _sharedFlags; } }

      enumValue = TryParseEnum(typeof(DbType), FindKey(opts, "DefaultDbType", null), true);
      _defaultDbType = (enumValue is DbType) ? (DbType)enumValue : (DbType?)null;

      //
      // NOTE: Nullable values types are not supported by the .NET Framework
      //       ADO.NET support components that work with the connection string
      //       builder; therefore, translate the "invalid value" used by the
      //       SQLiteConnectionStringBuilder.DefaultDbType property to null
      //       here.
      //
      if ((_defaultDbType != null) && ((DbType)_defaultDbType == BadDbType))
        _defaultDbType = null;

      _defaultTypeName = FindKey(opts, "DefaultTypeName", null);
      _vfsName = FindKey(opts, "VfsName", DefaultVfsName);

#if !NET_COMPACT_20 && TRACE_WARNING
      bool uri = false;
#endif
      bool fullUri = false;
      string fileName;

      if (Convert.ToInt32(FindKey(opts, "Version", SQLiteConvert.ToString(DefaultVersion)), CultureInfo.InvariantCulture) != DefaultVersion)
        throw new NotSupportedException(HelperMethods.StringFormat(CultureInfo.CurrentCulture, "Only SQLite Version {0} is supported at this time", DefaultVersion));

#if INTEROP_INCLUDE_ZIPVFS
      bool useZipVfs = false;
      string zipVfsVersion = FindKey(opts, "ZipVfsVersion", DefaultZipVfsVersion);

      if (zipVfsVersion != null)
      {
          if (String.Compare(zipVfsVersion, ZipVfs_Automatic) == 0)
          {
              useZipVfs = true;
          }
          else if (String.Compare(zipVfsVersion, ZipVfs_V2) == 0)
          {
              UnsafeNativeMethods.zipvfsInit_v2();
              useZipVfs = true;
          }
          else if (String.Compare(zipVfsVersion, ZipVfs_V3) == 0)
          {
              UnsafeNativeMethods.zipvfsInit_v3(0);
              useZipVfs = true;
          }
          else
          {
              throw new NotSupportedException(HelperMethods.StringFormat(
                  CultureInfo.CurrentCulture, "Only ZipVFS versions {0}, {1}, and {2} are supported at this time",
                  ZipVfs_Automatic, ZipVfs_V2, ZipVfs_V3));
          }
      }
#endif

      fileName = FindKey(opts, "Data Source", DefaultDataSource);

      if (String.IsNullOrEmpty(fileName))
      {
        fileName = FindKey(opts, "Uri", DefaultUri);
        if (String.IsNullOrEmpty(fileName))
        {
          fileName = FindKey(opts, "FullUri", DefaultFullUri);
          if (String.IsNullOrEmpty(fileName))
            throw new ArgumentException(HelperMethods.StringFormat(CultureInfo.CurrentCulture, "Data Source cannot be empty.  Use {0} to open an in-memory database", MemoryFileName));
          else
            fullUri = true;
        }
        else
        {
          fileName = MapUriPath(fileName);
#if !NET_COMPACT_20 && TRACE_WARNING
          uri = true;
#endif
        }
      }

      bool isMemory = (String.Compare(fileName, MemoryFileName, StringComparison.OrdinalIgnoreCase) == 0);

#if !NET_COMPACT_20 && TRACE_WARNING
      if ((_flags & SQLiteConnectionFlags.TraceWarning) == SQLiteConnectionFlags.TraceWarning)
      {
          if (!uri && !fullUri && !isMemory && !String.IsNullOrEmpty(fileName) &&
              fileName.StartsWith("\\", StringComparison.OrdinalIgnoreCase) &&
              !fileName.StartsWith("\\\\", StringComparison.OrdinalIgnoreCase))
          {
              System.Diagnostics.Trace.WriteLine(HelperMethods.StringFormat(
                  CultureInfo.CurrentCulture,
                  "WARNING: Detected a possibly malformed UNC database file name \"{0}\" that " +
                  "may have originally started with two backslashes; however, four leading " +
                  "backslashes may be required, e.g.: \"Data Source=\\\\\\{0};\"",
                  fileName));
          }
      }
#endif

      if (!fullUri)
      {
        if (isMemory)
          fileName = MemoryFileName;
        else
        {
#if PLATFORM_COMPACTFRAMEWORK
          if (fileName.StartsWith("./") || fileName.StartsWith(".\\"))
            fileName = Path.GetDirectoryName(Assembly.GetCallingAssembly().GetName().CodeBase) + fileName.Substring(1);
#endif
          bool toFullPath = SQLiteConvert.ToBoolean(FindKey(opts, "ToFullPath", DefaultToFullPath.ToString()));
          fileName = ExpandFileName(fileName, toFullPath);
        }
      }

      try
      {
        bool usePooling = SQLiteConvert.ToBoolean(FindKey(opts, "Pooling", GetDefaultPooling().ToString()));
        int maxPoolSize = Convert.ToInt32(FindKey(opts, "Max Pool Size", SQLiteConvert.ToString(DefaultMaxPoolSize)), CultureInfo.InvariantCulture);

        _defaultTimeout = Convert.ToInt32(FindKey(opts, "Default Timeout", SQLiteConvert.ToString(DefaultConnectionTimeout)), CultureInfo.InvariantCulture);
        _busyTimeout = Convert.ToInt32(FindKey(opts, "BusyTimeout", SQLiteConvert.ToString(DefaultBusyTimeout)), CultureInfo.InvariantCulture);

#if !PLATFORM_COMPACTFRAMEWORK
        _waitTimeout = Convert.ToInt32(FindKey(opts, "WaitTimeout", SQLiteConvert.ToString(DefaultWaitTimeout)), CultureInfo.InvariantCulture);
#endif

        _prepareRetries = Convert.ToInt32(FindKey(opts, "PrepareRetries", SQLiteConvert.ToString(DefaultPrepareRetries)), CultureInfo.InvariantCulture);
        _progressOps = Convert.ToInt32(FindKey(opts, "ProgressOps", SQLiteConvert.ToString(DefaultProgressOps)), CultureInfo.InvariantCulture);

        enumValue = TryParseEnum(typeof(IsolationLevel), FindKey(opts, "Default IsolationLevel", DefaultIsolationLevel.ToString()), true);
        _defaultIsolation = (enumValue is IsolationLevel) ? (IsolationLevel)enumValue : DefaultIsolationLevel;
        _defaultIsolation = GetEffectiveIsolationLevel(_defaultIsolation);

        if (_defaultIsolation != ImmediateIsolationLevel && _defaultIsolation != DeferredIsolationLevel)
          throw new NotSupportedException("Invalid Default IsolationLevel specified");

        _baseSchemaName = FindKey(opts, "BaseSchemaName", DefaultBaseSchemaName);

        if (_sql == null)
        {
            SetupSQLiteBase(opts);
        }

        SQLiteOpenFlagsEnum flags = SQLiteOpenFlagsEnum.None;

        if (!SQLiteConvert.ToBoolean(FindKey(opts, "FailIfMissing", DefaultFailIfMissing.ToString())))
          flags |= SQLiteOpenFlagsEnum.Create;

        if (SQLiteConvert.ToBoolean(FindKey(opts, "Read Only", DefaultReadOnly.ToString())))
        {
          flags |= SQLiteOpenFlagsEnum.ReadOnly;
          // SQLite will return SQLITE_MISUSE on ReadOnly and Create
          flags &= ~SQLiteOpenFlagsEnum.Create;
        }
        else
        {
          flags |= SQLiteOpenFlagsEnum.ReadWrite;
        }

        if (fullUri)
            flags |= SQLiteOpenFlagsEnum.Uri;

        _sql.Open(fileName, _vfsName, _flags, flags, maxPoolSize, usePooling);

        _binaryGuid = SQLiteConvert.ToBoolean(FindKey(opts, "BinaryGUID", DefaultBinaryGUID.ToString()));

#if INTEROP_CODEC || INTEROP_INCLUDE_SEE
        string hexPassword = FindKey(opts, "HexPassword", DefaultHexPassword);

        if (hexPassword != null)
        {
            string error = null;
            byte[] hexPasswordBytes = FromHexString(hexPassword, ref error);

            if (hexPasswordBytes == null)
            {
                throw new FormatException(HelperMethods.StringFormat(
                    CultureInfo.CurrentCulture,
                    "Cannot parse 'HexPassword' property value into byte values: {0}",
                    error));
            }

            _sql.SetPassword(hexPasswordBytes);
        }
        else
        {
            string password = FindKey(opts, "Password", DefaultPassword);

            if (password != null)
                _sql.SetPassword(UTF8Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(password));
            else if (_password != null)
                _sql.SetPassword(_password);
        }
        _password = null;
#else
        if (FindKey(opts, "HexPassword", DefaultHexPassword) != null)
        {
            throw new SQLiteException(SQLiteErrorCode.Error,
                "Cannot use \"HexPassword\" connection string property: " +
                "library was not built with encryption support, please " +
                "see \"https://www.sqlite.org/see\" for more information");
        }

        if (FindKey(opts, "Password", DefaultPassword) != null)
        {
            throw new SQLiteException(SQLiteErrorCode.Error,
                "Cannot use \"Password\" connection string property: " +
                "library was not built with encryption support, please " +
                "see \"https://www.sqlite.org/see\" for more information");
        }
#endif

        if (!fullUri)
          _dataSource = Path.GetFileNameWithoutExtension(fileName);
        else
          _dataSource = fileName;

        _version++;

        ConnectionState oldstate = _connectionState;
        _connectionState = ConnectionState.Open;

        try
        {
          string strValue;
          bool boolValue;

          strValue = FindKey(opts, "SetDefaults", DefaultSetDefaults.ToString());
          boolValue = SQLiteConvert.ToBoolean(strValue);

          if (boolValue)
          {
              using (SQLiteCommand cmd = CreateCommand())
              {
                  if (_busyTimeout != DefaultBusyTimeout)
                  {
                      cmd.CommandText = HelperMethods.StringFormat(CultureInfo.InvariantCulture, "PRAGMA busy_timeout={0}", _busyTimeout);
                      cmd.ExecuteNonQuery();
                  }

                  int intValue;

                  if (!fullUri && !isMemory)
                  {
                      strValue = FindKey(opts, "Page Size", SQLiteConvert.ToString(DefaultPageSize));
                      intValue = Convert.ToInt32(strValue, CultureInfo.InvariantCulture);
                      if (intValue != DefaultPageSize)
                      {
                          cmd.CommandText = HelperMethods.StringFormat(CultureInfo.InvariantCulture, "PRAGMA page_size={0}", intValue);
                          cmd.ExecuteNonQuery();
                      }
                  }

                  strValue = FindKey(opts, "Max Page Count", SQLiteConvert.ToString(DefaultMaxPageCount));
                  intValue = Convert.ToInt32(strValue, CultureInfo.InvariantCulture);
                  if (intValue != DefaultMaxPageCount)
                  {
                      cmd.CommandText = HelperMethods.StringFormat(CultureInfo.InvariantCulture, "PRAGMA max_page_count={0}", intValue);
                      cmd.ExecuteNonQuery();
                  }

                  strValue = FindKey(opts, "Legacy Format", DefaultLegacyFormat.ToString());
                  boolValue = SQLiteConvert.ToBoolean(strValue);
                  if (boolValue != DefaultLegacyFormat)
                  {
                      cmd.CommandText = HelperMethods.StringFormat(CultureInfo.InvariantCulture, "PRAGMA legacy_file_format={0}", boolValue ? "ON" : "OFF");
                      cmd.ExecuteNonQuery();
                  }

                  strValue = FindKey(opts, "Synchronous", DefaultSynchronous.ToString());
                  enumValue = TryParseEnum(typeof(SQLiteSynchronousEnum), strValue, true);
                  if (!(enumValue is SQLiteSynchronousEnum) || ((SQLiteSynchronousEnum)enumValue != DefaultSynchronous))
                  {
                      cmd.CommandText = HelperMethods.StringFormat(CultureInfo.InvariantCulture, "PRAGMA synchronous={0}", strValue);
                      cmd.ExecuteNonQuery();
                  }

                  strValue = FindKey(opts, "Cache Size", SQLiteConvert.ToString(DefaultCacheSize));
                  intValue = Convert.ToInt32(strValue, CultureInfo.InvariantCulture);
                  if (intValue != DefaultCacheSize)
                  {
                      cmd.CommandText = HelperMethods.StringFormat(CultureInfo.InvariantCulture, "PRAGMA cache_size={0}", intValue);
                      cmd.ExecuteNonQuery();
                  }

                  strValue = FindKey(opts, "Journal Mode", DefaultJournalMode.ToString());
                  enumValue = TryParseEnum(typeof(SQLiteJournalModeEnum), strValue, true);
                  if (!(enumValue is SQLiteJournalModeEnum) || ((SQLiteJournalModeEnum)enumValue != DefaultJournalMode))
                  {
                      string pragmaStr = "PRAGMA journal_mode={0}";

#if INTEROP_INCLUDE_ZIPVFS
                      if (useZipVfs)
                          pragmaStr = "PRAGMA zipvfs_journal_mode={0}";
#endif

                      cmd.CommandText = HelperMethods.StringFormat(CultureInfo.InvariantCulture, pragmaStr, strValue);
                      cmd.ExecuteNonQuery();
                  }

                  strValue = FindKey(opts, "Foreign Keys", DefaultForeignKeys.ToString());
                  boolValue = SQLiteConvert.ToBoolean(strValue);
                  if (boolValue != DefaultForeignKeys)
                  {
                      cmd.CommandText = HelperMethods.StringFormat(CultureInfo.InvariantCulture, "PRAGMA foreign_keys={0}", boolValue ? "ON" : "OFF");
                      cmd.ExecuteNonQuery();
                  }

                  strValue = FindKey(opts, "Recursive Triggers", DefaultRecursiveTriggers.ToString());
                  boolValue = SQLiteConvert.ToBoolean(strValue);
                  if (boolValue != DefaultRecursiveTriggers)
                  {
                      cmd.CommandText = HelperMethods.StringFormat(CultureInfo.InvariantCulture, "PRAGMA recursive_triggers={0}", boolValue ? "ON" : "OFF");
                      cmd.ExecuteNonQuery();
                  }
              }
          }

          if (_progressHandler != null)
              _sql.SetProgressHook(_progressOps, _progressCallback);

          if (_authorizerHandler != null)
              _sql.SetAuthorizerHook(_authorizerCallback);

          if (_commitHandler != null)
            _sql.SetCommitHook(_commitCallback);

          if (_updateHandler != null)
            _sql.SetUpdateHook(_updateCallback);

          if (_rollbackHandler != null)
            _sql.SetRollbackHook(_rollbackCallback);

#if !PLATFORM_COMPACTFRAMEWORK
          System.Transactions.Transaction transaction = Transactions.Transaction.Current;

          if (transaction != null &&
              SQLiteConvert.ToBoolean(FindKey(opts, "Enlist", DefaultEnlist.ToString())))
          {
              EnlistTransaction(transaction);
          }
#endif

          _connectionState = oldstate;

          StateChangeEventArgs eventArgs = null;
          OnStateChange(ConnectionState.Open, ref eventArgs);

          OnChanged(this, new ConnectionEventArgs(
              SQLiteConnectionEventType.Opened, eventArgs, null, null, null,
              null, _connectionString, new object[] { opts }));

#if DEBUG
          _debugString = HelperMethods.StringFormat(
              CultureInfo.InvariantCulture,
              "openThreadId = {0}, connectionString = {1}",
              HelperMethods.GetThreadId(), _connectionString);
#endif
        }
        catch
        {
          _connectionState = oldstate;
          throw;
        }
      }
      catch (SQLiteException)
      {
        Close();
        throw;
      }
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Opens the connection using the parameters found in the <see cref="ConnectionString" /> and then returns it.
    /// </summary>
    /// <returns>The current connection object.</returns>
    public SQLiteConnection OpenAndReturn()
    {
        CheckDisposed(); Open(); return this;
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Gets/sets the default command timeout for newly-created commands.  This is especially useful for
    /// commands used internally such as inside a SQLiteTransaction, where setting the timeout is not possible.
    /// This can also be set in the ConnectionString with "Default Timeout"
    /// </summary>
    public int DefaultTimeout
    {
      get { CheckDisposed(); return _defaultTimeout; }
      set { CheckDisposed(); _defaultTimeout = value; }
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Gets/sets the default busy timeout to use with the SQLite core library.  This is only used when
    /// opening a connection.
    /// </summary>
    public int BusyTimeout
    {
        get { CheckDisposed(); return _busyTimeout; }
        set { CheckDisposed(); _busyTimeout = value; }
    }

#if !PLATFORM_COMPACTFRAMEWORK
    /// <summary>
    /// <b>EXPERIMENTAL</b> --
    /// The wait timeout to use with <see cref="WaitForEnlistmentReset" /> method.
    /// This is only used when waiting for the enlistment to be reset prior to
    /// enlisting in a transaction, and then only when the appropriate connection
    /// flag is set.
    /// </summary>
    public int WaitTimeout
    {
        get { CheckDisposed(); return _waitTimeout; }
        set { CheckDisposed(); _waitTimeout = value; }
    }
#endif

    /// <summary>
    /// The maximum number of retries when preparing SQL to be executed.  This
    /// normally only applies to preparation errors resulting from the database
    /// schema being changed.
    /// </summary>
    public int PrepareRetries
    {
        get { CheckDisposed(); return _prepareRetries; }
        set { CheckDisposed(); _prepareRetries = value; }
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// The approximate number of virtual machine instructions between progress
    /// events.  In order for progress events to actually fire, the event handler
    /// must be added to the <see cref="SQLiteConnection.Progress" /> event as
    /// well.  This value will only be used when the underlying native progress
    /// callback needs to be changed.
    /// </summary>
    public int ProgressOps
    {
        get { CheckDisposed(); return _progressOps; }
        set { CheckDisposed(); _progressOps = value; }
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Non-zero if the built-in (i.e. framework provided) connection string
    /// parser should be used when opening the connection.
    /// </summary>
    public bool ParseViaFramework
    {
        get { CheckDisposed(); return _parseViaFramework; }
        set { CheckDisposed(); _parseViaFramework = value; }
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Gets/sets the extra behavioral flags for this connection.  See the
    /// <see cref="SQLiteConnectionFlags" /> enumeration for a list of
    /// possible values.
    /// </summary>
    public SQLiteConnectionFlags Flags
    {
      get { CheckDisposed(); return _flags; }
      set { CheckDisposed(); _flags = value; }
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Gets/sets the default database type for this connection.  This value
    /// will only be used when not null.
    /// </summary>
    public DbType? DefaultDbType
    {
      get { CheckDisposed(); return _defaultDbType; }
      set { CheckDisposed(); _defaultDbType = value; }
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Gets/sets the default database type name for this connection.  This
    /// value will only be used when not null.
    /// </summary>
    public string DefaultTypeName
    {
      get { CheckDisposed(); return _defaultTypeName; }
      set { CheckDisposed(); _defaultTypeName = value; }
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Gets/sets the VFS name for this connection.  This value will only be
    /// used when opening the database.
    /// </summary>
    public string VfsName
    {
      get { CheckDisposed(); return _vfsName; }
      set { CheckDisposed(); _vfsName = value; }
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Returns non-zero if the underlying native connection handle is
    /// owned by this instance.
    /// </summary>
    public bool OwnHandle
    {
        get
        {
            CheckDisposed();

            if (_sql == null)
                throw new InvalidOperationException("Database connection not valid for checking handle.");

            return _sql.OwnHandle;
        }
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Returns the version of the underlying SQLite database engine
    /// </summary>
#if !PLATFORM_COMPACTFRAMEWORK
    [Browsable(false), DesignerSerializationVisibility(DesignerSerializationVisibility.Hidden)]
#endif
    public override string ServerVersion
    {
      get
      {
        CheckDisposed();
        return SQLiteVersion;
        //if (_connectionState != ConnectionState.Open)
        //  throw new InvalidOperationException();

        //return _sql.Version;
      }
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Returns the rowid of the most recent successful INSERT into the database from this connection.
    /// </summary>
#if !PLATFORM_COMPACTFRAMEWORK
    [Browsable(false), DesignerSerializationVisibility(DesignerSerializationVisibility.Hidden)]
#endif
    public long LastInsertRowId
    {
      get
      {
        CheckDisposed();

        if (_sql == null)
          throw new InvalidOperationException("Database connection not valid for getting last insert rowid.");

        return _sql.LastInsertRowId;
      }
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// This method causes any pending database operation to abort and return at
    /// its earliest opportunity.  This routine is typically called in response
    /// to a user action such as pressing "Cancel" or Ctrl-C where the user wants
    /// a long query operation to halt immediately.  It is safe to call this
    /// routine from any thread.  However, it is not safe to call this routine
    /// with a database connection that is closed or might close before this method
    /// returns.
    /// </summary>
    public void Cancel()
    {
        CheckDisposed();

        if (_sql == null)
            throw new InvalidOperationException("Database connection not valid for query cancellation.");

        _sql.Cancel(); /* throw */
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Returns the number of rows changed by the last INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE statement executed on
    /// this connection.
    /// </summary>
#if !PLATFORM_COMPACTFRAMEWORK
    [Browsable(false), DesignerSerializationVisibility(DesignerSerializationVisibility.Hidden)]
#endif
    public int Changes
    {
      get
      {
        CheckDisposed();

        if (_sql == null)
          throw new InvalidOperationException("Database connection not valid for getting number of changes.");

        return _sql.Changes;
      }
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Checks if this connection to the specified database should be considered
    /// read-only.  An exception will be thrown if the database name specified
    /// via <paramref name="name" /> cannot be found.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="name">
    /// The name of a database associated with this connection -OR- null for the
    /// main database.
    /// </param>
    /// <returns>
    /// Non-zero if this connection to the specified database should be considered
    /// read-only.
    /// </returns>
    public bool IsReadOnly(
        string name
        )
    {
        CheckDisposed();

        if (_sql == null)
            throw new InvalidOperationException("Database connection not valid for checking read-only status.");

        return _sql.IsReadOnly(name);
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Returns non-zero if the given database connection is in autocommit mode.
    /// Autocommit mode is on by default.  Autocommit mode is disabled by a BEGIN
    /// statement.  Autocommit mode is re-enabled by a COMMIT or ROLLBACK.
    /// </summary>
#if !PLATFORM_COMPACTFRAMEWORK
    [Browsable(false), DesignerSerializationVisibility(DesignerSerializationVisibility.Hidden)]
#endif
    public bool AutoCommit
    {
        get
        {
            CheckDisposed();

            if (_sql == null)
                throw new InvalidOperationException("Database connection not valid for getting autocommit mode.");

            return _sql.AutoCommit;
        }
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Returns the amount of memory (in bytes) currently in use by the SQLite core library.
    /// </summary>
#if !PLATFORM_COMPACTFRAMEWORK
    [Browsable(false), DesignerSerializationVisibility(DesignerSerializationVisibility.Hidden)]
#endif
    public long MemoryUsed
    {
      get
      {
        CheckDisposed();

        if (_sql == null)
          throw new InvalidOperationException("Database connection not valid for getting memory used.");

        return _sql.MemoryUsed;
      }
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Returns the maximum amount of memory (in bytes) used by the SQLite core library since the high-water mark was last reset.
    /// </summary>
#if !PLATFORM_COMPACTFRAMEWORK
    [Browsable(false), DesignerSerializationVisibility(DesignerSerializationVisibility.Hidden)]
#endif
    public long MemoryHighwater
    {
      get
      {
        CheckDisposed();

        if (_sql == null)
          throw new InvalidOperationException("Database connection not valid for getting maximum memory used.");

          return _sql.MemoryHighwater;
      }
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Returns various global memory statistics for the SQLite core library via
    /// a dictionary of key/value pairs.  Currently, only the "MemoryUsed" and
    /// "MemoryHighwater" keys are returned and they have values that correspond
    /// to the values that could be obtained via the <see cref="MemoryUsed" />
    /// and <see cref="MemoryHighwater" /> connection properties.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="statistics">
    /// This dictionary will be populated with the global memory statistics.  It
    /// will be created if necessary.
    /// </param>
    public static void GetMemoryStatistics(
        ref IDictionary<string, long> statistics
        )
    {
        if (statistics == null)
            statistics = new Dictionary<string, long>();

        statistics["MemoryUsed"] = SQLite3.StaticMemoryUsed;
        statistics["MemoryHighwater"] = SQLite3.StaticMemoryHighwater;
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Attempts to free as much heap memory as possible for this database connection.
    /// </summary>
    public void ReleaseMemory()
    {
        CheckDisposed();

        if (_sql == null)
            throw new InvalidOperationException("Database connection not valid for releasing memory.");

        SQLiteErrorCode rc = _sql.ReleaseMemory();

        if (rc != SQLiteErrorCode.Ok)
        {
            throw new SQLiteException(rc,
                _sql.GetLastError("Could not release connection memory."));
        }
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Attempts to free N bytes of heap memory by deallocating non-essential memory
    /// allocations held by the database library. Memory used to cache database pages
    /// to improve performance is an example of non-essential memory.  This is a no-op
    /// returning zero if the SQLite core library was not compiled with the compile-time
    /// option SQLITE_ENABLE_MEMORY_MANAGEMENT.  Optionally, attempts to reset and/or
    /// compact the Win32 native heap, if applicable.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="nBytes">
    /// The requested number of bytes to free.
    /// </param>
    /// <param name="reset">
    /// Non-zero to attempt a heap reset.
    /// </param>
    /// <param name="compact">
    /// Non-zero to attempt heap compaction.
    /// </param>
    /// <param name="nFree">
    /// The number of bytes actually freed.  This value may be zero.
    /// </param>
    /// <param name="resetOk">
    /// This value will be non-zero if the heap reset was successful.
    /// </param>
    /// <param name="nLargest">
    /// The size of the largest committed free block in the heap, in bytes.
    /// This value will be zero unless heap compaction is enabled.
    /// </param>
    /// <returns>
    /// A standard SQLite return code (i.e. zero for success and non-zero
    /// for failure).
    /// </returns>
    #pragma warning disable 3001
    public static SQLiteErrorCode ReleaseMemory(
        int nBytes,
        bool reset,
        bool compact,
        ref int nFree,
        ref bool resetOk,
        ref uint nLargest
        )
    {
        return SQLite3.StaticReleaseMemory(
            nBytes, reset, compact, ref nFree, ref resetOk, ref nLargest);
    }
    #pragma warning restore 3001

    /// <summary>
    /// Sets the status of the memory usage tracking subsystem in the SQLite core library.  By default, this is enabled.
    /// If this is disabled, memory usage tracking will not be performed.  This is not really a per-connection value, it is
    /// global to the process.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="value">Non-zero to enable memory usage tracking, zero otherwise.</param>
    /// <returns>A standard SQLite return code (i.e. zero for success and non-zero for failure).</returns>
    public static SQLiteErrorCode SetMemoryStatus(bool value)
    {
        return SQLite3.StaticSetMemoryStatus(value);
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Returns a string containing the define constants (i.e. compile-time
    /// options) used to compile the core managed assembly, delimited with
    /// spaces.
    /// </summary>
    public static string DefineConstants
    {
        get { return SQLite3.DefineConstants; }
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Returns the version of the underlying SQLite core library.
    /// </summary>
    public static string SQLiteVersion
    {
      get { return SQLite3.SQLiteVersion; }
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// This method returns the string whose value is the same as the
    /// SQLITE_SOURCE_ID C preprocessor macro used when compiling the
    /// SQLite core library.
    /// </summary>
    public static string SQLiteSourceId
    {
      get { return SQLite3.SQLiteSourceId; }
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Returns a string containing the compile-time options used to
    /// compile the SQLite core native library, delimited with spaces.
    /// </summary>
    public static string SQLiteCompileOptions
    {
        get { return SQLite3.SQLiteCompileOptions; }
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// This method returns the version of the interop SQLite assembly
    /// used.  If the SQLite interop assembly is not in use or the
    /// necessary information cannot be obtained for any reason, a null
    /// value may be returned.
    /// </summary>
    public static string InteropVersion
    {
      get { return SQLite3.InteropVersion; }
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// This method returns the string whose value contains the unique
    /// identifier for the source checkout used to build the interop
    /// assembly.  If the SQLite interop assembly is not in use or the
    /// necessary information cannot be obtained for any reason, a null
    /// value may be returned.
    /// </summary>
    public static string InteropSourceId
    {
      get { return SQLite3.InteropSourceId; }
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Returns a string containing the compile-time options used to
    /// compile the SQLite interop assembly, delimited with spaces.
    /// </summary>
    public static string InteropCompileOptions
    {
        get { return SQLite3.InteropCompileOptions; }
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// This method returns the version of the managed components used
    /// to interact with the SQLite core library.  If the necessary
    /// information cannot be obtained for any reason, a null value may
    /// be returned.
    /// </summary>
    public static string ProviderVersion
    {
        get
        {
            return (_assembly != null) ?
                _assembly.GetName().Version.ToString() : null;
        }
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// This method returns the string whose value contains the unique
    /// identifier for the source checkout used to build the managed
    /// components currently executing.  If the necessary information
    /// cannot be obtained for any reason, a null value may be returned.
    /// </summary>
    public static string ProviderSourceId
    {
        get
        {
            if (_assembly == null)
                return null;

            string sourceId = null;

            if (_assembly.IsDefined(typeof(AssemblySourceIdAttribute), false))
            {
                AssemblySourceIdAttribute attribute =
                    (AssemblySourceIdAttribute)_assembly.GetCustomAttributes(
                        typeof(AssemblySourceIdAttribute), false)[0];

                sourceId = attribute.SourceId;
            }

            string sourceTimeStamp = null;

            if (_assembly.IsDefined(typeof(AssemblySourceTimeStampAttribute), false))
            {
                AssemblySourceTimeStampAttribute attribute =
                    (AssemblySourceTimeStampAttribute)_assembly.GetCustomAttributes(
                        typeof(AssemblySourceTimeStampAttribute), false)[0];

                sourceTimeStamp = attribute.SourceTimeStamp;
            }

            if ((sourceId != null) || (sourceTimeStamp != null))
            {
                if (sourceId == null)
                    sourceId = "0000000000000000000000000000000000000000";

                if (sourceTimeStamp == null)
                    sourceTimeStamp = "0000-00-00 00:00:00 UTC";

                return HelperMethods.StringFormat(
                    CultureInfo.InvariantCulture,
                    "{0} {1}", sourceId, sourceTimeStamp);
            }
            else
            {
                return null;
            }
        }
    }

    ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

    /// <summary>
    /// Queries and returns the value of the specified setting, using the
    /// cached setting names and values for the last connection that used
    /// the <see cref="SQLiteConnection.Open" /> method, when available.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="name">
    /// The name of the setting.
    /// </param>
    /// <param name="default">
    /// The value to be returned if the setting has not been set explicitly
    /// or cannot be determined.
    /// </param>
    /// <param name="value">
    /// The value of the cached setting is stored here if found; otherwise,
    /// the value of <paramref name="default" /> is stored here.
    /// </param>
    /// <returns>
    /// Non-zero if the cached setting was found; otherwise, zero.
    /// </returns>
    private static bool TryGetLastCachedSetting(
        string name,
        object @default,
        out object value
        )
    {
        if (_lastConnectionInOpen == null)
        {
            value = @default;
            return false;
        }

        return _lastConnectionInOpen.TryGetCachedSetting(
            name, @default, out value);
    }

    ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

    /// <summary>
    /// Adds or sets the cached setting specified by <paramref name="name" />
    /// to the value specified by <paramref name="value" /> using the cached
    /// setting names and values for the last connection that used the
    /// <see cref="SQLiteConnection.Open" /> method, when available.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="name">
    /// The name of the cached setting to add or replace.
    /// </param>
    /// <param name="value">
    /// The new value of the cached setting.
    /// </param>
    private static void SetLastCachedSetting(
        string name, /* in */
        object value /* in */
        )
    {
        if (_lastConnectionInOpen == null)
            return;

        _lastConnectionInOpen.SetCachedSetting(name, value);
    }

    ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

    /// <summary>
    /// The default connection flags to be used for all opened connections
    /// when they are not present in the connection string.
    /// </summary>
    public static SQLiteConnectionFlags DefaultFlags
    {
        get
        {
            string name = "DefaultFlags_SQLiteConnection";
            object value;

            if (!TryGetLastCachedSetting(name, null, out value))
            {
                value = UnsafeNativeMethods.GetSettingValue(name, null);
                SetLastCachedSetting(name, value);
            }

            if (value == null)
                return FallbackDefaultFlags;

            object enumValue = TryParseEnum(
                typeof(SQLiteConnectionFlags), value.ToString(), true);

            if (enumValue is SQLiteConnectionFlags)
                return (SQLiteConnectionFlags)enumValue;

            return FallbackDefaultFlags;
        }
    }


    ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

    /// <summary>
    /// The extra connection flags to be used for all opened connections.
    /// </summary>
    public static SQLiteConnectionFlags SharedFlags
    {
        get { lock (_syncRoot) { return _sharedFlags; } }
        set { lock (_syncRoot) { _sharedFlags = value; } }
    }

    ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

    /// <summary>
    /// Returns the state of the connection.
    /// </summary>
#if !PLATFORM_COMPACTFRAMEWORK
    [Browsable(false), DesignerSerializationVisibility(DesignerSerializationVisibility.Hidden)]
#endif
    public override ConnectionState State
    {
      get
      {
        CheckDisposed();
        return _connectionState;
      }
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Passes a shutdown request to the SQLite core library.  Does not throw
    /// an exception if the shutdown request fails.
    /// </summary>
    /// <returns>
    /// A standard SQLite return code (i.e. zero for success and non-zero for
    /// failure).
    /// </returns>
    public SQLiteErrorCode Shutdown()
    {
        CheckDisposed();

        if (_sql == null)
            throw new InvalidOperationException("Database connection not valid for shutdown.");

        _sql.Close(false); /* NOTE: MUST be closed before shutdown. */
        SQLiteErrorCode rc = _sql.Shutdown();

#if !NET_COMPACT_20 && TRACE_CONNECTION
        if (rc != SQLiteErrorCode.Ok)
            System.Diagnostics.Trace.WriteLine(HelperMethods.StringFormat(
                CultureInfo.CurrentCulture,
                "Shutdown (Instance) Failed: {0}", rc));
#endif

        return rc;
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Passes a shutdown request to the SQLite core library.  Throws an
    /// exception if the shutdown request fails and the no-throw parameter
    /// is non-zero.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="directories">
    /// Non-zero to reset the database and temporary directories to their
    /// default values, which should be null for both.
    /// </param>
    /// <param name="noThrow">
    /// When non-zero, throw an exception if the shutdown request fails.
    /// </param>
    public static void Shutdown(
        bool directories,
        bool noThrow
        )
    {
        SQLiteErrorCode rc = SQLite3.StaticShutdown(directories);

        if (rc != SQLiteErrorCode.Ok)
        {
#if !NET_COMPACT_20 && TRACE_CONNECTION
            System.Diagnostics.Trace.WriteLine(HelperMethods.StringFormat(
                CultureInfo.CurrentCulture,
                "Shutdown (Static) Failed: {0}", rc));
#endif

            if (!noThrow)
                throw new SQLiteException(rc, null);
        }
    }

    /// Enables or disabled extended result codes returned by SQLite
    public void SetExtendedResultCodes(bool bOnOff)
    {
      CheckDisposed();

      if (_sql != null) _sql.SetExtendedResultCodes(bOnOff);
    }
    /// Enables or disabled extended result codes returned by SQLite
    public SQLiteErrorCode ResultCode()
    {
      CheckDisposed();

      if (_sql == null)
        throw new InvalidOperationException("Database connection not valid for getting result code.");
      return _sql.ResultCode();
    }
    /// Enables or disabled extended result codes returned by SQLite
    public SQLiteErrorCode ExtendedResultCode()
    {
      CheckDisposed();

      if (_sql == null)
        throw new InvalidOperationException("Database connection not valid for getting extended result code.");
      return _sql.ExtendedResultCode();
    }

    /// Add a log message via the SQLite sqlite3_log interface.
    public void LogMessage(SQLiteErrorCode iErrCode, string zMessage)
    {
      CheckDisposed();

      if (_sql == null)
          throw new InvalidOperationException("Database connection not valid for logging message.");

      _sql.LogMessage(iErrCode, zMessage);
    }

    /// Add a log message via the SQLite sqlite3_log interface.
    public void LogMessage(int iErrCode, string zMessage)
    {
      CheckDisposed();

      if (_sql == null)
          throw new InvalidOperationException("Database connection not valid for logging message.");

      _sql.LogMessage((SQLiteErrorCode)iErrCode, zMessage);
    }

#if INTEROP_CODEC || INTEROP_INCLUDE_SEE
    /// <summary>
    /// Change the password (or assign a password) to an open database.
    /// </summary>
    /// <remarks>
    /// No readers or writers may be active for this process.  The database must already be open
    /// and if it already was password protected, the existing password must already have been supplied.
    /// </remarks>
    /// <param name="newPassword">The new password to assign to the database</param>
    public void ChangePassword(string newPassword)
    {
      CheckDisposed();

      ChangePassword(String.IsNullOrEmpty(newPassword) ? null : UTF8Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(newPassword));
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Change the password (or assign a password) to an open database.
    /// </summary>
    /// <remarks>
    /// No readers or writers may be active for this process.  The database must already be open
    /// and if it already was password protected, the existing password must already have been supplied.
    /// </remarks>
    /// <param name="newPassword">The new password to assign to the database</param>
    public void ChangePassword(byte[] newPassword)
    {
      CheckDisposed();

      if (_connectionState != ConnectionState.Open)
        throw new InvalidOperationException("Database must be opened before changing the password.");

      _sql.ChangePassword(newPassword);
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Sets the password for a password-protected database.  A password-protected database is
    /// unusable for any operation until the password has been set.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="databasePassword">The password for the database</param>
    public void SetPassword(string databasePassword)
    {
      CheckDisposed();

      SetPassword(String.IsNullOrEmpty(databasePassword) ? null : UTF8Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(databasePassword));
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Sets the password for a password-protected database.  A password-protected database is
    /// unusable for any operation until the password has been set.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="databasePassword">The password for the database</param>
    public void SetPassword(byte[] databasePassword)
    {
      CheckDisposed();

      if (_connectionState != ConnectionState.Closed)
        throw new InvalidOperationException("Password can only be set before the database is opened.");

      if (databasePassword != null)
        if (databasePassword.Length == 0) databasePassword = null;

      _password = databasePassword;
    }
#endif

    /// <summary>
    /// Queries or modifies the number of retries or the retry interval (in milliseconds) for
    /// certain I/O operations that may fail due to anti-virus software.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="count">The number of times to retry the I/O operation.  A negative value
    /// will cause the current count to be queried and replace that negative value.</param>
    /// <param name="interval">The number of milliseconds to wait before retrying the I/O
    /// operation.  This number is multiplied by the number of retry attempts so far to come
    /// up with the final number of milliseconds to wait.  A negative value will cause the
    /// current interval to be queried and replace that negative value.</param>
    /// <returns>Zero for success, non-zero for error.</returns>
    public SQLiteErrorCode SetAvRetry(ref int count, ref int interval)
    {
        CheckDisposed();

        if (_connectionState != ConnectionState.Open)
            throw new InvalidOperationException(
                "Database must be opened before changing the AV retry parameters.");

        SQLiteErrorCode rc;
        IntPtr pArg = IntPtr.Zero;

        try
        {
            pArg = Marshal.AllocHGlobal(sizeof(int) * 2);

            Marshal.WriteInt32(pArg, 0, count);
            Marshal.WriteInt32(pArg, sizeof(int), interval);

            rc = _sql.FileControl(null, SQLITE_FCNTL_WIN32_AV_RETRY, pArg);

            if (rc == SQLiteErrorCode.Ok)
            {
                count = Marshal.ReadInt32(pArg, 0);
                interval = Marshal.ReadInt32(pArg, sizeof(int));
            }
        }
        finally
        {
            if (pArg != IntPtr.Zero)
                Marshal.FreeHGlobal(pArg);
        }

        return rc;
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Sets the chunk size for the primary file associated with this database
    /// connection.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="size">
    /// The new chunk size for the main database, in bytes.
    /// </param>
    /// <returns>
    /// Zero for success, non-zero for error.
    /// </returns>
    public SQLiteErrorCode SetChunkSize(int size)
    {
        CheckDisposed();

        if (_connectionState != ConnectionState.Open)
            throw new InvalidOperationException(
                "Database must be opened before changing the chunk size.");

        IntPtr pArg = IntPtr.Zero;

        try
        {
            pArg = Marshal.AllocHGlobal(sizeof(int) * 1);

            Marshal.WriteInt32(pArg, 0, size);

            return _sql.FileControl(null, SQLITE_FCNTL_CHUNK_SIZE, pArg);
        }
        finally
        {
            if (pArg != IntPtr.Zero)
                Marshal.FreeHGlobal(pArg);
        }
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Removes one set of surrounding single -OR- double quotes from the string
    /// value and returns the resulting string value.  If the string is null, empty,
    /// or contains quotes that are not balanced, nothing is done and the original
    /// string value will be returned.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="value">The string value to process.</param>
    /// <returns>
    /// The string value, modified to remove one set of surrounding single -OR-
    /// double quotes, if applicable.
    /// </returns>
    private static string UnwrapString(string value)
    {
        if (String.IsNullOrEmpty(value))
        {
            //
            // NOTE: The string is null or empty, return it verbatim.
            //
            return value;
        }

        int length = value.Length;

        if (((value[0] == '\'') && (value[length - 1] == '\'')) ||
            ((value[0] == '"') && (value[length - 1] == '"')))
        {
            //
            // NOTE: Remove the first and last character.
            //
            return value.Substring(1, length - 2);
        }

        //
        // NOTE: No match, return the input string verbatim.
        //
        return value;
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Determines the directory to be used when dealing with the "|DataDirectory|"
    /// macro in a database file name.
    /// </summary>
    /// <returns>
    /// The directory to use in place of the "|DataDirectory|" macro -OR- null if it
    /// cannot be determined.
    /// </returns>
    private static string GetDataDirectory()
    {
#if PLATFORM_COMPACTFRAMEWORK
        string result = Path.GetDirectoryName(
            Assembly.GetCallingAssembly().GetName().CodeBase);
#else
        string result = AppDomain.CurrentDomain.GetData(
            "DataDirectory") as string;

        if (String.IsNullOrEmpty(result))
            result = AppDomain.CurrentDomain.BaseDirectory;
#endif

        return result;
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Expand the filename of the data source, resolving the |DataDirectory|
    /// macro as appropriate.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="sourceFile">The database filename to expand</param>
    /// <param name="toFullPath">
    /// Non-zero if the returned file name should be converted to a full path
    /// (except when using the .NET Compact Framework).
    /// </param>
    /// <returns>The expanded path and filename of the filename</returns>
    private static string ExpandFileName(string sourceFile, bool toFullPath)
    {
        if (String.IsNullOrEmpty(sourceFile)) return sourceFile;

        if (sourceFile.StartsWith(_dataDirectory, StringComparison.OrdinalIgnoreCase))
        {
            string dataDirectory = GetDataDirectory();

            if (sourceFile.Length > _dataDirectory.Length)
            {
                if (sourceFile[_dataDirectory.Length] == Path.DirectorySeparatorChar ||
                    sourceFile[_dataDirectory.Length] == Path.AltDirectorySeparatorChar)
                    sourceFile = sourceFile.Remove(_dataDirectory.Length, 1);
            }
            sourceFile = Path.Combine(dataDirectory, sourceFile.Substring(_dataDirectory.Length));
        }

#if !PLATFORM_COMPACTFRAMEWORK
        if (toFullPath)
            sourceFile = Path.GetFullPath(sourceFile);
#endif

        return sourceFile;
    }

    ///<overloads>
    /// The following commands are used to extract schema information out of the database.  Valid schema types are:
    /// <list type="bullet">
    /// <item>
    /// <description>MetaDataCollections</description>
    /// </item>
    /// <item>
    /// <description>DataSourceInformation</description>
    /// </item>
    /// <item>
    /// <description>Catalogs</description>
    /// </item>
    /// <item>
    /// <description>Columns</description>
    /// </item>
    /// <item>
    /// <description>ForeignKeys</description>
    /// </item>
    /// <item>
    /// <description>Indexes</description>
    /// </item>
    /// <item>
    /// <description>IndexColumns</description>
    /// </item>
    /// <item>
    /// <description>Tables</description>
    /// </item>
    /// <item>
    /// <description>Views</description>
    /// </item>
    /// <item>
    /// <description>ViewColumns</description>
    /// </item>
    /// </list>
    /// </overloads>
    /// <summary>
    /// Returns the MetaDataCollections schema
    /// </summary>
    /// <returns>A DataTable of the MetaDataCollections schema</returns>
    public override DataTable GetSchema()
    {
      CheckDisposed();
      return GetSchema("MetaDataCollections", null);
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Returns schema information of the specified collection
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="collectionName">The schema collection to retrieve</param>
    /// <returns>A DataTable of the specified collection</returns>
    public override DataTable GetSchema(string collectionName)
    {
      CheckDisposed();
      return GetSchema(collectionName, new string[0]);
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Retrieves schema information using the specified constraint(s) for the specified collection
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="collectionName">The collection to retrieve.</param>
    /// <param name="restrictionValues">
    /// The restrictions to impose.  Typically, this may include:
    /// <list type="table">
    /// <listheader>
    /// <term>restrictionValues element index</term>
    /// <term>usage</term>
    /// </listheader>
    /// <item>
    /// <description>0</description>
    /// <description>The database (or catalog) name, if applicable.</description>
    /// </item>
    /// <item>
    /// <description>1</description>
    /// <description>The schema name.  This is not used by this provider.</description>
    /// </item>
    /// <item>
    /// <description>2</description>
    /// <description>The table name, if applicable.</description>
    /// </item>
    /// <item>
    /// <description>3</description>
    /// <description>
    /// Depends on <paramref name="collectionName" />.
    /// When "IndexColumns", it is the index name; otherwise, it is the column name.
    /// </description>
    /// </item>
    /// <item>
    /// <description>4</description>
    /// <description>
    /// Depends on <paramref name="collectionName" />.
    /// When "IndexColumns", it is the column name; otherwise, it is not used.
    /// </description>
    /// </item>
    /// </list>
    /// </param>
    /// <returns>A DataTable of the specified collection</returns>
    public override DataTable GetSchema(string collectionName, string[] restrictionValues)
    {
      CheckDisposed();

      if (_connectionState != ConnectionState.Open)
        throw new InvalidOperationException();

      string[] parms = new string[5];

      if (restrictionValues == null) restrictionValues = new string[0];
      restrictionValues.CopyTo(parms, 0);

      switch (collectionName.ToUpper(CultureInfo.InvariantCulture))
      {
        case "METADATACOLLECTIONS":
          return Schema_MetaDataCollections();
        case "DATASOURCEINFORMATION":
          return Schema_DataSourceInformation();
        case "DATATYPES":
          return Schema_DataTypes();
        case "COLUMNS":
        case "TABLECOLUMNS":
          return Schema_Columns(parms[0], parms[2], parms[3]);
        case "INDEXES":
          return Schema_Indexes(parms[0], parms[2], parms[3]);
        case "TRIGGERS":
          return Schema_Triggers(parms[0], parms[2], parms[3]);
        case "INDEXCOLUMNS":
          return Schema_IndexColumns(parms[0], parms[2], parms[3], parms[4]);
        case "TABLES":
          return Schema_Tables(parms[0], parms[2], parms[3]);
        case "VIEWS":
          return Schema_Views(parms[0], parms[2]);
        case "VIEWCOLUMNS":
          return Schema_ViewColumns(parms[0], parms[2], parms[3]);
        case "FOREIGNKEYS":
          return Schema_ForeignKeys(parms[0], parms[2], parms[3]);
        case "CATALOGS":
          return Schema_Catalogs(parms[0]);
        case "RESERVEDWORDS":
          return Schema_ReservedWords();
      }
      throw new NotSupportedException();
    }

    private static DataTable Schema_ReservedWords()
    {
      DataTable tbl = new DataTable("ReservedWords");

      tbl.Locale = CultureInfo.InvariantCulture;
      tbl.Columns.Add("ReservedWord", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("MaximumVersion", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("MinimumVersion", typeof(string));

      tbl.BeginLoadData();
      DataRow row;
      foreach (string word in SR.Keywords.Split(new char[] { ',' }))
      {
        row = tbl.NewRow();
        row[0] = word;
        tbl.Rows.Add(row);
      }

      tbl.AcceptChanges();
      tbl.EndLoadData();

      return tbl;
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Builds a MetaDataCollections schema datatable
    /// </summary>
    /// <returns>DataTable</returns>
    private static DataTable Schema_MetaDataCollections()
    {
      DataTable tbl = new DataTable("MetaDataCollections");

      tbl.Locale = CultureInfo.InvariantCulture;
      tbl.Columns.Add("CollectionName", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("NumberOfRestrictions", typeof(int));
      tbl.Columns.Add("NumberOfIdentifierParts", typeof(int));

      tbl.BeginLoadData();

      StringReader reader = new StringReader(SR.MetaDataCollections);
      tbl.ReadXml(reader);
      reader.Close();

      tbl.AcceptChanges();
      tbl.EndLoadData();

      return tbl;
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Builds a DataSourceInformation datatable
    /// </summary>
    /// <returns>DataTable</returns>
    private DataTable Schema_DataSourceInformation()
    {
      DataTable tbl = new DataTable("DataSourceInformation");
      DataRow row;

      tbl.Locale = CultureInfo.InvariantCulture;
      tbl.Columns.Add(DbMetaDataColumnNames.CompositeIdentifierSeparatorPattern, typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add(DbMetaDataColumnNames.DataSourceProductName, typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add(DbMetaDataColumnNames.DataSourceProductVersion, typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add(DbMetaDataColumnNames.DataSourceProductVersionNormalized, typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add(DbMetaDataColumnNames.GroupByBehavior, typeof(int));
      tbl.Columns.Add(DbMetaDataColumnNames.IdentifierPattern, typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add(DbMetaDataColumnNames.IdentifierCase, typeof(int));
      tbl.Columns.Add(DbMetaDataColumnNames.OrderByColumnsInSelect, typeof(bool));
      tbl.Columns.Add(DbMetaDataColumnNames.ParameterMarkerFormat, typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add(DbMetaDataColumnNames.ParameterMarkerPattern, typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add(DbMetaDataColumnNames.ParameterNameMaxLength, typeof(int));
      tbl.Columns.Add(DbMetaDataColumnNames.ParameterNamePattern, typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add(DbMetaDataColumnNames.QuotedIdentifierPattern, typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add(DbMetaDataColumnNames.QuotedIdentifierCase, typeof(int));
      tbl.Columns.Add(DbMetaDataColumnNames.StatementSeparatorPattern, typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add(DbMetaDataColumnNames.StringLiteralPattern, typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add(DbMetaDataColumnNames.SupportedJoinOperators, typeof(int));

      tbl.BeginLoadData();

      row = tbl.NewRow();
      row.ItemArray = new object[] {
        null,
        "SQLite",
        _sql.Version,
        _sql.Version,
        3,
        @"(^\[\p{Lo}\p{Lu}\p{Ll}_@#][\p{Lo}\p{Lu}\p{Ll}\p{Nd}@$#_]*$)|(^\[[^\]\0]|\]\]+\]$)|(^\""[^\""\0]|\""\""+\""$)",
        1,
        false,
        "{0}",
        @"@[\p{Lo}\p{Lu}\p{Ll}\p{Lm}_@#][\p{Lo}\p{Lu}\p{Ll}\p{Lm}\p{Nd}\uff3f_@#\$]*(?=\s+|$)",
        255,
        @"^[\p{Lo}\p{Lu}\p{Ll}\p{Lm}_@#][\p{Lo}\p{Lu}\p{Ll}\p{Lm}\p{Nd}\uff3f_@#\$]*(?=\s+|$)",
        @"(([^\[]|\]\])*)",
        1,
        ";",
        @"'(([^']|'')*)'",
        15
      };
      tbl.Rows.Add(row);

      tbl.AcceptChanges();
      tbl.EndLoadData();

      return tbl;
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Build a Columns schema
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="strCatalog">The catalog (attached database) to query, can be null</param>
    /// <param name="strTable">The table to retrieve schema information for, can be null</param>
    /// <param name="strColumn">The column to retrieve schema information for, can be null</param>
    /// <returns>DataTable</returns>
    private DataTable Schema_Columns(string strCatalog, string strTable, string strColumn)
    {
      DataTable tbl = new DataTable("Columns");
      DataRow row;

      tbl.Locale = CultureInfo.InvariantCulture;
      tbl.Columns.Add("TABLE_CATALOG", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("TABLE_SCHEMA", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("TABLE_NAME", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("COLUMN_NAME", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("COLUMN_GUID", typeof(Guid));
      tbl.Columns.Add("COLUMN_PROPID", typeof(long));
      tbl.Columns.Add("ORDINAL_POSITION", typeof(int));
      tbl.Columns.Add("COLUMN_HASDEFAULT", typeof(bool));
      tbl.Columns.Add("COLUMN_DEFAULT", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("COLUMN_FLAGS", typeof(long));
      tbl.Columns.Add("IS_NULLABLE", typeof(bool));
      tbl.Columns.Add("DATA_TYPE", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("TYPE_GUID", typeof(Guid));
      tbl.Columns.Add("CHARACTER_MAXIMUM_LENGTH", typeof(int));
      tbl.Columns.Add("CHARACTER_OCTET_LENGTH", typeof(int));
      tbl.Columns.Add("NUMERIC_PRECISION", typeof(int));
      tbl.Columns.Add("NUMERIC_SCALE", typeof(int));
      tbl.Columns.Add("DATETIME_PRECISION", typeof(long));
      tbl.Columns.Add("CHARACTER_SET_CATALOG", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("CHARACTER_SET_SCHEMA", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("CHARACTER_SET_NAME", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("COLLATION_CATALOG", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("COLLATION_SCHEMA", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("COLLATION_NAME", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("DOMAIN_CATALOG", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("DOMAIN_NAME", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("DESCRIPTION", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("PRIMARY_KEY", typeof(bool));
      tbl.Columns.Add("EDM_TYPE", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("AUTOINCREMENT", typeof(bool));
      tbl.Columns.Add("UNIQUE", typeof(bool));

      tbl.BeginLoadData();

      if (String.IsNullOrEmpty(strCatalog)) strCatalog = GetDefaultCatalogName();

      string master = GetMasterTableName(IsTemporaryCatalogName(strCatalog));

      using (SQLiteCommand cmdTables = new SQLiteCommand(HelperMethods.StringFormat(CultureInfo.InvariantCulture, "SELECT * FROM [{0}].[{1}] WHERE [type] LIKE 'table' OR [type] LIKE 'view'", strCatalog, master), this))
      using (SQLiteDataReader rdTables = cmdTables.ExecuteReader())
      {
        while (rdTables.Read())
        {
          if (String.IsNullOrEmpty(strTable) || String.Compare(strTable, rdTables.GetString(2), StringComparison.OrdinalIgnoreCase) == 0)
          {
            try
            {
              using (SQLiteCommand cmd = new SQLiteCommand(HelperMethods.StringFormat(CultureInfo.InvariantCulture, "SELECT * FROM [{0}].[{1}]", strCatalog, rdTables.GetString(2)), this))
              using (SQLiteDataReader rd = (SQLiteDataReader)cmd.ExecuteReader(CommandBehavior.SchemaOnly))
              using (DataTable tblSchema = rd.GetSchemaTable(true, true))
              {
                foreach (DataRow schemaRow in tblSchema.Rows)
                {
                  if (String.Compare(schemaRow[SchemaTableColumn.ColumnName].ToString(), strColumn, StringComparison.OrdinalIgnoreCase) == 0
                    || strColumn == null)
                  {
                    row = tbl.NewRow();

                    row["NUMERIC_PRECISION"] = schemaRow[SchemaTableColumn.NumericPrecision];
                    row["NUMERIC_SCALE"] = schemaRow[SchemaTableColumn.NumericScale];
                    row["TABLE_NAME"] = rdTables.GetString(2);
                    row["COLUMN_NAME"] = schemaRow[SchemaTableColumn.ColumnName];
                    row["TABLE_CATALOG"] = strCatalog;
                    row["ORDINAL_POSITION"] = schemaRow[SchemaTableColumn.ColumnOrdinal];
                    row["COLUMN_HASDEFAULT"] = (schemaRow[SchemaTableOptionalColumn.DefaultValue] != DBNull.Value);
                    row["COLUMN_DEFAULT"] = schemaRow[SchemaTableOptionalColumn.DefaultValue];
                    row["IS_NULLABLE"] = schemaRow[SchemaTableColumn.AllowDBNull];
                    row["DATA_TYPE"] = schemaRow["DataTypeName"].ToString().ToLower(CultureInfo.InvariantCulture);
                    row["EDM_TYPE"] = SQLiteConvert.DbTypeToTypeName(this, (DbType)schemaRow[SchemaTableColumn.ProviderType], _flags).ToString().ToLower(CultureInfo.InvariantCulture);
                    row["CHARACTER_MAXIMUM_LENGTH"] = schemaRow[SchemaTableColumn.ColumnSize];
                    row["TABLE_SCHEMA"] = schemaRow[SchemaTableColumn.BaseSchemaName];
                    row["PRIMARY_KEY"] = schemaRow[SchemaTableColumn.IsKey];
                    row["AUTOINCREMENT"] = schemaRow[SchemaTableOptionalColumn.IsAutoIncrement];
                    row["COLLATION_NAME"] = schemaRow["CollationType"];
                    row["UNIQUE"] = schemaRow[SchemaTableColumn.IsUnique];
                    tbl.Rows.Add(row);
                  }
                }
              }
            }
            catch(SQLiteException)
            {
            }
          }
        }
      }

      tbl.AcceptChanges();
      tbl.EndLoadData();

      return tbl;
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Returns index information for the given database and catalog
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="strCatalog">The catalog (attached database) to query, can be null</param>
    /// <param name="strIndex">The name of the index to retrieve information for, can be null</param>
    /// <param name="strTable">The table to retrieve index information for, can be null</param>
    /// <returns>DataTable</returns>
    private DataTable Schema_Indexes(string strCatalog, string strTable, string strIndex)
    {
      DataTable tbl = new DataTable("Indexes");
      DataRow row;
      List<int> primaryKeys = new List<int>();
      bool maybeRowId;

      tbl.Locale = CultureInfo.InvariantCulture;
      tbl.Columns.Add("TABLE_CATALOG", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("TABLE_SCHEMA", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("TABLE_NAME", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("INDEX_CATALOG", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("INDEX_SCHEMA", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("INDEX_NAME", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("PRIMARY_KEY", typeof(bool));
      tbl.Columns.Add("UNIQUE", typeof(bool));
      tbl.Columns.Add("CLUSTERED", typeof(bool));
      tbl.Columns.Add("TYPE", typeof(int));
      tbl.Columns.Add("FILL_FACTOR", typeof(int));
      tbl.Columns.Add("INITIAL_SIZE", typeof(int));
      tbl.Columns.Add("NULLS", typeof(int));
      tbl.Columns.Add("SORT_BOOKMARKS", typeof(bool));
      tbl.Columns.Add("AUTO_UPDATE", typeof(bool));
      tbl.Columns.Add("NULL_COLLATION", typeof(int));
      tbl.Columns.Add("ORDINAL_POSITION", typeof(int));
      tbl.Columns.Add("COLUMN_NAME", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("COLUMN_GUID", typeof(Guid));
      tbl.Columns.Add("COLUMN_PROPID", typeof(long));
      tbl.Columns.Add("COLLATION", typeof(short));
      tbl.Columns.Add("CARDINALITY", typeof(Decimal));
      tbl.Columns.Add("PAGES", typeof(int));
      tbl.Columns.Add("FILTER_CONDITION", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("INTEGRATED", typeof(bool));
      tbl.Columns.Add("INDEX_DEFINITION", typeof(string));

      tbl.BeginLoadData();

      if (String.IsNullOrEmpty(strCatalog)) strCatalog = GetDefaultCatalogName();

      string master = GetMasterTableName(IsTemporaryCatalogName(strCatalog));

      using (SQLiteCommand cmdTables = new SQLiteCommand(HelperMethods.StringFormat(CultureInfo.InvariantCulture, "SELECT * FROM [{0}].[{1}] WHERE [type] LIKE 'table'", strCatalog, master), this))
      using (SQLiteDataReader rdTables = cmdTables.ExecuteReader())
      {
        while (rdTables.Read())
        {
          maybeRowId = false;
          primaryKeys.Clear();
          if (String.IsNullOrEmpty(strTable) || String.Compare(rdTables.GetString(2), strTable, StringComparison.OrdinalIgnoreCase) == 0)
          {
            // First, look for any rowid indexes -- which sqlite defines are INTEGER PRIMARY KEY columns.
            // Such indexes are not listed in the indexes list but count as indexes just the same.
            try
            {
              using (SQLiteCommand cmdTable = new SQLiteCommand(HelperMethods.StringFormat(CultureInfo.InvariantCulture, "PRAGMA [{0}].table_info([{1}])", strCatalog, rdTables.GetString(2)), this))
              using (SQLiteDataReader rdTable = cmdTable.ExecuteReader())
              {
                while (rdTable.Read())
                {
                  if (rdTable.GetInt32(5) != 0)
                  {
                    primaryKeys.Add(rdTable.GetInt32(0));

                    // If the primary key is of type INTEGER, then its a rowid and we need to make a fake index entry for it.
                    if (String.Compare(rdTable.GetString(2), "INTEGER", StringComparison.OrdinalIgnoreCase) == 0)
                      maybeRowId = true;
                  }
                }
              }
            }
            catch (SQLiteException)
            {
            }
            if (primaryKeys.Count == 1 && maybeRowId == true)
            {
              row = tbl.NewRow();

              row["TABLE_CATALOG"] = strCatalog;
              row["TABLE_NAME"] = rdTables.GetString(2);
              row["INDEX_CATALOG"] = strCatalog;
              row["PRIMARY_KEY"] = true;
              row["INDEX_NAME"] = HelperMethods.StringFormat(CultureInfo.InvariantCulture, "{1}_PK_{0}", rdTables.GetString(2), master);
              row["UNIQUE"] = true;

              if (String.Compare((string)row["INDEX_NAME"], strIndex, StringComparison.OrdinalIgnoreCase) == 0
              || strIndex == null)
              {
                tbl.Rows.Add(row);
              }

              primaryKeys.Clear();
            }

            // Now fetch all the rest of the indexes.
            try
            {
              using (SQLiteCommand cmd = new SQLiteCommand(HelperMethods.StringFormat(CultureInfo.InvariantCulture, "PRAGMA [{0}].index_list([{1}])", strCatalog, rdTables.GetString(2)), this))
              using (SQLiteDataReader rd = (SQLiteDataReader)cmd.ExecuteReader())
              {
                while (rd.Read())
                {
                  if (String.Compare(rd.GetString(1), strIndex, StringComparison.OrdinalIgnoreCase) == 0
                  || strIndex == null)
                  {
                    row = tbl.NewRow();

                    row["TABLE_CATALOG"] = strCatalog;
                    row["TABLE_NAME"] = rdTables.GetString(2);
                    row["INDEX_CATALOG"] = strCatalog;
                    row["INDEX_NAME"] = rd.GetString(1);
                    row["UNIQUE"] = SQLiteConvert.ToBoolean(rd.GetValue(2), CultureInfo.InvariantCulture, false);
                    row["PRIMARY_KEY"] = false;

                    // get the index definition
                    using (SQLiteCommand cmdIndexes = new SQLiteCommand(HelperMethods.StringFormat(CultureInfo.InvariantCulture, "SELECT * FROM [{0}].[{2}] WHERE [type] LIKE 'index' AND [name] LIKE '{1}'", strCatalog, rd.GetString(1).Replace("'", "''"), master), this))
                    using (SQLiteDataReader rdIndexes = cmdIndexes.ExecuteReader())
                    {
                      while (rdIndexes.Read())
                      {
                        if (rdIndexes.IsDBNull(4) == false)
                          row["INDEX_DEFINITION"] = rdIndexes.GetString(4);
                        break;
                      }
                    }

                    // Now for the really hard work.  Figure out which index is the primary key index.
                    // The only way to figure it out is to check if the index was an autoindex and if we have a non-rowid
                    // primary key, and all the columns in the given index match the primary key columns
                    if (primaryKeys.Count > 0 && rd.GetString(1).StartsWith("sqlite_autoindex_" + rdTables.GetString(2), StringComparison.InvariantCultureIgnoreCase) == true)
                    {
                      using (SQLiteCommand cmdDetails = new SQLiteCommand(HelperMethods.StringFormat(CultureInfo.InvariantCulture, "PRAGMA [{0}].index_info([{1}])", strCatalog, rd.GetString(1)), this))
                      using (SQLiteDataReader rdDetails = cmdDetails.ExecuteReader())
                      {
                        int nMatches = 0;
                        while (rdDetails.Read())
                        {
                          if (primaryKeys.Contains(rdDetails.GetInt32(1)) == false)
                          {
                            nMatches = 0;
                            break;
                          }
                          nMatches++;
                        }
                        if (nMatches == primaryKeys.Count)
                        {
                          row["PRIMARY_KEY"] = true;
                          primaryKeys.Clear();
                        }
                      }
                    }

                    tbl.Rows.Add(row);
                  }
                }
              }
            }
            catch (SQLiteException)
            {
            }
          }
        }
      }

      tbl.AcceptChanges();
      tbl.EndLoadData();

      return tbl;
    }

    private DataTable Schema_Triggers(string catalog, string table, string triggerName)
    {
      DataTable tbl = new DataTable("Triggers");
      DataRow row;

      tbl.Locale = CultureInfo.InvariantCulture;
      tbl.Columns.Add("TABLE_CATALOG", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("TABLE_SCHEMA", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("TABLE_NAME", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("TRIGGER_NAME", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("TRIGGER_DEFINITION", typeof(string));

      tbl.BeginLoadData();

      if (String.IsNullOrEmpty(table)) table = null;
      if (String.IsNullOrEmpty(catalog)) catalog = GetDefaultCatalogName();
      string master = GetMasterTableName(IsTemporaryCatalogName(catalog));

      using (SQLiteCommand cmd = new SQLiteCommand(HelperMethods.StringFormat(CultureInfo.InvariantCulture, "SELECT [type], [name], [tbl_name], [rootpage], [sql], [rowid] FROM [{0}].[{1}] WHERE [type] LIKE 'trigger'", catalog, master), this))
      using (SQLiteDataReader rd = (SQLiteDataReader)cmd.ExecuteReader())
      {
        while (rd.Read())
        {
          if (String.Compare(rd.GetString(1), triggerName, StringComparison.OrdinalIgnoreCase) == 0
            || triggerName == null)
          {
            if (table == null || String.Compare(table, rd.GetString(2), StringComparison.OrdinalIgnoreCase) == 0)
            {
              row = tbl.NewRow();

              row["TABLE_CATALOG"] = catalog;
              row["TABLE_NAME"] = rd.GetString(2);
              row["TRIGGER_NAME"] = rd.GetString(1);
              row["TRIGGER_DEFINITION"] = rd.GetString(4);

              tbl.Rows.Add(row);
            }
          }
        }
      }
      tbl.AcceptChanges();
      tbl.EndLoadData();

      return tbl;
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Retrieves table schema information for the database and catalog
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="strCatalog">The catalog (attached database) to retrieve tables on</param>
    /// <param name="strTable">The table to retrieve, can be null</param>
    /// <param name="strType">The table type, can be null</param>
    /// <returns>DataTable</returns>
    private DataTable Schema_Tables(string strCatalog, string strTable, string strType)
    {
      DataTable tbl = new DataTable("Tables");
      DataRow row;
      string strItem;

      tbl.Locale = CultureInfo.InvariantCulture;
      tbl.Columns.Add("TABLE_CATALOG", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("TABLE_SCHEMA", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("TABLE_NAME", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("TABLE_TYPE", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("TABLE_ID", typeof(long));
      tbl.Columns.Add("TABLE_ROOTPAGE", typeof(int));
      tbl.Columns.Add("TABLE_DEFINITION", typeof(string));
      tbl.BeginLoadData();

      if (String.IsNullOrEmpty(strCatalog)) strCatalog = GetDefaultCatalogName();

      string master = GetMasterTableName(IsTemporaryCatalogName(strCatalog));

      using (SQLiteCommand cmd = new SQLiteCommand(HelperMethods.StringFormat(CultureInfo.InvariantCulture, "SELECT [type], [name], [tbl_name], [rootpage], [sql], [rowid] FROM [{0}].[{1}] WHERE [type] LIKE 'table'", strCatalog, master), this))
      using (SQLiteDataReader rd = (SQLiteDataReader)cmd.ExecuteReader())
      {
        while (rd.Read())
        {
          strItem = rd.GetString(0);
          if (String.Compare(rd.GetString(2), 0, "SQLITE_", 0, 7, StringComparison.OrdinalIgnoreCase) == 0)
            strItem = "SYSTEM_TABLE";

          if (String.Compare(strType, strItem, StringComparison.OrdinalIgnoreCase) == 0
            || strType == null)
          {
            if (String.Compare(rd.GetString(2), strTable, StringComparison.OrdinalIgnoreCase) == 0
              || strTable == null)
            {
              row = tbl.NewRow();

              row["TABLE_CATALOG"] = strCatalog;
              row["TABLE_NAME"] = rd.GetString(2);
              row["TABLE_TYPE"] = strItem;
              row["TABLE_ID"] = rd.GetInt64(5);
              row["TABLE_ROOTPAGE"] = rd.GetInt32(3);
              row["TABLE_DEFINITION"] = rd.GetString(4);

              tbl.Rows.Add(row);
            }
          }
        }
      }

      tbl.AcceptChanges();
      tbl.EndLoadData();

      return tbl;
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Retrieves view schema information for the database
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="strCatalog">The catalog (attached database) to retrieve views on</param>
    /// <param name="strView">The view name, can be null</param>
    /// <returns>DataTable</returns>
    private DataTable Schema_Views(string strCatalog, string strView)
    {
      DataTable tbl = new DataTable("Views");
      DataRow row;
      string strItem;
      int nPos;

      tbl.Locale = CultureInfo.InvariantCulture;
      tbl.Columns.Add("TABLE_CATALOG", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("TABLE_SCHEMA", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("TABLE_NAME", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("VIEW_DEFINITION", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("CHECK_OPTION", typeof(bool));
      tbl.Columns.Add("IS_UPDATABLE", typeof(bool));
      tbl.Columns.Add("DESCRIPTION", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("DATE_CREATED", typeof(DateTime));
      tbl.Columns.Add("DATE_MODIFIED", typeof(DateTime));

      tbl.BeginLoadData();

      if (String.IsNullOrEmpty(strCatalog)) strCatalog = GetDefaultCatalogName();

      string master = GetMasterTableName(IsTemporaryCatalogName(strCatalog));

      using (SQLiteCommand cmd = new SQLiteCommand(HelperMethods.StringFormat(CultureInfo.InvariantCulture, "SELECT * FROM [{0}].[{1}] WHERE [type] LIKE 'view'", strCatalog, master), this))
      using (SQLiteDataReader rd = (SQLiteDataReader)cmd.ExecuteReader())
      {
        while (rd.Read())
        {
          if (String.Compare(rd.GetString(1), strView, StringComparison.OrdinalIgnoreCase) == 0
            || String.IsNullOrEmpty(strView))
          {
            strItem = rd.GetString(4).Replace('\r', ' ').Replace('\n', ' ').Replace('\t', ' ');
            nPos = CultureInfo.InvariantCulture.CompareInfo.IndexOf(strItem, " AS ", CompareOptions.IgnoreCase);
            if (nPos > -1)
            {
              strItem = strItem.Substring(nPos + 4).Trim();
              row = tbl.NewRow();

              row["TABLE_CATALOG"] = strCatalog;
              row["TABLE_NAME"] = rd.GetString(2);
              row["IS_UPDATABLE"] = false;
              row["VIEW_DEFINITION"] = strItem;

              tbl.Rows.Add(row);
            }
          }
        }
      }

      tbl.AcceptChanges();
      tbl.EndLoadData();

      return tbl;
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Retrieves catalog (attached databases) schema information for the database
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="strCatalog">The catalog to retrieve, can be null</param>
    /// <returns>DataTable</returns>
    private DataTable Schema_Catalogs(string strCatalog)
    {
      DataTable tbl = new DataTable("Catalogs");
      DataRow row;

      tbl.Locale = CultureInfo.InvariantCulture;
      tbl.Columns.Add("CATALOG_NAME", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("DESCRIPTION", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("ID", typeof(long));

      tbl.BeginLoadData();

      using (SQLiteCommand cmd = new SQLiteCommand("PRAGMA database_list", this))
      using (SQLiteDataReader rd = (SQLiteDataReader)cmd.ExecuteReader())
      {
        while (rd.Read())
        {
          if (String.Compare(rd.GetString(1), strCatalog, StringComparison.OrdinalIgnoreCase) == 0
            || strCatalog == null)
          {
            row = tbl.NewRow();

            row["CATALOG_NAME"] = rd.GetString(1);
            row["DESCRIPTION"] = rd.GetString(2);
            row["ID"] = rd.GetInt64(0);

            tbl.Rows.Add(row);
          }
        }
      }

      tbl.AcceptChanges();
      tbl.EndLoadData();

      return tbl;
    }

    private DataTable Schema_DataTypes()
    {
      DataTable tbl = new DataTable("DataTypes");

      tbl.Locale = CultureInfo.InvariantCulture;
      tbl.Columns.Add("TypeName", typeof(String));
      tbl.Columns.Add("ProviderDbType", typeof(int));
      tbl.Columns.Add("ColumnSize", typeof(long));
      tbl.Columns.Add("CreateFormat", typeof(String));
      tbl.Columns.Add("CreateParameters", typeof(String));
      tbl.Columns.Add("DataType", typeof(String));
      tbl.Columns.Add("IsAutoIncrementable", typeof(bool));
      tbl.Columns.Add("IsBestMatch", typeof(bool));
      tbl.Columns.Add("IsCaseSensitive", typeof(bool));
      tbl.Columns.Add("IsFixedLength", typeof(bool));
      tbl.Columns.Add("IsFixedPrecisionScale", typeof(bool));
      tbl.Columns.Add("IsLong", typeof(bool));
      tbl.Columns.Add("IsNullable", typeof(bool));
      tbl.Columns.Add("IsSearchable", typeof(bool));
      tbl.Columns.Add("IsSearchableWithLike", typeof(bool));
      tbl.Columns.Add("IsLiteralSupported", typeof(bool));
      tbl.Columns.Add("LiteralPrefix", typeof(String));
      tbl.Columns.Add("LiteralSuffix", typeof(String));
      tbl.Columns.Add("IsUnsigned", typeof(bool));
      tbl.Columns.Add("MaximumScale", typeof(short));
      tbl.Columns.Add("MinimumScale", typeof(short));
      tbl.Columns.Add("IsConcurrencyType", typeof(bool));

      tbl.BeginLoadData();

      StringReader reader = new StringReader(SR.DataTypes);
      tbl.ReadXml(reader);
      reader.Close();

      tbl.AcceptChanges();
      tbl.EndLoadData();

      return tbl;
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Returns the base column information for indexes in a database
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="strCatalog">The catalog to retrieve indexes for (can be null)</param>
    /// <param name="strTable">The table to restrict index information by (can be null)</param>
    /// <param name="strIndex">The index to restrict index information by (can be null)</param>
    /// <param name="strColumn">The source column to restrict index information by (can be null)</param>
    /// <returns>A DataTable containing the results</returns>
    private DataTable Schema_IndexColumns(string strCatalog, string strTable, string strIndex, string strColumn)
    {
      DataTable tbl = new DataTable("IndexColumns");
      DataRow row;
      List<KeyValuePair<int, string>> primaryKeys = new List<KeyValuePair<int, string>>();
      bool maybeRowId;

      tbl.Locale = CultureInfo.InvariantCulture;
      tbl.Columns.Add("CONSTRAINT_CATALOG", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("CONSTRAINT_SCHEMA", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("CONSTRAINT_NAME", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("TABLE_CATALOG", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("TABLE_SCHEMA", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("TABLE_NAME", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("COLUMN_NAME", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("ORDINAL_POSITION", typeof(int));
      tbl.Columns.Add("INDEX_NAME", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("COLLATION_NAME", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("SORT_MODE", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("CONFLICT_OPTION", typeof(int));

      if (String.IsNullOrEmpty(strCatalog)) strCatalog = GetDefaultCatalogName();

      string master = GetMasterTableName(IsTemporaryCatalogName(strCatalog));

      tbl.BeginLoadData();

      using (SQLiteCommand cmdTables = new SQLiteCommand(HelperMethods.StringFormat(CultureInfo.InvariantCulture, "SELECT * FROM [{0}].[{1}] WHERE [type] LIKE 'table'", strCatalog, master), this))
      using (SQLiteDataReader rdTables = cmdTables.ExecuteReader())
      {
        while (rdTables.Read())
        {
          maybeRowId = false;
          primaryKeys.Clear();
          if (String.IsNullOrEmpty(strTable) || String.Compare(rdTables.GetString(2), strTable, StringComparison.OrdinalIgnoreCase) == 0)
          {
            try
            {
              using (SQLiteCommand cmdTable = new SQLiteCommand(HelperMethods.StringFormat(CultureInfo.InvariantCulture, "PRAGMA [{0}].table_info([{1}])", strCatalog, rdTables.GetString(2)), this))
              using (SQLiteDataReader rdTable = cmdTable.ExecuteReader())
              {
                while (rdTable.Read())
                {
                  if (rdTable.GetInt32(5) == 1) // is a primary key
                  {
                    primaryKeys.Add(new KeyValuePair<int, string>(rdTable.GetInt32(0), rdTable.GetString(1)));
                    // Is an integer -- could be a rowid if no other primary keys exist in the table
                    if (String.Compare(rdTable.GetString(2), "INTEGER", StringComparison.OrdinalIgnoreCase) == 0)
                      maybeRowId = true;
                  }
                }
              }
            }
            catch (SQLiteException)
            {
            }
            // This is a rowid row
            if (primaryKeys.Count == 1 && maybeRowId == true)
            {
              row = tbl.NewRow();
              row["CONSTRAINT_CATALOG"] = strCatalog;
              row["CONSTRAINT_NAME"] = HelperMethods.StringFormat(CultureInfo.InvariantCulture, "{1}_PK_{0}", rdTables.GetString(2), master);
              row["TABLE_CATALOG"] = strCatalog;
              row["TABLE_NAME"] = rdTables.GetString(2);
              row["COLUMN_NAME"] = primaryKeys[0].Value;
              row["INDEX_NAME"] = row["CONSTRAINT_NAME"];
              row["ORDINAL_POSITION"] = 0; // primaryKeys[0].Key;
              row["COLLATION_NAME"] = "BINARY";
              row["SORT_MODE"] = "ASC";
              row["CONFLICT_OPTION"] = 2;

              if (String.IsNullOrEmpty(strIndex) || String.Compare(strIndex, (string)row["INDEX_NAME"], StringComparison.OrdinalIgnoreCase) == 0)
                tbl.Rows.Add(row);
            }

            using (SQLiteCommand cmdIndexes = new SQLiteCommand(HelperMethods.StringFormat(CultureInfo.InvariantCulture, "SELECT * FROM [{0}].[{2}] WHERE [type] LIKE 'index' AND [tbl_name] LIKE '{1}'", strCatalog, rdTables.GetString(2).Replace("'", "''"), master), this))
            using (SQLiteDataReader rdIndexes = cmdIndexes.ExecuteReader())
            {
              while (rdIndexes.Read())
              {
                int ordinal = 0;
                if (String.IsNullOrEmpty(strIndex) || String.Compare(strIndex, rdIndexes.GetString(1), StringComparison.OrdinalIgnoreCase) == 0)
                {
                  try
                  {
                    using (SQLiteCommand cmdIndex = new SQLiteCommand(HelperMethods.StringFormat(CultureInfo.InvariantCulture, "PRAGMA [{0}].index_info([{1}])", strCatalog, rdIndexes.GetString(1)), this))
                    using (SQLiteDataReader rdIndex = cmdIndex.ExecuteReader())
                    {
                      while (rdIndex.Read())
                      {
                        string columnName = rdIndex.IsDBNull(2) ? null : rdIndex.GetString(2);

                        row = tbl.NewRow();
                        row["CONSTRAINT_CATALOG"] = strCatalog;
                        row["CONSTRAINT_NAME"] = rdIndexes.GetString(1);
                        row["TABLE_CATALOG"] = strCatalog;
                        row["TABLE_NAME"] = rdIndexes.GetString(2);
                        row["COLUMN_NAME"] = columnName;
                        row["INDEX_NAME"] = rdIndexes.GetString(1);
                        row["ORDINAL_POSITION"] = ordinal; // rdIndex.GetInt32(1);

                        string collationSequence = null;
                        int sortMode = 0;
                        int onError = 0;

                        if (columnName != null)
                          _sql.GetIndexColumnExtendedInfo(strCatalog, rdIndexes.GetString(1), columnName, ref sortMode, ref onError, ref collationSequence);

                        if (String.IsNullOrEmpty(collationSequence) == false)
                          row["COLLATION_NAME"] = collationSequence;

                        row["SORT_MODE"] = (sortMode == 0) ? "ASC" : "DESC";
                        row["CONFLICT_OPTION"] = onError;

                        ordinal++;

                        if ((strColumn == null) || String.Compare(strColumn, columnName, StringComparison.OrdinalIgnoreCase) == 0)
                          tbl.Rows.Add(row);
                      }
                    }
                  }
                  catch (SQLiteException)
                  {
                  }
                }
              }
            }
          }
        }
      }

      tbl.EndLoadData();
      tbl.AcceptChanges();

      return tbl;
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Returns detailed column information for a specified view
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="strCatalog">The catalog to retrieve columns for (can be null)</param>
    /// <param name="strView">The view to restrict column information by (can be null)</param>
    /// <param name="strColumn">The source column to restrict column information by (can be null)</param>
    /// <returns>A DataTable containing the results</returns>
    private DataTable Schema_ViewColumns(string strCatalog, string strView, string strColumn)
    {
      DataTable tbl = new DataTable("ViewColumns");
      DataRow row;
      string strSql;
      int n;
      DataRow schemaRow;
      DataRow viewRow;

      tbl.Locale = CultureInfo.InvariantCulture;
      tbl.Columns.Add("VIEW_CATALOG", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("VIEW_SCHEMA", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("VIEW_NAME", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("VIEW_COLUMN_NAME", typeof(String));
      tbl.Columns.Add("TABLE_CATALOG", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("TABLE_SCHEMA", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("TABLE_NAME", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("COLUMN_NAME", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("ORDINAL_POSITION", typeof(int));
      tbl.Columns.Add("COLUMN_HASDEFAULT", typeof(bool));
      tbl.Columns.Add("COLUMN_DEFAULT", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("COLUMN_FLAGS", typeof(long));
      tbl.Columns.Add("IS_NULLABLE", typeof(bool));
      tbl.Columns.Add("DATA_TYPE", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("CHARACTER_MAXIMUM_LENGTH", typeof(int));
      tbl.Columns.Add("NUMERIC_PRECISION", typeof(int));
      tbl.Columns.Add("NUMERIC_SCALE", typeof(int));
      tbl.Columns.Add("DATETIME_PRECISION", typeof(long));
      tbl.Columns.Add("CHARACTER_SET_CATALOG", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("CHARACTER_SET_SCHEMA", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("CHARACTER_SET_NAME", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("COLLATION_CATALOG", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("COLLATION_SCHEMA", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("COLLATION_NAME", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("PRIMARY_KEY", typeof(bool));
      tbl.Columns.Add("EDM_TYPE", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("AUTOINCREMENT", typeof(bool));
      tbl.Columns.Add("UNIQUE", typeof(bool));

      if (String.IsNullOrEmpty(strCatalog)) strCatalog = GetDefaultCatalogName();

      string master = GetMasterTableName(IsTemporaryCatalogName(strCatalog));

      tbl.BeginLoadData();

      using (SQLiteCommand cmdViews = new SQLiteCommand(HelperMethods.StringFormat(CultureInfo.InvariantCulture, "SELECT * FROM [{0}].[{1}] WHERE [type] LIKE 'view'", strCatalog, master), this))
      using (SQLiteDataReader rdViews = cmdViews.ExecuteReader())
      {
        while (rdViews.Read())
        {
          if (String.IsNullOrEmpty(strView) || String.Compare(strView, rdViews.GetString(2), StringComparison.OrdinalIgnoreCase) == 0)
          {
            using (SQLiteCommand cmdViewSelect = new SQLiteCommand(HelperMethods.StringFormat(CultureInfo.InvariantCulture, "SELECT * FROM [{0}].[{1}]", strCatalog, rdViews.GetString(2)), this))
            {
              strSql = rdViews.GetString(4).Replace('\r', ' ').Replace('\n', ' ').Replace('\t', ' ');
              n = CultureInfo.InvariantCulture.CompareInfo.IndexOf(strSql, " AS ", CompareOptions.IgnoreCase);
              if (n < 0)
                continue;

              strSql = strSql.Substring(n + 4);

              using (SQLiteCommand cmd = new SQLiteCommand(strSql, this))
              using (SQLiteDataReader rdViewSelect = cmdViewSelect.ExecuteReader(CommandBehavior.SchemaOnly))
              using (SQLiteDataReader rd = (SQLiteDataReader)cmd.ExecuteReader(CommandBehavior.SchemaOnly))
              using (DataTable tblSchemaView = rdViewSelect.GetSchemaTable(false, false))
              using (DataTable tblSchema = rd.GetSchemaTable(false, false))
              {
                for (n = 0; n < tblSchema.Rows.Count; n++)
                {
                  viewRow = tblSchemaView.Rows[n];
                  schemaRow = tblSchema.Rows[n];

                  if (String.Compare(viewRow[SchemaTableColumn.ColumnName].ToString(), strColumn, StringComparison.OrdinalIgnoreCase) == 0
                    || strColumn == null)
                  {
                    row = tbl.NewRow();

                    row["VIEW_CATALOG"] = strCatalog;
                    row["VIEW_NAME"] = rdViews.GetString(2);
                    row["TABLE_CATALOG"] = strCatalog;
                    row["TABLE_SCHEMA"] = schemaRow[SchemaTableColumn.BaseSchemaName];
                    row["TABLE_NAME"] = schemaRow[SchemaTableColumn.BaseTableName];
                    row["COLUMN_NAME"] = schemaRow[SchemaTableColumn.BaseColumnName];
                    row["VIEW_COLUMN_NAME"] = viewRow[SchemaTableColumn.ColumnName];
                    row["COLUMN_HASDEFAULT"] = (viewRow[SchemaTableOptionalColumn.DefaultValue] != DBNull.Value);
                    row["COLUMN_DEFAULT"] = viewRow[SchemaTableOptionalColumn.DefaultValue];
                    row["ORDINAL_POSITION"] = viewRow[SchemaTableColumn.ColumnOrdinal];
                    row["IS_NULLABLE"] = viewRow[SchemaTableColumn.AllowDBNull];
                    row["DATA_TYPE"] = viewRow["DataTypeName"]; // SQLiteConvert.DbTypeToType((DbType)viewRow[SchemaTableColumn.ProviderType]).ToString();
                    row["EDM_TYPE"] = SQLiteConvert.DbTypeToTypeName(this, (DbType)viewRow[SchemaTableColumn.ProviderType], _flags).ToString().ToLower(CultureInfo.InvariantCulture);
                    row["CHARACTER_MAXIMUM_LENGTH"] = viewRow[SchemaTableColumn.ColumnSize];
                    row["TABLE_SCHEMA"] = viewRow[SchemaTableColumn.BaseSchemaName];
                    row["PRIMARY_KEY"] = viewRow[SchemaTableColumn.IsKey];
                    row["AUTOINCREMENT"] = viewRow[SchemaTableOptionalColumn.IsAutoIncrement];
                    row["COLLATION_NAME"] = viewRow["CollationType"];
                    row["UNIQUE"] = viewRow[SchemaTableColumn.IsUnique];
                    tbl.Rows.Add(row);
                  }
                }
              }
            }
          }
        }
      }

      tbl.EndLoadData();
      tbl.AcceptChanges();

      return tbl;
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Retrieves foreign key information from the specified set of filters
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="strCatalog">An optional catalog to restrict results on</param>
    /// <param name="strTable">An optional table to restrict results on</param>
    /// <param name="strKeyName">An optional foreign key name to restrict results on</param>
    /// <returns>A DataTable with the results of the query</returns>
    private DataTable Schema_ForeignKeys(string strCatalog, string strTable, string strKeyName)
    {
      DataTable tbl = new DataTable("ForeignKeys");
      DataRow row;

      tbl.Locale = CultureInfo.InvariantCulture;
      tbl.Columns.Add("CONSTRAINT_CATALOG", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("CONSTRAINT_SCHEMA", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("CONSTRAINT_NAME", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("TABLE_CATALOG", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("TABLE_SCHEMA", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("TABLE_NAME", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("CONSTRAINT_TYPE", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("IS_DEFERRABLE", typeof(bool));
      tbl.Columns.Add("INITIALLY_DEFERRED", typeof(bool));
      tbl.Columns.Add("FKEY_ID", typeof(int));
      tbl.Columns.Add("FKEY_FROM_COLUMN", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("FKEY_FROM_ORDINAL_POSITION", typeof(int));
      tbl.Columns.Add("FKEY_TO_CATALOG", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("FKEY_TO_SCHEMA", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("FKEY_TO_TABLE", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("FKEY_TO_COLUMN", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("FKEY_ON_UPDATE", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("FKEY_ON_DELETE", typeof(string));
      tbl.Columns.Add("FKEY_MATCH", typeof(string));

      if (String.IsNullOrEmpty(strCatalog)) strCatalog = GetDefaultCatalogName();

      string master = GetMasterTableName(IsTemporaryCatalogName(strCatalog));

      tbl.BeginLoadData();

      using (SQLiteCommand cmdTables = new SQLiteCommand(HelperMethods.StringFormat(CultureInfo.InvariantCulture, "SELECT * FROM [{0}].[{1}] WHERE [type] LIKE 'table'", strCatalog, master), this))
      using (SQLiteDataReader rdTables = cmdTables.ExecuteReader())
      {
        while (rdTables.Read())
        {
          if (String.IsNullOrEmpty(strTable) || String.Compare(strTable, rdTables.GetString(2), StringComparison.OrdinalIgnoreCase) == 0)
          {
            try
            {
              using (SQLiteCommandBuilder builder = new SQLiteCommandBuilder())
              using (SQLiteCommand cmdKey = new SQLiteCommand(HelperMethods.StringFormat(CultureInfo.InvariantCulture, "PRAGMA [{0}].foreign_key_list([{1}])", strCatalog, rdTables.GetString(2)), this))
              using (SQLiteDataReader rdKey = cmdKey.ExecuteReader())
              {
                while (rdKey.Read())
                {
                  row = tbl.NewRow();
                  row["CONSTRAINT_CATALOG"] = strCatalog;
                  row["CONSTRAINT_NAME"] = HelperMethods.StringFormat(CultureInfo.InvariantCulture, "FK_{0}_{1}_{2}", rdTables[2], rdKey.GetInt32(0), rdKey.GetInt32(1));
                  row["TABLE_CATALOG"] = strCatalog;
                  row["TABLE_NAME"] = builder.UnquoteIdentifier(rdTables.GetString(2));
                  row["CONSTRAINT_TYPE"] = "FOREIGN KEY";
                  row["IS_DEFERRABLE"] = false;
                  row["INITIALLY_DEFERRED"] = false;
                  row["FKEY_ID"] = rdKey[0];
                  row["FKEY_FROM_COLUMN"] = builder.UnquoteIdentifier(rdKey[3].ToString());
                  row["FKEY_TO_CATALOG"] = strCatalog;
                  row["FKEY_TO_TABLE"] = builder.UnquoteIdentifier(rdKey[2].ToString());
                  row["FKEY_TO_COLUMN"] = builder.UnquoteIdentifier(rdKey[4].ToString());
                  row["FKEY_FROM_ORDINAL_POSITION"] = rdKey[1];
                  row["FKEY_ON_UPDATE"] = (rdKey.FieldCount > 5) ? rdKey[5] : String.Empty;
                  row["FKEY_ON_DELETE"] = (rdKey.FieldCount > 6) ? rdKey[6] : String.Empty;
                  row["FKEY_MATCH"] = (rdKey.FieldCount > 7) ? rdKey[7] : String.Empty;

                  if (String.IsNullOrEmpty(strKeyName) || String.Compare(strKeyName, row["CONSTRAINT_NAME"].ToString(), StringComparison.OrdinalIgnoreCase) == 0)
                    tbl.Rows.Add(row);
                }
              }
            }
            catch (SQLiteException)
            {
            }
          }
        }
      }

      tbl.EndLoadData();
      tbl.AcceptChanges();

      return tbl;
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// This event is raised periodically during long running queries.  Changing
    /// the value of the <see cref="ProgressEventArgs.ReturnCode" /> property will
    /// determine if the operation in progress will continue or be interrupted.
    /// For the entire duration of the event, the associated connection and
    /// statement objects must not be modified, either directly or indirectly, by
    /// the called code.
    /// </summary>
    public event SQLiteProgressEventHandler Progress
    {
        add
        {
            CheckDisposed();

            if (_progressHandler == null)
            {
                _progressCallback = new SQLiteProgressCallback(ProgressCallback);
                if (_sql != null) _sql.SetProgressHook(_progressOps, _progressCallback);
            }
            _progressHandler += value;
        }
        remove
        {
            CheckDisposed();

            _progressHandler -= value;
            if (_progressHandler == null)
            {
                if (_sql != null) _sql.SetProgressHook(0, null);
                _progressCallback = null;
            }
        }
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// This event is raised whenever SQLite encounters an action covered by the
    /// authorizer during query preparation.  Changing the value of the
    /// <see cref="AuthorizerEventArgs.ReturnCode" /> property will determine if
    /// the specific action will be allowed, ignored, or denied.  For the entire
    /// duration of the event, the associated connection and statement objects
    /// must not be modified, either directly or indirectly, by the called code.
    /// </summary>
    public event SQLiteAuthorizerEventHandler Authorize
    {
        add
        {
            CheckDisposed();

            if (_authorizerHandler == null)
            {
                _authorizerCallback = new SQLiteAuthorizerCallback(AuthorizerCallback);
                if (_sql != null) _sql.SetAuthorizerHook(_authorizerCallback);
            }
            _authorizerHandler += value;
        }
        remove
        {
            CheckDisposed();

            _authorizerHandler -= value;
            if (_authorizerHandler == null)
            {
                if (_sql != null) _sql.SetAuthorizerHook(null);
                _authorizerCallback = null;
            }
        }
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// This event is raised whenever SQLite makes an update/delete/insert into the database on
    /// this connection.  It only applies to the given connection.
    /// </summary>
    public event SQLiteUpdateEventHandler Update
    {
      add
      {
        CheckDisposed();

        if (_updateHandler == null)
        {
          _updateCallback = new SQLiteUpdateCallback(UpdateCallback);
          if (_sql != null) _sql.SetUpdateHook(_updateCallback);
        }
        _updateHandler += value;
      }
      remove
      {
        CheckDisposed();

        _updateHandler -= value;
        if (_updateHandler == null)
        {
          if (_sql != null) _sql.SetUpdateHook(null);
          _updateCallback = null;
        }
      }
    }

    private SQLiteProgressReturnCode ProgressCallback(
        IntPtr pUserData /* NOT USED: Always IntPtr.Zero. */
        )
    {
        try
        {
            ProgressEventArgs eventArgs = new ProgressEventArgs(
                pUserData, SQLiteProgressReturnCode.Continue);

            if (_progressHandler != null)
                _progressHandler(this, eventArgs);

            return eventArgs.ReturnCode;
        }
        catch (Exception e) /* NOTE: Must catch ALL. */
        {
            try
            {
                if (HelperMethods.LogCallbackExceptions(_flags))
                {
                    SQLiteLog.LogMessage(SQLiteBase.COR_E_EXCEPTION,
                        HelperMethods.StringFormat(CultureInfo.CurrentCulture,
                        UnsafeNativeMethods.ExceptionMessageFormat,
                        "Progress", e)); /* throw */
                }
            }
            catch
            {
                // do nothing.
            }
        }

        //
        // NOTE: Should throwing an exception interrupt the operation?
        //
        if ((_flags & SQLiteConnectionFlags.InterruptOnException) ==
                SQLiteConnectionFlags.InterruptOnException)
        {
            return SQLiteProgressReturnCode.Interrupt;
        }
        else
        {
            return SQLiteProgressReturnCode.Continue;
        }
    }

    private SQLiteAuthorizerReturnCode AuthorizerCallback(
        IntPtr pUserData, /* NOT USED: Always IntPtr.Zero. */
        SQLiteAuthorizerActionCode actionCode,
        IntPtr pArgument1,
        IntPtr pArgument2,
        IntPtr pDatabase,
        IntPtr pAuthContext)
    {
        try
        {
            AuthorizerEventArgs eventArgs = new AuthorizerEventArgs(pUserData, actionCode,
                SQLiteBase.UTF8ToString(pArgument1, -1), SQLiteBase.UTF8ToString(pArgument2, -1),
                SQLiteBase.UTF8ToString(pDatabase, -1), SQLiteBase.UTF8ToString(pAuthContext, -1),
                SQLiteAuthorizerReturnCode.Ok);

            if (_authorizerHandler != null)
                _authorizerHandler(this, eventArgs);

            return eventArgs.ReturnCode;
        }
        catch (Exception e) /* NOTE: Must catch ALL. */
        {
            try
            {
                if (HelperMethods.LogCallbackExceptions(_flags))
                {
                    SQLiteLog.LogMessage(SQLiteBase.COR_E_EXCEPTION,
                        HelperMethods.StringFormat(CultureInfo.CurrentCulture,
                        UnsafeNativeMethods.ExceptionMessageFormat,
                        "Authorize", e)); /* throw */
                }
            }
            catch
            {
                // do nothing.
            }
        }

        //
        // NOTE: Should throwing an exception deny the action?
        //
        if ((_flags & SQLiteConnectionFlags.DenyOnException) ==
                SQLiteConnectionFlags.DenyOnException)
        {
            return SQLiteAuthorizerReturnCode.Deny;
        }
        else
        {
            return SQLiteAuthorizerReturnCode.Ok;
        }
    }

    private void UpdateCallback(
        IntPtr puser, /* NOT USED */
        int type,
        IntPtr database,
        IntPtr table,
        Int64 rowid
        )
    {
        try
        {
            _updateHandler(this, new UpdateEventArgs(
              SQLiteBase.UTF8ToString(database, -1),
              SQLiteBase.UTF8ToString(table, -1),
              (UpdateEventType)type,
              rowid));
        }
        catch (Exception e) /* NOTE: Must catch ALL. */
        {
            try
            {
                if (HelperMethods.LogCallbackExceptions(_flags))
                {
                    SQLiteLog.LogMessage(SQLiteBase.COR_E_EXCEPTION,
                        HelperMethods.StringFormat(CultureInfo.CurrentCulture,
                        UnsafeNativeMethods.ExceptionMessageFormat,
                        "Update", e)); /* throw */
                }
            }
            catch
            {
                // do nothing.
            }
        }
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// This event is raised whenever SQLite is committing a transaction.
    /// Return non-zero to trigger a rollback.
    /// </summary>
    public event SQLiteCommitHandler Commit
    {
      add
      {
        CheckDisposed();

        if (_commitHandler == null)
        {
          _commitCallback = new SQLiteCommitCallback(CommitCallback);
          if (_sql != null) _sql.SetCommitHook(_commitCallback);
        }
        _commitHandler += value;
      }
      remove
      {
        CheckDisposed();

        _commitHandler -= value;
        if (_commitHandler == null)
        {
          if (_sql != null) _sql.SetCommitHook(null);
          _commitCallback = null;
        }
      }
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// This event is raised whenever SQLite statement first begins executing on
    /// this connection.  It only applies to the given connection.
    /// </summary>
    public event SQLiteTraceEventHandler Trace
    {
      add
      {
        CheckDisposed();

        if (_traceHandler == null)
        {
          _traceCallback = new SQLiteTraceCallback(TraceCallback);
          if (_sql != null) _sql.SetTraceCallback(_traceCallback);
        }
        _traceHandler += value;
      }
      remove
      {
        CheckDisposed();

        _traceHandler -= value;
        if (_traceHandler == null)
        {
          if (_sql != null) _sql.SetTraceCallback(null);
            _traceCallback = null;
        }
      }
    }

    private void TraceCallback(
        IntPtr puser, /* NOT USED */
        IntPtr statement
        )
    {
        try
        {
            if (_traceHandler != null)
                _traceHandler(this, new TraceEventArgs(
                  SQLiteBase.UTF8ToString(statement, -1)));
        }
        catch (Exception e) /* NOTE: Must catch ALL. */
        {
            try
            {
                if (HelperMethods.LogCallbackExceptions(_flags))
                {
                    SQLiteLog.LogMessage(SQLiteBase.COR_E_EXCEPTION,
                        HelperMethods.StringFormat(CultureInfo.CurrentCulture,
                        UnsafeNativeMethods.ExceptionMessageFormat,
                        "Trace", e)); /* throw */
                }
            }
            catch
            {
                // do nothing.
            }
        }
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// This event is raised whenever SQLite is rolling back a transaction.
    /// </summary>
    public event EventHandler RollBack
    {
      add
      {
        CheckDisposed();

        if (_rollbackHandler == null)
        {
          _rollbackCallback = new SQLiteRollbackCallback(RollbackCallback);
          if (_sql != null) _sql.SetRollbackHook(_rollbackCallback);
        }
        _rollbackHandler += value;
      }
      remove
      {
        CheckDisposed();

        _rollbackHandler -= value;
        if (_rollbackHandler == null)
        {
          if (_sql != null) _sql.SetRollbackHook(null);
          _rollbackCallback = null;
        }
      }
    }

    private int CommitCallback(
        IntPtr parg /* NOT USED */
        )
    {
        try
        {
            CommitEventArgs e = new CommitEventArgs();

            if (_commitHandler != null)
                _commitHandler(this, e);

            return (e.AbortTransaction == true) ? 1 : 0;
        }
        catch (Exception e) /* NOTE: Must catch ALL. */
        {
            try
            {
                if (HelperMethods.LogCallbackExceptions(_flags))
                {
                    SQLiteLog.LogMessage(SQLiteBase.COR_E_EXCEPTION,
                        HelperMethods.StringFormat(CultureInfo.CurrentCulture,
                        UnsafeNativeMethods.ExceptionMessageFormat,
                        "Commit", e)); /* throw */
                }
            }
            catch
            {
                // do nothing.
            }
        }

        //
        // NOTE: Should throwing an exception rollback the transaction?
        //
        if ((_flags & SQLiteConnectionFlags.RollbackOnException) ==
                SQLiteConnectionFlags.RollbackOnException)
        {
            return 1; // rollback
        }
        else
        {
            return 0; // commit
        }
    }

    private void RollbackCallback(
        IntPtr parg /* NOT USED */
        )
    {
        try
        {
            if (_rollbackHandler != null)
                _rollbackHandler(this, EventArgs.Empty);
        }
        catch (Exception e) /* NOTE: Must catch ALL. */
        {
            try
            {
                if (HelperMethods.LogCallbackExceptions(_flags))
                {
                    SQLiteLog.LogMessage(SQLiteBase.COR_E_EXCEPTION,
                        HelperMethods.StringFormat(CultureInfo.CurrentCulture,
                        UnsafeNativeMethods.ExceptionMessageFormat,
                        "Rollback", e)); /* throw */
                }
            }
            catch
            {
                // do nothing.
            }
        }
    }
  }

  /// <summary>
  /// The I/O file cache flushing behavior for the connection
  /// </summary>
  public enum SynchronizationModes
  {
    /// <summary>
    /// Normal file flushing at critical sections of the code
    /// </summary>
    Normal = 0,
    /// <summary>
    /// Full file flushing after every write operation
    /// </summary>
    Full = 1,
    /// <summary>
    /// Use the default operating system's file flushing, SQLite does not explicitly flush the file buffers after writing
    /// </summary>
    Off = 2,
  }

#if !PLATFORM_COMPACTFRAMEWORK
  [UnmanagedFunctionPointer(CallingConvention.Cdecl)]
#endif
  internal delegate SQLiteProgressReturnCode SQLiteProgressCallback(IntPtr pUserData);

#if !PLATFORM_COMPACTFRAMEWORK
  [UnmanagedFunctionPointer(CallingConvention.Cdecl)]
#endif
  internal delegate SQLiteAuthorizerReturnCode SQLiteAuthorizerCallback(
    IntPtr pUserData,
    SQLiteAuthorizerActionCode actionCode,
    IntPtr pArgument1,
    IntPtr pArgument2,
    IntPtr pDatabase,
    IntPtr pAuthContext
    );

#if !PLATFORM_COMPACTFRAMEWORK
  [UnmanagedFunctionPointer(CallingConvention.Cdecl)]
#endif
  internal delegate void SQLiteUpdateCallback(IntPtr puser, int type, IntPtr database, IntPtr table, Int64 rowid);

#if !PLATFORM_COMPACTFRAMEWORK
  [UnmanagedFunctionPointer(CallingConvention.Cdecl)]
#endif
  internal delegate int SQLiteCommitCallback(IntPtr puser);

#if !PLATFORM_COMPACTFRAMEWORK
  [UnmanagedFunctionPointer(CallingConvention.Cdecl)]
#endif
  internal delegate void SQLiteTraceCallback(IntPtr puser, IntPtr statement);

#if !PLATFORM_COMPACTFRAMEWORK
  [UnmanagedFunctionPointer(CallingConvention.Cdecl)]
#endif
  internal delegate void SQLiteTraceCallback2(SQLiteTraceFlags type, IntPtr puser, IntPtr pCtx1, IntPtr pCtx2);

#if !PLATFORM_COMPACTFRAMEWORK
  [UnmanagedFunctionPointer(CallingConvention.Cdecl)]
#endif
  internal delegate void SQLiteRollbackCallback(IntPtr puser);

  /// <summary>
  /// Raised each time the number of virtual machine instructions is
  /// approximately equal to the value of the
  /// <see cref="SQLiteConnection.ProgressOps" /> property.
  /// </summary>
  /// <param name="sender">The connection performing the operation.</param>
  /// <param name="e">A <see cref="ProgressEventArgs" /> that contains the
  /// event data.</param>
  public delegate void SQLiteProgressEventHandler(object sender, ProgressEventArgs e);

  /// <summary>
  /// Raised when authorization is required to perform an action contained
  /// within a SQL query.
  /// </summary>
  /// <param name="sender">The connection performing the action.</param>
  /// <param name="e">A <see cref="AuthorizerEventArgs" /> that contains the
  /// event data.</param>
  public delegate void SQLiteAuthorizerEventHandler(object sender, AuthorizerEventArgs e);

  /// <summary>
  /// Raised when a transaction is about to be committed.  To roll back a transaction, set the
  /// rollbackTrans boolean value to true.
  /// </summary>
  /// <param name="sender">The connection committing the transaction</param>
  /// <param name="e">Event arguments on the transaction</param>
  public delegate void SQLiteCommitHandler(object sender, CommitEventArgs e);

  /// <summary>
  /// Raised when data is inserted, updated and deleted on a given connection
  /// </summary>
  /// <param name="sender">The connection committing the transaction</param>
  /// <param name="e">The event parameters which triggered the event</param>
  public delegate void SQLiteUpdateEventHandler(object sender, UpdateEventArgs e);

  /// <summary>
  /// Raised when a statement first begins executing on a given connection
  /// </summary>
  /// <param name="sender">The connection executing the statement</param>
  /// <param name="e">Event arguments of the trace</param>
  public delegate void SQLiteTraceEventHandler(object sender, TraceEventArgs e);

  ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

  #region Backup API Members
  /// <summary>
  /// Raised between each backup step.
  /// </summary>
  /// <param name="source">
  /// The source database connection.
  /// </param>
  /// <param name="sourceName">
  /// The source database name.
  /// </param>
  /// <param name="destination">
  /// The destination database connection.
  /// </param>
  /// <param name="destinationName">
  /// The destination database name.
  /// </param>
  /// <param name="pages">
  /// The number of pages copied with each step.
  /// </param>
  /// <param name="remainingPages">
  /// The number of pages remaining to be copied.
  /// </param>
  /// <param name="totalPages">
  /// The total number of pages in the source database.
  /// </param>
  /// <param name="retry">
  /// Set to true if the operation needs to be retried due to database
  /// locking issues; otherwise, set to false.
  /// </param>
  /// <returns>
  /// True to continue with the backup process or false to halt the backup
  /// process, rolling back any changes that have been made so far.
  /// </returns>
  public delegate bool SQLiteBackupCallback(
    SQLiteConnection source,
    string sourceName,
    SQLiteConnection destination,
    string destinationName,
    int pages,
    int remainingPages,
    int totalPages,
    bool retry
  );
  #endregion

  ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

  /// <summary>
  /// The event data associated with progress reporting events.
  /// </summary>
  public class ProgressEventArgs : EventArgs
  {
      /// <summary>
      /// The user-defined native data associated with this event.  Currently,
      /// this will always contain the value of <see cref="IntPtr.Zero" />.
      /// </summary>
      public readonly IntPtr UserData;

      /// <summary>
      /// The return code for the current call into the progress callback.
      /// </summary>
      public SQLiteProgressReturnCode ReturnCode;

      /// <summary>
      /// Constructs an instance of this class with default property values.
      /// </summary>
      private ProgressEventArgs()
      {
          this.UserData = IntPtr.Zero;
          this.ReturnCode = SQLiteProgressReturnCode.Continue;
      }

      /// <summary>
      /// Constructs an instance of this class with specific property values.
      /// </summary>
      /// <param name="pUserData">
      /// The user-defined native data associated with this event.
      /// </param>
      /// <param name="returnCode">
      /// The progress return code.
      /// </param>
      internal ProgressEventArgs(
          IntPtr pUserData,
          SQLiteProgressReturnCode returnCode
          )
          : this()
      {
          this.UserData = pUserData;
          this.ReturnCode = returnCode;
      }
  }

  ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

  /// <summary>
  /// The data associated with a call into the authorizer.
  /// </summary>
  public class AuthorizerEventArgs : EventArgs
  {
      /// <summary>
      /// The user-defined native data associated with this event.  Currently,
      /// this will always contain the value of <see cref="IntPtr.Zero" />.
      /// </summary>
      public readonly IntPtr UserData;

      /// <summary>
      /// The action code responsible for the current call into the authorizer.
      /// </summary>
      public readonly SQLiteAuthorizerActionCode ActionCode;

      /// <summary>
      /// The first string argument for the current call into the authorizer.
      /// The exact value will vary based on the action code, see the
      /// <see cref="SQLiteAuthorizerActionCode" /> enumeration for possible
      /// values.
      /// </summary>
      public readonly string Argument1;

      /// <summary>
      /// The second string argument for the current call into the authorizer.
      /// The exact value will vary based on the action code, see the
      /// <see cref="SQLiteAuthorizerActionCode" /> enumeration for possible
      /// values.
      /// </summary>
      public readonly string Argument2;

      /// <summary>
      /// The database name for the current call into the authorizer, if
      /// applicable.
      /// </summary>
      public readonly string Database;

      /// <summary>
      /// The name of the inner-most trigger or view that is responsible for
      /// the access attempt or a null value if this access attempt is directly
      /// from top-level SQL code.
      /// </summary>
      public readonly string Context;

      /// <summary>
      /// The return code for the current call into the authorizer.
      /// </summary>
      public SQLiteAuthorizerReturnCode ReturnCode;

      ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

      /// <summary>
      /// Constructs an instance of this class with default property values.
      /// </summary>
      private AuthorizerEventArgs()
      {
          this.UserData = IntPtr.Zero;
          this.ActionCode = SQLiteAuthorizerActionCode.None;
          this.Argument1 = null;
          this.Argument2 = null;
          this.Database = null;
          this.Context = null;
          this.ReturnCode = SQLiteAuthorizerReturnCode.Ok;
      }

      ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

      /// <summary>
      /// Constructs an instance of this class with specific property values.
      /// </summary>
      /// <param name="pUserData">
      /// The user-defined native data associated with this event.
      /// </param>
      /// <param name="actionCode">
      /// The authorizer action code.
      /// </param>
      /// <param name="argument1">
      /// The first authorizer argument.
      /// </param>
      /// <param name="argument2">
      /// The second authorizer argument.
      /// </param>
      /// <param name="database">
      /// The database name, if applicable.
      /// </param>
      /// <param name="context">
      /// The name of the inner-most trigger or view that is responsible for
      /// the access attempt or a null value if this access attempt is directly
      /// from top-level SQL code.
      /// </param>
      /// <param name="returnCode">
      /// The authorizer return code.
      /// </param>
      internal AuthorizerEventArgs(
          IntPtr pUserData,
          SQLiteAuthorizerActionCode actionCode,
          string argument1,
          string argument2,
          string database,
          string context,
          SQLiteAuthorizerReturnCode returnCode
          )
          : this()
      {
          this.UserData = pUserData;
          this.ActionCode = actionCode;
          this.Argument1 = argument1;
          this.Argument2 = argument2;
          this.Database = database;
          this.Context = context;
          this.ReturnCode = returnCode;
      }
  }

  ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

  /// <summary>
  /// Whenever an update event is triggered on a connection, this enum will indicate
  /// exactly what type of operation is being performed.
  /// </summary>
  public enum UpdateEventType
  {
    /// <summary>
    /// A row is being deleted from the given database and table
    /// </summary>
    Delete = 9,
    /// <summary>
    /// A row is being inserted into the table.
    /// </summary>
    Insert = 18,
    /// <summary>
    /// A row is being updated in the table.
    /// </summary>
    Update = 23,
  }

  /// <summary>
  /// Passed during an Update callback, these event arguments detail the type of update operation being performed
  /// on the given connection.
  /// </summary>
  public class UpdateEventArgs : EventArgs
  {
    /// <summary>
    /// The name of the database being updated (usually "main" but can be any attached or temporary database)
    /// </summary>
    public readonly string Database;

    /// <summary>
    /// The name of the table being updated
    /// </summary>
    public readonly string Table;

    /// <summary>
    /// The type of update being performed (insert/update/delete)
    /// </summary>
    public readonly UpdateEventType Event;

    /// <summary>
    /// The RowId affected by this update.
    /// </summary>
    public readonly Int64 RowId;

    internal UpdateEventArgs(string database, string table, UpdateEventType eventType, Int64 rowid)
    {
      Database = database;
      Table = table;
      Event = eventType;
      RowId = rowid;
    }
  }

  /// <summary>
  /// Event arguments raised when a transaction is being committed
  /// </summary>
  public class CommitEventArgs : EventArgs
  {
    internal CommitEventArgs()
    {
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Set to true to abort the transaction and trigger a rollback
    /// </summary>
    public bool AbortTransaction;
  }

  /// <summary>
  /// Passed during an Trace callback, these event arguments contain the UTF-8 rendering of the SQL statement text
  /// </summary>
  public class TraceEventArgs : EventArgs
  {
    /// <summary>
    /// SQL statement text as the statement first begins executing
    /// </summary>
    public readonly string Statement;

    internal TraceEventArgs(string statement)
    {
      Statement = statement;
    }
  }

}