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Overview
Comment:Additional docs
Downloads: Tarball | ZIP archive | SQL archive
Timelines: family | ancestors | descendants | both | sourceforge
Files: files | file ages | folders
SHA1: 61e01b2074ef6e1b4b12a7c6a35045866239cd3c
User & Date: rmsimpson 2006-09-08 21:31:46
Context
2006-09-09
15:28
1.0.34.0 check-in: c57b635c6b user: rmsimpson tags: sourceforge
2006-09-08
21:31
Additional docs check-in: 61e01b2074 user: rmsimpson tags: sourceforge
20:18
1.0.35.0 check-in: 76248530ca user: rmsimpson tags: sourceforge
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Added Doc/Extra/lang_altertable.html.























































































































































































































































































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<html dir="LTR" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:MSHelp="http://msdn.microsoft.com/mshelp" xmlns:tool="http://www.microsoft.com/tooltip" xmlns:ndoc="urn:ndoc-preprocess">
  <head>
    <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=Windows-1252" />
    <title>ALTER TABLE</title>
    <link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="ndoc.css"> </link>
    <link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="user.css"> </link>
    <script type="text/javascript" src="ndoc.js"> </script>
  </head>
  <body style="display: none;">
    <input type="hidden" id="userDataCache" class="userDataStyle" />
    <input type="hidden" id="hiddenScrollOffset" />
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          <td align="left">
            <span id="runningHeaderText">ALTER TABLE</span>&nbsp;</td>
        </tr>
        <tr id="headerTableRow2">
          <td align="left">
            <span id="nsrTitle">SQLite Language Reference Documentation</span>
          </td>
        </tr>
        <tr id="headerTableRow3" style="display:none">
          <td>
            <a id="seeAlsoSectionLink" href="#seeAlsoToggle" onclick="OpenSection(seeAlsoToggle)">See Also</a>
            <a id="exampleSectionLink" href="#codeExampleToggle" onclick="OpenSection(codeExampleToggle)">Example</a>
          </td>
        </tr>
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      <table width="100%" id="bottomTable" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0" style="display:none">
        <tr>
          <td>
            <span onclick="ExpandCollapseAll(toggleAllImage)" style="cursor:default;" onkeypress="ExpandCollapseAll_CheckKey(toggleAllImage)" tabindex="0">
              <img ID="toggleAllImage" class="toggleAll" src="collall.gif" />
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            </span>
          </td>
        </tr>
      </table>
    </div>
    <div id="mainSection">
    <div id="mainBody">
      <h1 class="heading">
        SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1>
      <h4>
        ALTER TABLE</h4>
      <p>
        <table cellpadding="10">
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              <i><font color="#ff3434">sql-statement</font></i> ::=</td>
            <td>
              <b><font color="#2c2cf0">ALTER TABLE </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b><i><font
                color="#ff3434">database-name</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> <big>.</big></font></b>]<b><font
                  color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">table-name</font></i><b><font
                    color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">alteration</font></i><b><font
                      color="#2c2cf0"></font></b></td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              <i><font color="#ff3434">alteration</font></i> ::=</td>
            <td>
              <b><font color="#2c2cf0">RENAME TO </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">new-table-name</font></i><b><font
                color="#2c2cf0"></font></b></td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              <i><font color="#ff3434">alteration</font></i> ::=</td>
            <td>
              <b><font color="#2c2cf0">ADD </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0">COLUMN</font></b>]<b><font
                color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">column-def</font></i><b><font
                  color="#2c2cf0"></font></b></td>
          </tr>
        </table>
      </p>
      <p>
        SQLite's version of the ALTER TABLE command allows the user to rename or add a new
        column to an existing table. It is not possible to remove a column from a table.
      </p>
      <p>
        The RENAME TO syntax is used to rename the table identified by <i>[database-name.]table-name</i>
        to <i>new-table-name</i>. This command cannot be used to move a table between attached
        databases, only to rename a table within the same database.</p>
      <p>
        If the table being renamed has triggers or indices, then these remain attached to
        the table after it has been renamed. However, if there are any view definitions,
        or statements executed by triggers that refer to the table being renamed, these
        are not automatically modified to use the new table name. If this is required, the
        triggers or view definitions must be dropped and recreated to use the new table
        name by hand.
      </p>
      <p>
        The ADD [COLUMN] syntax is used to add a new column to an existing table. The new
        column is always appended to the end of the list of existing columns. <i>Column-def</i>
        may take any of the forms permissable in a CREATE TABLE statement, with the following
        restrictions:
      </p>
      <ul>
        <li>The column may not have a PRIMARY KEY or UNIQUE constraint. </li>
        <li>The column may not have a default value of CURRENT_TIME, CURRENT_DATE or CURRENT_TIMESTAMP.
        </li>
        <li>If a NOT NULL constraint is specified, then the column must have a default value
          other than NULL. </li>
      </ul>
      <p>
        The execution time of the ALTER TABLE command is independent of the amount of data
        in the table. The ALTER TABLE command runs as quickly on a table with 10 million
        rows as it does on a table with 1 row.
      </p>
      <p>
        After ADD COLUMN has been run on a database, that database will not be readable
        by SQLite version 3.1.3 and earlier until the database is <a href="lang_vacuum.html">
          VACUUM</a>ed.</p>
      <p>
        &nbsp;</p>
      <hr>
      <div id="footer">
        <p>
          &nbsp;</p>
        <p>
        </p>
      </div>
    </div>
    </div>
  </body>
</html>

Added Doc/Extra/lang_analyze.html.





































































































































































































































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<html dir="LTR" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:MSHelp="http://msdn.microsoft.com/mshelp" xmlns:tool="http://www.microsoft.com/tooltip" xmlns:ndoc="urn:ndoc-preprocess">
  <head>
    <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=Windows-1252" />
    <title>ANALYZE</title>
    <link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="ndoc.css"> </link>
    <link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="user.css"> </link>
    <script type="text/javascript" src="ndoc.js"> </script>
  </head>
  <body style="display: none;">
    <input type="hidden" id="userDataCache" class="userDataStyle" />
    <input type="hidden" id="hiddenScrollOffset" />
    <img id="dropDownImage" style="display:none; height:0; width:0;" src="drpdown.gif" />
    <img id="dropDownHoverImage" style="display:none; height:0; width:0;" src="drpdown_orange.gif" />
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    <img id="collapseAllImage" style="display:none; height:0; width:0;" src="collall.gif" />
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    <img id="copyHoverImage" style="display:none; height:0; width:0;" src="copycodeHighlight.gif" />
    <div id="header">
      <table width="100%" id="topTable">
        <tr id="headerTableRow1">
          <td align="left">
            <span id="runningHeaderText">ANALYZE</span>&nbsp;</td>
        </tr>
        <tr id="headerTableRow2">
          <td align="left">
            <span id="nsrTitle">SQLite Language Reference Documentation</span>
          </td>
        </tr>
        <tr id="headerTableRow3" style="display:none">
          <td>
            <a id="seeAlsoSectionLink" href="#seeAlsoToggle" onclick="OpenSection(seeAlsoToggle)">See Also</a>
            <a id="exampleSectionLink" href="#codeExampleToggle" onclick="OpenSection(codeExampleToggle)">Example</a>
          </td>
        </tr>
     </table>
      <table width="100%" id="bottomTable" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0" style="display:none">
        <tr>
          <td>
            <span onclick="ExpandCollapseAll(toggleAllImage)" style="cursor:default;" onkeypress="ExpandCollapseAll_CheckKey(toggleAllImage)" tabindex="0">
              <img ID="toggleAllImage" class="toggleAll" src="collall.gif" />
              <label id="collapseAllLabel" for="toggleAllImage" style="display: none;">
							Collapse All
						</label>
              <label id="expandAllLabel" for="toggleAllImage" style="display: none;">
							Expand All
						</label>
            </span>
          </td>
        </tr>
      </table>
    </div>
    <div id="mainSection">
    <div id="mainBody">
      <h1 class="heading">
        SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1>
      <h4>
        ANALYZE</h4>
      <p>
        <table cellpadding="10">
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              <i><font color="#ff3434">sql-statement</font></i> ::=</td>
            <td>
              <b><font color="#2c2cf0">ANALYZE</font></b></td>
          </tr>
        </table>
        <table cellpadding="10">
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              <i><font color="#ff3434">sql-statement</font></i> ::=</td>
            <td>
              <b><font color="#2c2cf0">ANALYZE </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">database-name</font></i><b><font
                color="#2c2cf0"></font></b></td>
          </tr>
        </table>
        <table cellpadding="10">
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              <i><font color="#ff3434">sql-statement</font></i> ::=</td>
            <td>
              <b><font color="#2c2cf0">ANALYZE </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b><i><font
                color="#ff3434">database-name</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> <big>.</big></font></b>]<b><font
                  color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">table-name</font></i><b><font
                    color="#2c2cf0"></font></b></td>
          </tr>
        </table>
      </p>
      <p>
        The ANALYZE command gathers statistics about indices and stores them in a special
        tables in the database where the query optimizer can use them to help make better
        index choices. If no arguments are given, all indices in all attached databases
        are analyzed. If a database name is given as the argument, all indices in that one
        database are analyzed. If the argument is a table name, then only indices associated
        with that one table are analyzed.</p>
      <p>
        The initial implementation stores all statistics in a single table named <b>sqlite_stat1</b>.
        Future enhancements may create additional tables with the same name pattern except
        with the "1" changed to a different digit. The <b>sqlite_stat1</b> table cannot be <a href="lang_droptable.html">DROP</a>ped, but all the content can be <a href="lang_delete.html">
          DELETE</a>d which has the same effect.</p>
      <p>
      <hr>
        &nbsp;</p>
      <div id="footer">
        <p>
          &nbsp;</p>
        <p>
        </p>
      </div>
    </div>
    </div>
  </body>
</html>

Added Doc/Extra/lang_attach.html.















































































































































































































































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            <span id="runningHeaderText">ATTACH DATABASE</span>&nbsp;</td>
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            <span id="nsrTitle">SQLite Language Reference Documentation</span>
          </td>
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            <a id="seeAlsoSectionLink" href="#seeAlsoToggle" onclick="OpenSection(seeAlsoToggle)">See Also</a>
            <a id="exampleSectionLink" href="#codeExampleToggle" onclick="OpenSection(codeExampleToggle)">Example</a>
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      <h1 class="heading">
        SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1>
      <h4>
        ATTACH DATABASE</h4>
      <p>
        <table cellpadding="10">
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              <i><font color="#ff3434">sql-statement</font></i> ::=</td>
            <td>
              <b><font color="#2c2cf0">ATTACH </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0">DATABASE</font></b>]<b><font
                color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">database-filename</font></i><b><font
                  color="#2c2cf0"> AS </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">database-name</font></i><b><font
                    color="#2c2cf0"></font></b></td>
          </tr>
        </table>
      </p>
      <p>
        The ATTACH DATABASE statement adds another database file to the current database
        connection. If the filename contains punctuation characters it must be quoted. The
        names 'main' and 'temp' refer to the main database and the database used for temporary
        tables. These cannot be detached. Attached databases are removed using the <a href="lang_detach.html">
          DETACH DATABASE</a> statement.</p>
      <p>
        You can read from and write to an attached database and you can modify the schema
        of the attached database. This is a new feature of SQLite version 3.0. In SQLite
        2.8, schema changes to attached databases were not allowed.</p>
      <p>
        You cannot create a new table with the same name as a table in an attached database,
        but you can attach a database which contains tables whose names are duplicates of
        tables in the main database. It is also permissible to attach the same database
        file multiple times.</p>
      <p>
        Tables in an attached database can be referred to using the syntax <i>database-name.table-name</i>.
        If an attached table doesn't have a duplicate table name in the main database, it
        doesn't require a database name prefix. When a database is attached, all of its
        tables which don't have duplicate names become the default table of that name. Any
        tables of that name attached afterwards require the table prefix. If the default
        table of a given name is detached, then the last table of that name attached becomes
        the new default.</p>
      <p>
        Transactions involving multiple attached databases are atomic, assuming that the
        main database is not ":memory:". If the main database is ":memory:" then transactions
        continue to be atomic within each individual database file. But if the host computer
        crashes in the middle of a COMMIT where two or more database files are updated,
        some of those files might get the changes where others might not. Atomic commit
        of attached databases is a new feature of SQLite version 3.0. In SQLite version
        2.8, all commits to attached databases behaved as if the main database were ":memory:".
      </p>
      <p>
        There is a compile-time limit of 10 attached database files.</p>
      <p>
      <hr>
        &nbsp;</p>
      <div id="footer">
        <p>
          &nbsp;</p>
        <p>
        </p>
      </div>
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<html dir="LTR" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:MSHelp="http://msdn.microsoft.com/mshelp" xmlns:tool="http://www.microsoft.com/tooltip" xmlns:ndoc="urn:ndoc-preprocess">
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            <span id="runningHeaderText">comment</span>&nbsp;</td>
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            <span id="nsrTitle">SQLite Language Reference Documentation</span>
          </td>
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      <h1 class="heading">
        SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1>
      <h4>
        comment</h4>
      <p>
        <table cellpadding="10">
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              <i><font color="#ff3434">comment</font></i> ::=</td>
            <td>
              <b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">SQL-comment</font></i><b><font
                color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b><big>|</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b><i><font
                  color="#ff3434">C-comment</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b></td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              <i><font color="#ff3434">SQL-comment</font></i> ::=</td>
            <td>
              <b><font color="#2c2cf0">-- </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">single-line</font></i><b><font
                color="#2c2cf0"></font></b></td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              <i><font color="#ff3434">C-comment</font></i> ::=</td>
            <td>
              <b><font color="#2c2cf0">/<big>*</big> </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">multiple-lines</font></i><b><font
                color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0"><big>*</big>/</font></b>]<b><font
                  color="#2c2cf0"></font></b></td>
          </tr>
        </table>
      </p>
      <p>
        Comments aren't SQL commands, but can occur in SQL queries. They are treated as
        whitespace by the parser. They can begin anywhere whitespace can be found, including
        inside expressions that span multiple lines.
      </p>
      <p>
        SQL comments only extend to the end of the current line.</p>
      <p>
        C comments can span any number of lines. If there is no terminating delimiter, they
        extend to the end of the input. This is not treated as an error. A new SQL statement
        can begin on a line after a multiline comment ends. C comments can be embedded anywhere
        whitespace can occur, including inside expressions, and in the middle of
          other SQL
        statements. C comments do not nest. SQL comments inside a C comment will be ignored.
      </p>
      <p>
      <hr>
        &nbsp;</p>
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        <p>
          &nbsp;</p>
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<html dir="LTR" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:MSHelp="http://msdn.microsoft.com/mshelp" xmlns:tool="http://www.microsoft.com/tooltip" xmlns:ndoc="urn:ndoc-preprocess">
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    <title>ON CONFLICT</title>
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          <td align="left">
            <span id="runningHeaderText">ON CONFLICT clause</span>&nbsp;</td>
        </tr>
        <tr id="headerTableRow2">
          <td align="left">
            <span id="nsrTitle">SQLite Language Reference Documentation</span>
          </td>
        </tr>
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          <td>
            <a id="seeAlsoSectionLink" href="#seeAlsoToggle" onclick="OpenSection(seeAlsoToggle)">See Also</a>
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    </div>
    <div id="mainSection">
    <div id="mainBody">
      <h1 class="heading">
        SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1>
      <h4>
        ON CONFLICT clause</h4>
      <p>
        <table cellpadding="10">
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              <i><font color="#ff3434">conflict-clause</font></i> ::=</td>
            <td>
              <b><font color="#2c2cf0">ON CONFLICT </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">conflict-algorithm</font></i><b><font
                color="#2c2cf0"></font></b></td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              <i><font color="#ff3434">conflict-algorithm</font></i> ::=</td>
            <td>
              <b><font color="#2c2cf0">ROLLBACK </font></b><big>|</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0">
                ABORT </font></b><big>|</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> FAIL </font></b><big>|</big><b><font
                  color="#2c2cf0"> IGNORE </font></b><big>|</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> REPLACE</font></b></td>
          </tr>
        </table>
      </p>
      <p>
        The ON CONFLICT clause is not a separate SQL command. It is a non-standard clause
        that can appear in many
          other SQL commands. It is given its own section in this
        document because it is not part of standard SQL and therefore might not be familiar.</p>
      <p>
        The syntax for the ON CONFLICT clause is as shown above for the CREATE TABLE command.
        For the INSERT and UPDATE commands, the keywords "ON CONFLICT" are replaced by "OR",
        to make the syntax seem more natural. For example, instead of "INSERT ON CONFLICT
        IGNORE" we have "INSERT OR IGNORE". The keywords change but the meaning of the clause
        is the same either way.</p>
      <p>
        The ON CONFLICT clause specifies an algorithm used to resolve constraint conflicts.
        There are five choices: ROLLBACK, ABORT, FAIL, IGNORE, and REPLACE. The default
        algorithm is ABORT. This is what they mean:</p>
      <dl>
        <dt><b>ROLLBACK</b> </dt>
        <dd>
          <p>
            When a constraint violation occurs, an immediate ROLLBACK occurs, thus ending the
            current transaction, and the command aborts with a return code of SQLITE_CONSTRAINT.
            If no transaction is active (other than the implied transaction that is created
            on every command) then this algorithm works the same as ABORT.</p>
        </dd>
        <dt><b>ABORT</b> </dt>
        <dd>
          <p>
            When a constraint violation occurs, the command backs out any prior changes it might
            have made and aborts with a return code of SQLITE_CONSTRAINT. But no ROLLBACK is
            executed so changes from prior commands within the same transaction are preserved.
            This is the default behavior.</p>
        </dd>
        <dt><b>FAIL</b> </dt>
        <dd>
          <p>
            When a constraint violation occurs, the command aborts with a return code SQLITE_CONSTRAINT.
            But any changes to the database that the command made prior to encountering the
            constraint violation are preserved and are not backed out. For example, if an UPDATE
            statement encountered a constraint violation on the 100th row that it attempts to
            update, then the first 99 row changes are preserved but changes to rows 100 and
            beyond never occur.</p>
        </dd>
        <dt><b>IGNORE</b> </dt>
        <dd>
          <p>
            When a constraint violation occurs, the one row that contains the constraint violation
            is not inserted or changed. But the command continues executing normally. Other
            rows before and after the row that contained the constraint violation continue to
            be inserted or updated normally. No error is returned.</p>
        </dd>
        <dt><b>REPLACE</b> </dt>
        <dd>
          <p>
            When a UNIQUE constraint violation occurs, the pre-existing rows that are causing
            the constraint violation are removed prior to inserting or updating the current
            row. Thus the insert or update always occurs. The command continues executing normally.
            No error is returned. If a NOT NULL constraint violation occurs, the NULL value
            is replaced by the default value for that column. If the column has no default value,
            then the ABORT algorithm is used. If a CHECK constraint violation occurs then the
            IGNORE algorithm is used.</p>
          <p>
            When this conflict resolution strategy deletes rows in order to satisfy a constraint,
            it does not invoke delete triggers on those rows. This behavior might change in
            a future release.</p>
        </dd>
      </dl>
      <p>
        The algorithm specified in the OR clause of a INSERT or UPDATE overrides any algorithm
        specified in a CREATE TABLE. If no algorithm is specified anywhere, the ABORT algorithm
        is used.</p>
      <p>
      <hr>
        &nbsp;</p>
      <div id="footer">
        <p>
          &nbsp;</p>
        <p>
        </p>
      </div>
    </div>
    </div>
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            <span id="runningHeaderText">CREATE INDEX</span>&nbsp;</td>
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            <span id="nsrTitle">SQLite Language Reference Documentation</span>
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      <h1 class="heading">
        SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1>
      <h4>
        CREATE INDEX</h4>
      <p>
        <table cellpadding="10">
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              <i><font color="#ff3434">sql-statement</font></i> ::=</td>
            <td>
              <b><font color="#2c2cf0">CREATE </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0">UNIQUE</font></b>]<b><font
                color="#2c2cf0"> INDEX </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0">IF NOT EXISTS</font></b>]<b><font
                  color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">database-name</font></i><b><font
                    color="#2c2cf0"> <big>.</big></font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b>
              <i><font color="#ff3434">index-name</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0">
                <br />
                ON </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">table-name</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0">
                  <big>(</big> </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">column-name</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0">
                  </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0"><big>,</big> </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">
                    column-name</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b><big>*</big><b><font
                      color="#2c2cf0"> <big>)</big></font></b></td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              <i><font color="#ff3434">column-name</font></i> ::=</td>
            <td>
              <b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">name</font></i><b><font
                color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0"> COLLATE </font></b><i><font
                  color="#ff3434">collation-name</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b>]<b><font
                    color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0"> ASC </font></b><big>|</big><b><font
                      color="#2c2cf0"> DESC </font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b></td>
          </tr>
        </table>
      </p>
      <p>
        The CREATE INDEX command consists of the keywords "CREATE INDEX" followed by the
        name of the new index, the keyword "ON", the name of a previously created table
        that is to be indexed, and a parenthesized list of names of columns in the table
        that are used for the index key. Each column name can be followed by one of the
        "ASC" or "DESC" keywords to indicate sort order, but the sort order is ignored in
        the current implementation. Sorting is always done in ascending order.</p>
      <p>
        The COLLATE clause following each column name defines a collating sequence used
        for text entires in that column. The default collating sequence is the collating
        sequence defined for that column in the CREATE TABLE statement. Or if no collating
        sequence is otherwise defined, the built-in BINARY collating sequence is used.</p>
      <p>
        There are no arbitrary limits on the number of indices that can be attached to a
        single table, nor on the number of columns in an index.</p>
      <p>
        If the UNIQUE keyword appears between CREATE and INDEX then duplicate index entries
        are not allowed. Any attempt to insert a duplicate entry will result in an error.</p>
      <p>
        The exact text of each CREATE INDEX statement is stored in the <b>sqlite_master</b>
        or <b>sqlite_temp_master</b> table, depending on whether the table being indexed
        is temporary. Every time the database is opened, all CREATE INDEX statements are
        read from the <b>sqlite_master</b> table and used to regenerate
        SQLite's internal
        representation of the index layout.</p>
      <p>
        If the optional IF NOT EXISTS clause is present and another index with the same name aleady exists, then this command becomes a no-op.</p>
      <p>
        Indexes are removed with the <a href="lang_dropindex.html">DROP INDEX</a> command.</p>
      <p>
      <hr>
        &nbsp;</p>
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            <span id="runningHeaderText">CREATE TABLE</span>&nbsp;</td>
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            <span id="nsrTitle">SQLite Language Reference Documentation</span>
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      <h1 class="heading">
        SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1>
      <h4>
        CREATE TABLE</h4>
      <p>
        <table cellpadding="10">
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              <i><font color="#ff3434">sql-command</font></i> ::=</td>
            <td>
              <b><font color="#2c2cf0">CREATE </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0">TEMP </font></b>
              <big>|</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> TEMPORARY</font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0">
                TABLE </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0">IF NOT EXISTS</font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0">
                </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">database-name</font></i><b><font
                  color="#2c2cf0"> <big>.</big></font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b>
              <i><font color="#ff3434">table-name</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> <big>(</big><br />
                &nbsp; &nbsp; </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">column-def</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0">
                </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0"><big>,</big> </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">
                  column-def</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b><big>*</big><b><font
                    color="#2c2cf0"><br />
                    &nbsp; &nbsp; </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0"><big>,</big> </font></b>
              <i><font color="#ff3434">constraint</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b>]<b><font
                color="#2c2cf0"></font></b><big>*</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0"><br />
                  <big>)</big></font></b></td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              <i><font color="#ff3434">sql-command</font></i> ::=</td>
            <td>
              <b><font color="#2c2cf0">CREATE </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0">TEMP </font></b>
              <big>|</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> TEMPORARY</font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0">
                TABLE </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">database-name</font></i><b><font
                  color="#2c2cf0"><big>.</big></font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b>
              <i><font color="#ff3434">table-name</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> AS </font>
              </b><i><font color="#ff3434">select-statement</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b></td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              <i><font color="#ff3434">column-def</font></i> ::=</td>
            <td>
              <b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">name</font></i><b><font
                color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">type</font></i><b><font
                  color="#2c2cf0"></font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b>[<b><font
                    color="#2c2cf0">CONSTRAINT </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">name</font></i><b><font
                      color="#2c2cf0"></font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">
                        column-constraint</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b><big>*</big><b><font
                          color="#2c2cf0"></font></b></td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              <i><font color="#ff3434">type</font></i> ::=</td>
            <td>
              <b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">typename</font></i><b><font
                color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b><big>|</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0"><br />
                </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">typename</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> <big>
                  (</big> </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">number</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0">
                    <big>)</big> </font></b><big>|</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0"><br />
                    </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">typename</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> <big>
                      (</big> </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">number</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0">
                        <big>,</big> </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">number</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0">
                          <big>)</big></font></b></td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              <i><font color="#ff3434">column-constraint</font></i> ::=</td>
            <td>
              <b><font color="#2c2cf0">NOT NULL </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b>
              <i><font color="#ff3434">conflict-clause</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> </font>
              </b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b><big>|</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0"><br />
                PRIMARY KEY </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">sort-order</font></i><b><font
                  color="#2c2cf0"></font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0">
                  </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">conflict-clause</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0">
                  </font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0">AUTOINCREMENT</font></b>]<b><font
                    color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b><big>|</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0"><br />
                      UNIQUE </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">conflict-clause</font></i><b><font
                        color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b><big>|</big><b><font
                          color="#2c2cf0"><br />
                          CHECK <big>(</big> </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">expr</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0">
                            <big>)</big> </font></b><big>|</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0"><br />
                              DEFAULT </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">value</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0">
                              </font></b><big>|</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0"><br />
                                COLLATE </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">collation-name</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b></td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              <i><font color="#ff3434">constraint</font></i> ::=</td>
            <td>
              <b><font color="#2c2cf0">PRIMARY KEY <big>(</big> </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">
                column-list</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> <big>)</big> </font></b>[<b><font
                  color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">conflict-clause</font></i><b><font
                    color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b><big>|</big><b><font
                      color="#2c2cf0"><br />
                      UNIQUE <big>(</big> </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">column-list</font></i><b><font
                        color="#2c2cf0"> <big>)</big> </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b>
              <i><font color="#ff3434">conflict-clause</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> </font>
              </b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b><big>|</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0"><br />
                CHECK <big>(</big> </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">expr</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0">
                  <big>)</big></font></b></td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              <i><font color="#ff3434">conflict-clause</font></i> ::=</td>
            <td>
              <b><font color="#2c2cf0">ON CONFLICT </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">conflict-algorithm</font></i><b><font
                color="#2c2cf0"></font></b></td>
          </tr>
        </table>
      </p>
      <p>
        A CREATE TABLE statement is basically the keywords "CREATE TABLE" followed by the
        name of a new table and a parenthesized list of column definitions and constraints.
        The table name can be either an identifier or a string. Tables names that begin
        with "<b>sqlite_</b>" are reserved for use by the engine.</p>
      <p>
        Each column definition is the name of the column followed by the datatype for that
        column, then one or more optional column constraints. The datatype for the column
        does not restrict what data may be put in that column. See <a href="http://www.sqlite.org/datatype3.html">
          Datatypes In SQLite Version 3</a> for additional information. The UNIQUE constraint
        causes an index to be created on the specified columns. This index must contain
        unique keys. The COLLATE clause specifies what text <a href="http://www.sqlite.org/datatype3.html#collation">
          collating function</a> to use when comparing text entries for the column. The
        built-in BINARY collating function is used by default.
      </p>
      <p>
        The DEFAULT constraint specifies a default value to use when doing an INSERT. The
        value may be NULL, a string constant or a number. Starting with version 3.1.0, the
        default value may also be one of the special case-independant keywords CURRENT_TIME, CURRENT_DATE or CURRENT_TIMESTAMP. If the value is NULL, a string constant or number,
        it is literally inserted into the column whenever an INSERT statement that does
        not specify a value for the column is executed. If the value is CURRENT_TIME, CURRENT_DATE
        or CURRENT_TIMESTAMP, then the current UTC date and/or time is inserted into the
        columns. For CURRENT_TIME, the format is HH:MM:SS. For CURRENT_DATE, YYYY-MM-DD.
        The format for CURRENT_TIMESTAMP is "YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS".
      </p>
      <p>
        Specifying a PRIMARY KEY normally just creates a UNIQUE index on the corresponding
        columns. However, if primary key is on a single column that has datatype INTEGER,
        then that column is used internally as the actual key of the B-Tree for the table.
        This means that the column may only hold unique integer values. (Except for this
        one case, SQLite ignores the datatype specification of columns and allows any kind
        of data to be put in a column regardless of its declared datatype.) If a table does
        not have an INTEGER PRIMARY KEY column, then the B-Tree key will be a automatically
        generated integer. The B-Tree key for a row can always be accessed using one of
        the special names "<b>ROWID</b>", "<b>OID</b>", or "<b>_ROWID_</b>". This is true
        regardless of whether or not there is an INTEGER PRIMARY KEY. An INTEGER PRIMARY
        KEY column man also include the keyword AUTOINCREMENT. The AUTOINCREMENT keyword
        modified the way that B-Tree keys are automatically generated. Additional detail
        on automatic B-Tree key generation is available <a href="http://www.sqlite.org/autoinc.html">
          separately</a>.</p>
      <p>
        If the "TEMP" or "TEMPORARY" keyword occurs in between "CREATE" and "TABLE" then
        the table that is created is only visible within that same database connection and
        is automatically deleted when the database connection is closed. Any indices created
        on a temporary table are also temporary. Temporary tables and indices are stored
        in a separate file distinct from the main database file.</p>
      <p>
        If a &lt;database-name&gt; is specified, then the table is created in the named
        database. It is an error to specify both a &lt;database-name&gt; and the TEMP keyword,
        unless the &lt;database-name&gt; is "temp". If no database name is specified, and
        the TEMP keyword is not present, the table is created in the main database.</p>
      <p>
        The optional conflict-clause following each constraint allows the specification
        of an alternative default constraint conflict resolution algorithm for that constraint. The default is abort ABORT. Different constraints within the same table may have
        different default conflict resolution algorithms. If an COPY, INSERT, or UPDATE
        command specifies a different conflict resolution algorithm, then that algorithm
        is used in place of the default algorithm specified in the CREATE TABLE statement.
        See the section titled <a href="lang_conflict.html">ON CONFLICT</a> for additional
        information.</p>
      <p>
        CHECK constraints are supported as of version 3.3.0. Prior to version 3.3.0, CHECK
        constraints were parsed but not enforced.</p>
      <p>
        There are no arbitrary limits on the number of columns or on the number of constraints
        in a table. The total amount of data in a single row is limited to about 1 megabytes
        in version 2.8. In version 3.0 there is no arbitrary limit on the amount of data
        in a row.</p>
      <p>
        The CREATE TABLE AS form defines the table to be the result set of a query. The
        names of the table columns are the names of the columns in the result.</p>
      <p>
        The exact text of each CREATE TABLE statement is stored in the <b>sqlite_master</b>
        table. Every time the database is opened, all CREATE TABLE statements are read from
        the <b>sqlite_master</b> table and used to regenerate
        SQLite's internal representation
        of the table layout. If the original command was a CREATE TABLE AS then then an
        equivalent CREATE TABLE statement is synthesized and store in <b>sqlite_master</b>
        in place of the original command. The text of CREATE TEMPORARY TABLE statements
        are stored in the <b>sqlite_temp_master</b> table.
      </p>
      <p>
        If the optional IF NOT EXISTS clause is present and another table with the same
        name aleady exists, then this command becomes a no-op.</p>
      <p>
        Tables are removed using the <a href="lang_droptable.html">DROP TABLE</a> statement.
      </p>
      <p>
      <hr>
        &nbsp;</p>
      <div id="footer">
        <p>
          &nbsp;</p>
        <p>
        </p>
      </div>
    </div>
    </div>
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<html dir="LTR" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:MSHelp="http://msdn.microsoft.com/mshelp" xmlns:tool="http://www.microsoft.com/tooltip" xmlns:ndoc="urn:ndoc-preprocess">
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            <span id="runningHeaderText">CREATE TRIGGER</span>&nbsp;</td>
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          <td align="left">
            <span id="nsrTitle">SQLite Language Reference Documentation</span>
          </td>
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          <td>
            <a id="seeAlsoSectionLink" href="#seeAlsoToggle" onclick="OpenSection(seeAlsoToggle)">See Also</a>
            <a id="exampleSectionLink" href="#codeExampleToggle" onclick="OpenSection(codeExampleToggle)">Example</a>
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    <div id="mainSection">
    <div id="mainBody">
      <h1 class="heading">
        SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1>
      <h4>
        CREATE TRIGGER</h4>
      <p>
        <table cellpadding="10">
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              <i><font color="#ff3434">sql-statement</font></i> ::=</td>
            <td>
              <b><font color="#2c2cf0">CREATE </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0">TEMP </font></b>
              <big>|</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> TEMPORARY</font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0">
                TRIGGER </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">trigger-name</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0">
                </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0"> BEFORE </font></b><big>|</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0">
                  AFTER </font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"><br />
                  </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">database-event</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0">
                    ON </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">database-name</font></i><b><font
                      color="#2c2cf0"> <big>.</big></font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b>
              <i><font color="#ff3434">table-name</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"><br />
              </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">trigger-action</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b></td>
          </tr>
        </table>
        <table cellpadding="10">
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              <i><font color="#ff3434">sql-statement</font></i> ::=</td>
            <td>
              <b><font color="#2c2cf0">CREATE </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0">TEMP </font></b>
              <big>|</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> TEMPORARY</font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0">
                TRIGGER </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">trigger-name</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0">
                  INSTEAD OF<br />
                </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">database-event</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0">
                  ON </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">database-name</font></i><b><font
                    color="#2c2cf0"> <big>.</big></font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b>
              <i><font color="#ff3434">view-name</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"><br />
              </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">trigger-action</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b></td>
          </tr>
        </table>
        <table cellpadding="10">
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              <i><font color="#ff3434">database-event</font></i> ::=</td>
            <td>
              <b><font color="#2c2cf0">DELETE </font></b><big>|</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0">
                <br />
                INSERT </font></b><big>|</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0">
                  <br />
                  UPDATE </font></b><big>|</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0">
                    <br />
                    UPDATE OF </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">column-list</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b></td>
          </tr>
        </table>
        <table cellpadding="10">
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              <i><font color="#ff3434">trigger-action</font></i> ::=</td>
            <td>
              <b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0"> FOR EACH ROW </font>
              </b><big>|</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> FOR EACH STATEMENT </font></b>]<b><font
                color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0"> WHEN </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">
                  expression</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0">
                    <br />
                    BEGIN
                    <br />
                    &nbsp; &nbsp; </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">trigger-step</font></i><b><font
                      color="#2c2cf0"> ; </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">
                        trigger-step</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> ; </font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b><big>*</big><b><font
                          color="#2c2cf0"><br />
                          END</font></b></td>
          </tr>
        </table>
        <table cellpadding="10">
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              <i><font color="#ff3434">trigger-step</font></i> ::=</td>
            <td>
              <b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">update-statement</font></i><b><font
                color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b><big>|</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b><i><font
                  color="#ff3434">insert-statement</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b>
              <big>|</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0">
                <br />
              </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">delete-statement</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0">
              </font></b><big>|</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">
                select-statement</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b></td>
          </tr>
        </table>
      </p>
      <p>
        The CREATE TRIGGER statement is used to add triggers to the database schema. Triggers
        are database operations (the <i>trigger-action</i>) that are automatically performed
        when a specified database event (the <i>database-event</i>) occurs.
      </p>
      <p>
        A trigger may be specified to fire whenever a DELETE, INSERT or UPDATE of a particular
        database table occurs, or whenever an UPDATE of one or more specified columns of
        a table are updated.</p>
      <p>
        At this time SQLite supports only FOR EACH ROW triggers, not FOR EACH STATEMENT
        triggers. Hence explicitly specifying FOR EACH ROW is optional. FOR EACH ROW implies
        that the SQL statements specified as <i>trigger-steps</i> may be executed (depending
        on the WHEN clause) for each database row being inserted, updated or deleted by
        the statement causing the trigger to fire.</p>
      <p>
        Both the WHEN clause and the <i>trigger-steps</i> may access elements of the row
        being inserted, deleted or updated using references of the form "NEW.<i>column-name</i>"
        and "OLD.<i>column-name</i>", where <i>column-name</i> is the name of a column from the table that the trigger is associated with. OLD and NEW references may only be
        used in triggers on <i>trigger-event</i>s for which they are relevant, as follows:</p>
      <p>
        <table border="0" cellpadding="10">
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top" width="120">
              <i>INSERT</i></td>
            <td valign="top">
              NEW references are valid</td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top" width="120">
              <i>UPDATE</i></td>
            <td valign="top">
              NEW and OLD references are valid</td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top" width="120">
              <i>DELETE</i></td>
            <td valign="top">
              OLD references are valid</td>
          </tr>
        </table>
      </p>
      <p>
      </p>
      <p>
        If a WHEN clause is supplied, the SQL statements specified as <i>trigger-steps</i>
        are only executed for
        rows for which the WHEN clause is true. If no WHEN clause
        is supplied, the SQL statements are executed for all rows.</p>
      <p>
        The specified <i>trigger-time</i> determines when the <i>trigger-steps</i> will
        be executed relative to the insertion, modification or removal of the associated
        row.</p>
      <p>
        An ON CONFLICT clause may be specified as part of an UPDATE or INSERT <i>trigger-step</i>.
        However if an ON CONFLICT clause is specified as part of the statement causing the
        trigger to fire, then this conflict handling policy is used instead.</p>
      <p>
        Triggers are automatically dropped when the table that they are associated with
        is dropped.</p>
      <p>
        Triggers may be created on views, as well as ordinary tables, by specifying INSTEAD
        OF in the CREATE TRIGGER statement. If one or more ON INSERT, ON DELETE or ON UPDATE
        triggers are defined on a view, then it is not an error to execute an INSERT, DELETE
        or UPDATE statement on the view, respectively. Thereafter, executing an INSERT,
        DELETE or UPDATE on the view causes the associated triggers to fire. The real tables
        underlying the view are not modified (except possibly explicitly, by a trigger program).</p>
      <p>
        <b>Example:</b></p>
      <p>
        Assuming that customer records are stored in the "customers" table, and that order
        records are stored in the "orders" table, the following trigger ensures that all
        associated orders are redirected when a customer changes his or her address:</p>
      <blockquote>
        <pre>
CREATE TRIGGER update_customer_address UPDATE OF address ON customers 
  BEGIN
    UPDATE orders SET address = new.address WHERE customer_name = old.name;
  END;
</pre>
      </blockquote>
      <p>
        With this trigger installed, executing the statement:</p>
      <blockquote>
        <pre>
UPDATE customers SET address = '1 Main St.' WHERE name = 'Jack Jones';
</pre>
      </blockquote>
      <p>
        causes the following to be automatically executed:</p>
      <blockquote>
        <pre>
UPDATE orders SET address = '1 Main St.' WHERE customer_name = 'Jack Jones';
</pre>
      </blockquote>
      <p>
        Note that currently, triggers may behave oddly when created on tables with INTEGER
        PRIMARY KEY fields. If a BEFORE trigger program modifies the INTEGER PRIMARY KEY
        field of a row that will be subsequently updated by the statement that causes the
        trigger to fire, then the update may not occur. The workaround is to declare the
        table with a PRIMARY KEY column instead of an INTEGER PRIMARY KEY column.</p>
      <p>
        A special SQL function RAISE() may be used within a trigger-program, with the following
        syntax</p>
      <p>
        <table cellpadding="10">
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              <i><font color="#ff3434">raise-function</font></i> ::=</td>
            <td>
              <b><font color="#2c2cf0">RAISE <big>(</big> ABORT<big>,</big> </font></b><i><font
                color="#ff3434">error-message</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> <big>)</big> </font>
                </b><big>|</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0">
                  <br />
                  RAISE <big>(</big> FAIL<big>,</big> </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">error-message</font></i><b><font
                    color="#2c2cf0"> <big>)</big> </font></b><big>|</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0">
                      <br />
                      RAISE <big>(</big> ROLLBACK<big>,</big> </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">error-message</font></i><b><font
                        color="#2c2cf0"> <big>)</big> </font></b><big>|</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0">
                          <br />
                          RAISE <big>(</big> IGNORE <big>)</big></font></b></td>
          </tr>
        </table>
      </p>
      <p>
        When one of the first three forms is called during trigger-program execution, the
        specified ON CONFLICT processing is performed (either ABORT, FAIL or ROLLBACK) and
        the current query terminates. An error code of SQLITE_CONSTRAINT is returned to
        the user, along with the specified error message.</p>
      <p>
        When RAISE(IGNORE) is called, the remainder of the current trigger program, the
        statement that caused the trigger program to execute and any subsequent trigger
        programs that would of been executed are abandoned. No database changes are rolled
        back. If the statement that caused the trigger program to execute is itself part
        of a trigger program, then that trigger program resumes execution at the beginning
        of the next step.
      </p>
      <p>
        Triggers are removed using the <a href="lang_droptrigger.html">DROP TRIGGER</a>
        statement.</p>
      <p>
      <hr>
        &nbsp;</p>
      <div id="footer">
        <p>
          &nbsp;</p>
        <p>
        </p>
      </div>
    </div>
    </div>
  </body>
</html>

Added Doc/Extra/lang_createview.html.





















































































































































































































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<html dir="LTR" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:MSHelp="http://msdn.microsoft.com/mshelp" xmlns:tool="http://www.microsoft.com/tooltip" xmlns:ndoc="urn:ndoc-preprocess">
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    <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=Windows-1252" />
    <title>CREATE VIEW</title>
    <link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="ndoc.css"> </link>
    <link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="user.css"> </link>
    <script type="text/javascript" src="ndoc.js"> </script>
  </head>
  <body style="display: none;">
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    <input type="hidden" id="hiddenScrollOffset" />
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    <div id="header">
      <table width="100%" id="topTable">
        <tr id="headerTableRow1">
          <td align="left">
            <span id="runningHeaderText">CREATE VIEW</span>&nbsp;</td>
        </tr>
        <tr id="headerTableRow2">
          <td align="left">
            <span id="nsrTitle">SQLite Language Reference Documentation</span>
          </td>
        </tr>
        <tr id="headerTableRow3" style="display:none">
          <td>
            <a id="seeAlsoSectionLink" href="#seeAlsoToggle" onclick="OpenSection(seeAlsoToggle)">See Also</a>
            <a id="exampleSectionLink" href="#codeExampleToggle" onclick="OpenSection(codeExampleToggle)">Example</a>
          </td>
        </tr>
     </table>
      <table width="100%" id="bottomTable" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0" style="display:none">
        <tr>
          <td>
            <span onclick="ExpandCollapseAll(toggleAllImage)" style="cursor:default;" onkeypress="ExpandCollapseAll_CheckKey(toggleAllImage)" tabindex="0">
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            </span>
          </td>
        </tr>
      </table>
    </div>
    <div id="mainSection">
    <div id="mainBody">
      <h1 class="heading">
        SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1>
      <h4>
        CREATE VIEW</h4>
      <p>
        <table cellpadding="10">
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              <i><font color="#ff3434">sql-command</font></i> ::=</td>
            <td>
              <b><font color="#2c2cf0">CREATE </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0">TEMP </font></b>
              <big>|</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> TEMPORARY</font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0">
                VIEW </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">database-name</font></i><b><font
                  color="#2c2cf0"><big>.</big></font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b>
              <i><font color="#ff3434">view-name</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> AS </font></b>
              <i><font color="#ff3434">select-statement</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b></td>
          </tr>
        </table>
      </p>
      <p>
        The CREATE VIEW command assigns a name to a pre-packaged <a href="lang_select.html">
          SELECT</a> statement. Once the view is created, it can be used in the FROM clause
        of another SELECT in place of a table name. 
      </p>
      <p>
        If the "TEMP" or "TEMPORARY" keyword occurs in between "CREATE" and "VIEW" then
        the view that is created is only visible to the process that opened the database
        and is automatically deleted when the database is closed.</p>
      <p>
        If a &lt;database-name&gt; is specified, then the view is created in the named database.
        It is an error to specify both a &lt;database-name&gt; and the TEMP keyword, unless
        the &lt;database-name&gt; is "temp". If no database name is specified, and the TEMP
        keyword is not present, the table is created in the main database.</p>
      <p>
        You cannot COPY, DELETE, INSERT or UPDATE a view. Views are read-only in SQLite.
        However, in many cases you can use a <a href="lang_createtrigger.html">TRIGGER</a>
        on the view to accomplish the same thing. Views are removed with the <a href="lang_dropview.html">
          DROP VIEW</a> command.</p>
      <p>
      <hr>
        &nbsp;</p>
      <div id="footer">
        <p>
          &nbsp;</p>
        <p>
        </p>
      </div>
    </div>
    </div>
  </body>
</html>

Added Doc/Extra/lang_createvtab.html.































































































































































































































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<html dir="LTR" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:MSHelp="http://msdn.microsoft.com/mshelp" xmlns:tool="http://www.microsoft.com/tooltip" xmlns:ndoc="urn:ndoc-preprocess">
  <head>
    <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=Windows-1252" />
    <title>CREATE VIRTUAL TABLE</title>
    <link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="ndoc.css"> </link>
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    <script type="text/javascript" src="ndoc.js"> </script>
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    <div id="header">
      <table width="100%" id="topTable">
        <tr id="headerTableRow1">
          <td align="left">
            <span id="runningHeaderText">CREATE VIRTUAL TABLE</span>&nbsp;</td>
        </tr>
        <tr id="headerTableRow2">
          <td align="left">
            <span id="nsrTitle">SQLite Language Reference Documentation</span>
          </td>
        </tr>
        <tr id="headerTableRow3" style="display:none">
          <td>
            <a id="seeAlsoSectionLink" href="#seeAlsoToggle" onclick="OpenSection(seeAlsoToggle)">See Also</a>
            <a id="exampleSectionLink" href="#codeExampleToggle" onclick="OpenSection(codeExampleToggle)">Example</a>
          </td>
        </tr>
     </table>
      <table width="100%" id="bottomTable" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0" style="display:none">
        <tr>
          <td>
            <span onclick="ExpandCollapseAll(toggleAllImage)" style="cursor:default;" onkeypress="ExpandCollapseAll_CheckKey(toggleAllImage)" tabindex="0">
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							Expand All
						</label>
            </span>
          </td>
        </tr>
      </table>
    </div>
    <div id="mainSection">
    <div id="mainBody">
      <h1 class="heading">
        SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1>
      <h4>
        CREATE VIRTUAL TABLE</h4>
      <p>
        <table cellpadding="10">
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              <i><font color="#ff3434">sql-command</font></i> ::=</td>
            <td>
              <b><font color="#2c2cf0">CREATE VIRTUAL TABLE </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b><i><font
                color="#ff3434">database-name</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> <big>.</big></font></b>]<b><font
                  color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">table-name</font></i><b><font
                    color="#2c2cf0"> USING </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">module-name</font></i><b><font
                      color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0"><big>(</big> </font></b>
              <i><font color="#ff3434">arguments</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> <big>)</big></font></b>]<b><font
                color="#2c2cf0"></font></b></td>
          </tr>
        </table>
      </p>
      <p>
        A virtual table is an interface to an external storage or computation engine that
        appears to be a table but does not actually store information in the database file.</p>
      <p>
        In general, you can do anything with a virtual table that can be done with an ordinary
        table, except that you cannot create triggers on a virtual table. Some virtual table
        implementations might impose additional restrictions. For example, many virtual
        tables are read-only.</p>
      <p>
        The &lt;module-name&gt; is the
        name of an object that implements the virtual table.
        The &lt;module-name&gt; must be registered with the SQLite database connection using
        <a href="capi3ref.html#sqlite3_create_module">sqlite3_create_module</a> prior to
        issuing the CREATE VIRTUAL TABLE statement. The module takes zero or more comma-separated
        arguments. The arguments can be just about any text as long as it has balanced parentheses.
        The argument syntax is sufficiently general that the arguments can be made to appear
        as column definitions in a traditional <a href="lang_createtable.html">CREATE TABLE</a>
        statement. SQLite passes the module arguments directly to the module without any
        interpretation. It is the responsibility of the module implementation to parse and
        interpret its own arguments.</p>
      <p>
        A virtual table is destroyed using the ordinary <a href="lang_droptable.html">DROP
          TABLE</a> statement. There is no DROP VIRTUAL TABLE statement.</p>
      <p>
      <hr>
        &nbsp;</p>
      <div id="footer">
        <p>
          &nbsp;</p>
        <p>
        </p>
      </div>
    </div>
    </div>
  </body>
</html>

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<html dir="LTR" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:MSHelp="http://msdn.microsoft.com/mshelp" xmlns:tool="http://www.microsoft.com/tooltip" xmlns:ndoc="urn:ndoc-preprocess">
  <head>
    <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=Windows-1252" />
    <title>DELETE</title>
    <link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="ndoc.css"> </link>
    <link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="user.css"> </link>
    <script type="text/javascript" src="ndoc.js"> </script>
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    <img id="copyImage" style="display:none; height:0; width:0;" src="copycode.gif" />
    <img id="copyHoverImage" style="display:none; height:0; width:0;" src="copycodeHighlight.gif" />
    <div id="header">
      <table width="100%" id="topTable">
        <tr id="headerTableRow1">
          <td align="left">
            <span id="runningHeaderText">DELETE</span>&nbsp;</td>
        </tr>
        <tr id="headerTableRow2">
          <td align="left">
            <span id="nsrTitle">SQLite Language Reference Documentation</span>
          </td>
        </tr>
        <tr id="headerTableRow3" style="display:none">
          <td>
            <a id="seeAlsoSectionLink" href="#seeAlsoToggle" onclick="OpenSection(seeAlsoToggle)">See Also</a>
            <a id="exampleSectionLink" href="#codeExampleToggle" onclick="OpenSection(codeExampleToggle)">Example</a>
          </td>
        </tr>
     </table>
      <table width="100%" id="bottomTable" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0" style="display:none">
        <tr>
          <td>
            <span onclick="ExpandCollapseAll(toggleAllImage)" style="cursor:default;" onkeypress="ExpandCollapseAll_CheckKey(toggleAllImage)" tabindex="0">
              <img ID="toggleAllImage" class="toggleAll" src="collall.gif" />
              <label id="collapseAllLabel" for="toggleAllImage" style="display: none;">
							Collapse All
						</label>
              <label id="expandAllLabel" for="toggleAllImage" style="display: none;">
							Expand All
						</label>
            </span>
          </td>
        </tr>
      </table>
    </div>
    <div id="mainSection">
    <div id="mainBody">
      <h1 class="heading">
        SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1>
      <h4>
        DELETE</h4>
      <p>
        <table cellpadding="10">
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              <i><font color="#ff3434">sql-statement</font></i> ::=</td>
            <td>
              <b><font color="#2c2cf0">DELETE FROM </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b><i><font
                color="#ff3434">database-name</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> <big>.</big></font></b>]<b><font
                  color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">table-name</font></i><b><font
                    color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0">WHERE </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">
                      expr</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b></td>
          </tr>
        </table>
      </p>
      <p>
        The DELETE command is used to remove records from a table. The command consists
        of the "DELETE FROM" keywords followed by the
        name of the table from which records
        are to be removed.
      </p>
      <p>
        Without a WHERE clause, all rows of the table are removed. If a WHERE clause is
        supplied, then only those rows that match the expression are removed.</p>
      <p>
      <hr>
        &nbsp;</p>
      <div id="footer">
        <p>
          &nbsp;</p>
        <p>
        </p>
      </div>
    </div>
    </div>
  </body>
</html>

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<html dir="LTR" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:MSHelp="http://msdn.microsoft.com/mshelp" xmlns:tool="http://www.microsoft.com/tooltip" xmlns:ndoc="urn:ndoc-preprocess">
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          <td align="left">
            <span id="runningHeaderText">DETACH</span>&nbsp;</td>
        </tr>
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          <td align="left">
            <span id="nsrTitle">SQLite Language Reference Documentation</span>
          </td>
        </tr>
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          <td>
            <a id="seeAlsoSectionLink" href="#seeAlsoToggle" onclick="OpenSection(seeAlsoToggle)">See Also</a>
            <a id="exampleSectionLink" href="#codeExampleToggle" onclick="OpenSection(codeExampleToggle)">Example</a>
          </td>
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    <div id="mainBody">
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        SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1>
      <h4>
        DETACH</h4>
      <p>
        <table cellpadding="10">
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              <i><font color="#ff3434">sql-command</font></i> ::=</td>
            <td>
              <b><font color="#2c2cf0">DETACH </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0">DATABASE</font></b>]<b><font
                color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">database-name</font></i><b><font
                  color="#2c2cf0"></font></b></td>
          </tr>
        </table>
      </p>
      <p>
        This statement detaches an additional database connection previously attached using
        the <a href="lang_attach.html">ATTACH DATABASE</a> statement. It is possible to have the same database file attached multiple times using different names, and detaching
        one connection to a file will leave the others intact.</p>
      <p>
        This statement will fail if SQLite is in the middle of a transaction.</p>
      <p>
      <hr>
        &nbsp;</p>
      <div id="footer">
        <p>
          &nbsp;</p>
        <p>
        </p>
      </div>
    </div>
    </div>
  </body>
</html>

Added Doc/Extra/lang_dropindex.html.































































































































































































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<html dir="LTR" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:MSHelp="http://msdn.microsoft.com/mshelp" xmlns:tool="http://www.microsoft.com/tooltip" xmlns:ndoc="urn:ndoc-preprocess">
  <head>
    <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=Windows-1252" />
    <title>DROP INDEX</title>
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    <img id="expandAllImage" style="display:none; height:0; width:0;" src="expall.gif" />
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    <img id="copyHoverImage" style="display:none; height:0; width:0;" src="copycodeHighlight.gif" />
    <div id="header">
      <table width="100%" id="topTable">
        <tr id="headerTableRow1">
          <td align="left">
            <span id="runningHeaderText">DROP INDEX</span>&nbsp;</td>
        </tr>
        <tr id="headerTableRow2">
          <td align="left">
            <span id="nsrTitle">SQLite Language Reference Documentation</span>
          </td>
        </tr>
        <tr id="headerTableRow3" style="display:none">
          <td>
            <a id="seeAlsoSectionLink" href="#seeAlsoToggle" onclick="OpenSection(seeAlsoToggle)">See Also</a>
            <a id="exampleSectionLink" href="#codeExampleToggle" onclick="OpenSection(codeExampleToggle)">Example</a>
          </td>
        </tr>
     </table>
      <table width="100%" id="bottomTable" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0" style="display:none">
        <tr>
          <td>
            <span onclick="ExpandCollapseAll(toggleAllImage)" style="cursor:default;" onkeypress="ExpandCollapseAll_CheckKey(toggleAllImage)" tabindex="0">
              <img ID="toggleAllImage" class="toggleAll" src="collall.gif" />
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							Collapse All
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              <label id="expandAllLabel" for="toggleAllImage" style="display: none;">
							Expand All
						</label>
            </span>
          </td>
        </tr>
      </table>
    </div>
    <div id="mainSection">
    <div id="mainBody">
      <h1 class="heading">
        SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1>
      <h4>
        DROP INDEX</h4>
      <p>
        <table cellpadding="10">
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              <i><font color="#ff3434">sql-command</font></i> ::=</td>
            <td>
              <b><font color="#2c2cf0">DROP INDEX </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0">IF EXISTS</font></b>]<b><font
                color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">database-name</font></i><b><font
                  color="#2c2cf0"> <big>.</big></font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b>
              <i><font color="#ff3434">index-name</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b></td>
          </tr>
        </table>
      </p>
      <p>
        The DROP INDEX statement removes an index added with the <a href="lang_createindex.html">
          CREATE INDEX</a> statement. The index named is completely removed from the disk.
        The only way to recover the index is to reenter the appropriate CREATE INDEX command.</p>
      <p>
        The DROP INDEX statement does not reduce the size of the database file in the default
        mode. Empty space in the database is retained for later INSERTs. To remove free
        space in the database, use the <a href="lang_vacuum.html">
          VACUUM</a> command. If
        AUTOVACUUM mode is enabled for a database then space will be freed automatically by DROP INDEX.</p>
      <p>
      <hr>
        &nbsp;</p>
      <div id="footer">
        <p>
          &nbsp;</p>
        <p>
        </p>
      </div>
    </div>
    </div>
  </body>
</html>

Added Doc/Extra/lang_droptable.html.





































































































































































































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<html dir="LTR" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:MSHelp="http://msdn.microsoft.com/mshelp" xmlns:tool="http://www.microsoft.com/tooltip" xmlns:ndoc="urn:ndoc-preprocess">
  <head>
    <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=Windows-1252" />
    <title>DROP TABLE</title>
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    <link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="user.css"> </link>
    <script type="text/javascript" src="ndoc.js"> </script>
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    <input type="hidden" id="userDataCache" class="userDataStyle" />
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    <img id="collapseAllImage" style="display:none; height:0; width:0;" src="collall.gif" />
    <img id="expandAllImage" style="display:none; height:0; width:0;" src="expall.gif" />
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    <img id="copyHoverImage" style="display:none; height:0; width:0;" src="copycodeHighlight.gif" />
    <div id="header">
      <table width="100%" id="topTable">
        <tr id="headerTableRow1">
          <td align="left">
            <span id="runningHeaderText">DROP TABLE</span>&nbsp;</td>
        </tr>
        <tr id="headerTableRow2">
          <td align="left">
            <span id="nsrTitle">SQLite Language Reference Documentation</span>
          </td>
        </tr>
        <tr id="headerTableRow3" style="display:none">
          <td>
            <a id="seeAlsoSectionLink" href="#seeAlsoToggle" onclick="OpenSection(seeAlsoToggle)">See Also</a>
            <a id="exampleSectionLink" href="#codeExampleToggle" onclick="OpenSection(codeExampleToggle)">Example</a>
          </td>
        </tr>
     </table>
      <table width="100%" id="bottomTable" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0" style="display:none">
        <tr>
          <td>
            <span onclick="ExpandCollapseAll(toggleAllImage)" style="cursor:default;" onkeypress="ExpandCollapseAll_CheckKey(toggleAllImage)" tabindex="0">
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							Collapse All
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              <label id="expandAllLabel" for="toggleAllImage" style="display: none;">
							Expand All
						</label>
            </span>
          </td>
        </tr>
      </table>
    </div>
    <div id="mainSection">
    <div id="mainBody">
      <h1 class="heading">
        SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1>
      <h4>
        DROP TABLE</h4>
      <p>
        <table cellpadding="10">
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              <i><font color="#ff3434">sql-command</font></i> ::=</td>
            <td>
              <b><font color="#2c2cf0">DROP TABLE </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0">IF EXISTS</font></b>]<b><font
                color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">database-name</font></i><b><font
                  color="#2c2cf0"><big>.</big></font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b>
              <i><font color="#ff3434">table-name</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b></td>
          </tr>
        </table>
      </p>
      <p>
        The DROP TABLE statement removes a table added with the <a href="#createtable">CREATE TABLE</a> statement. The
        name specified is the table name. It is completely removed
        from the database schema and the disk file. The table can not be recovered. All
        indices associated with the table are also deleted.</p>
      <p>
        The DROP TABLE statement does not reduce the size of the database file in the default
        mode. Empty space in the database is retained for later INSERTs. To remove free
        space in the database, use the <a href="lang_vacuum.html">
          VACUUM</a> command. If
        AUTOVACUUM mode is enabled for a database then space will be freed automatically by DROP TABLE.</p>
      <p>
        The optional IF EXISTS clause suppresses the error that would normally result if the table does not exist.</p>
      <p>
      <hr>
        &nbsp;</p>
      <div id="footer">
        <p>
          &nbsp;</p>
        <p>
        </p>
      </div>
    </div>
    </div>
  </body>
</html>

Added Doc/Extra/lang_droptrigger.html.



















































































































































































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<html dir="LTR" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:MSHelp="http://msdn.microsoft.com/mshelp" xmlns:tool="http://www.microsoft.com/tooltip" xmlns:ndoc="urn:ndoc-preprocess">
  <head>
    <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=Windows-1252" />
    <title>DROP TRIGGER</title>
    <link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="ndoc.css"> </link>
    <link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="user.css"> </link>
    <script type="text/javascript" src="ndoc.js"> </script>
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    <input type="hidden" id="hiddenScrollOffset" />
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    <img id="collapseImage" style="display:none; height:0; width:0;" src="collapse.gif" />
    <img id="expandImage" style="display:none; height:0; width:0;" src="exp.gif" />
    <img id="collapseAllImage" style="display:none; height:0; width:0;" src="collall.gif" />
    <img id="expandAllImage" style="display:none; height:0; width:0;" src="expall.gif" />
    <img id="copyImage" style="display:none; height:0; width:0;" src="copycode.gif" />
    <img id="copyHoverImage" style="display:none; height:0; width:0;" src="copycodeHighlight.gif" />
    <div id="header">
      <table width="100%" id="topTable">
        <tr id="headerTableRow1">
          <td align="left">
            <span id="runningHeaderText">DROP TRIGGER</span>&nbsp;</td>
        </tr>
        <tr id="headerTableRow2">
          <td align="left">
            <span id="nsrTitle">SQLite Language Reference Documentation</span>
          </td>
        </tr>
        <tr id="headerTableRow3" style="display:none">
          <td>
            <a id="seeAlsoSectionLink" href="#seeAlsoToggle" onclick="OpenSection(seeAlsoToggle)">See Also</a>
            <a id="exampleSectionLink" href="#codeExampleToggle" onclick="OpenSection(codeExampleToggle)">Example</a>
          </td>
        </tr>
     </table>
      <table width="100%" id="bottomTable" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0" style="display:none">
        <tr>
          <td>
            <span onclick="ExpandCollapseAll(toggleAllImage)" style="cursor:default;" onkeypress="ExpandCollapseAll_CheckKey(toggleAllImage)" tabindex="0">
              <img ID="toggleAllImage" class="toggleAll" src="collall.gif" />
              <label id="collapseAllLabel" for="toggleAllImage" style="display: none;">
							Collapse All
						</label>
              <label id="expandAllLabel" for="toggleAllImage" style="display: none;">
							Expand All
						</label>
            </span>
          </td>
        </tr>
      </table>
    </div>
    <div id="mainSection">
    <div id="mainBody">
      <h1 class="heading">
        SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1>
      <h4>
        DROP TRIGGER</h4>
      <p>
        <table cellpadding="10">
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              <i><font color="#ff3434">sql-statement</font></i> ::=</td>
            <td>
              <b><font color="#2c2cf0">DROP TRIGGER </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b><i><font
                color="#ff3434">database-name</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> <big>.</big></font></b>]<b><font
                  color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">trigger-name</font></i><b><font
                    color="#2c2cf0"></font></b></td>
          </tr>
        </table>
      </p>
      <p>
        The DROP TRIGGER statement removes a trigger created by the <a href="lang_createtrigger.html">
          CREATE TRIGGER</a> statement. The trigger is deleted from the database schema.
        Note that triggers are automatically dropped when the associated table is dropped.</p>
      <p>
      <hr>
        &nbsp;</p>
      <div id="footer">
        <p>
          &nbsp;</p>
        <p>
        </p>
      </div>
    </div>
    </div>
  </body>
</html>

Added Doc/Extra/lang_dropview.html.

















































































































































































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Added Doc/Extra/lang_explain.html.





























































































































































































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      <h1 class="heading">
        SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1>
      <h4>
        expression</h4>
      <p>
        <table cellpadding="10">
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              <i><font color="#ff3434">expr</font></i> ::=</td>
            <td>
              <b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">expr</font></i><b><font
                color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">binary-op</font></i><b><font
                  color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">expr</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0">
                  </font></b><big>|</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0"><br />
                  </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">expr</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> </font>
                  </b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0">NOT</font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b>
              <i><font color="#ff3434">like-op</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b>
              <i><font color="#ff3434">expr</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b>[<b><font
                color="#2c2cf0">ESCAPE </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">expr</font></i><b><font
                  color="#2c2cf0"></font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b><big>|</big><b><font
                    color="#2c2cf0"><br />
                  </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">unary-op</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> </font>
                  </b><i><font color="#ff3434">expr</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b>
              <big>|</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0"><br />
                <big>(</big> </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">expr</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0">
                  <big>)</big> </font></b><big>|</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0"><br />
                  </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">column-name</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0">
                  </font></b><big>|</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0"><br />
                  </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">table-name</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0">
                    <big>.</big> </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">column-name</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0">
                    </font></b><big>|</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0"><br />
                    </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">database-name</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0">
                      <big>.</big> </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">table-name</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0">
                        <big>.</big> </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">column-name</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0">
                        </font></b><big>|</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0"><br />
                        </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">literal-value</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0">
                        </font></b><big>|</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0"><br />
                        </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">parameter</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0">
                        </font></b><big>|</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0"><br />
                        </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">function-name</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0">
                          <big>(</big> </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">expr-list</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0">
                          </font></b><big>|</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> <big>*</big> <big>)</big> </font>
                          </b><big>|</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0"><br />
                          </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">expr</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> ISNULL
                          </font></b><big>|</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0"><br />
                          </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">expr</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> NOTNULL
                          </font></b><big>|</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0"><br />
                          </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">expr</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> </font>
                          </b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0">NOT</font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"> BETWEEN </font>
                          </b><i><font color="#ff3434">expr</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> AND </font></b>
              <i><font color="#ff3434">expr</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b><big>
                |</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0"><br />
                </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">expr</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> </font>
                </b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0">NOT</font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"> IN <big>(</big>
                </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">value-list</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0">
                  <big>)</big> </font></b><big>|</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0"><br />
                  </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">expr</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> </font>
                  </b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0">NOT</font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"> IN <big>(</big>
                  </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">select-statement</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0">
                    <big>)</big> </font></b><big>|</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0"><br />
                    </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">expr</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> </font>
                    </b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0">NOT</font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"> IN </font></b>
              [<b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">database-name</font></i><b><font
                color="#2c2cf0"> <big>.</big></font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b>
              <i><font color="#ff3434">table-name</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b>
              <big>|</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0"><br />
              </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0">EXISTS</font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"> <big>
                (</big> </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">select-statement</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0">
                  <big>)</big> </font></b><big>|</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0"><br />
                    CASE </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">expr</font></i><b><font
                      color="#2c2cf0"></font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b>(<b><font color="#2c2cf0">
                        WHEN </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">expr</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0">
                          THEN </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">expr</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0">
                          </font></b>)+<b><font color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0">ELSE </font>
                          </b><i><font color="#ff3434">expr</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b>]<b><font
                            color="#2c2cf0"> END </font></b><big>|</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0"><br />
                              CAST <big>(</big> </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">expr</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0">
                                AS </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">type</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> <big>
                                  )</big></font></b></td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              <i><font color="#ff3434">like-op</font></i> ::=</td>
            <td>
              <b><font color="#2c2cf0">LIKE </font></b><big>|</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> GLOB
              </font></b><big>|</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> REGEXP </font></b><big>|</big><b><font
                color="#2c2cf0"> MATCH</font></b></td>
          </tr>
        </table>
      </p>
      <p>
        This section is different from the others. Most other sections of this document
        talks about a particular SQL command. This section does not talk about a standalone
        command but about "expressions" which are subcomponents of most other commands.</p>
      <p>
        SQLite understands the following binary operators, in order from highest to lowest
        precedence:</p>
      <blockquote>
        <pre>
<font color="#2c2cf0"><big>|| * / % + - &lt;&lt; &gt;&gt; &amp; | &lt; &lt;= &gt;
  &gt;= = == != &lt;&gt; </big>IN AND OR</font>
</pre>
      </blockquote>
      <p>
        Supported unary operators are these:</p>
      <blockquote>
        <pre>
<font color="#2c2cf0"><big>- + ! ~ NOT</big></font>
</pre>
      </blockquote>
      <p>
        The unary operator [Operator +] is a no-op. It can be applied to strings, numbers,
        or blobs and it always gives as its result the value of the operand.</p>
      <p>
        Note that there are two variations of the equals and not equals operators. Equals
        can be either <font color="#2c2cf0"><big>=</big></font> or <font color="#2c2cf0"><big>
          ==</big></font>. The non-equals operator can be either <font color="#2c2cf0"><big>
            !=</big></font> or <font color="#2c2cf0"><big>&lt;&gt;</big></font>. The <font color="#2c2cf0">
              <big>||</big></font> operator is "concatenate" - it joins together the two
        strings of its operands. The operator <font color="#2c2cf0"><big>%</big></font>
        outputs the remainder of its left operand modulo its right operand.</p>
      <p>
        The result of any binary operator is a numeric value, except for the <font color="#2c2cf0">
          <big>||</big></font> concatenation operator which gives a string result.</p>
      <a name="literal_value"></a>
      <p>
        A literal value is an integer number or a floating point number. Scientific notation
        is supported. The "." character is always used as the decimal point even if the
        locale setting specifies "," for this role - the use of "," for the decimal point
        would result in syntactic ambiguity. A string constant is formed by enclosing the
        string in single quotes ('). A single quote within the string can be encoded by
        putting two single quotes in a row - as in Pascal. C-style escapes using the backslash
        character are not supported because they are not standard SQL. BLOB literals are
        string literals containing hexadecimal data and preceded by a single "x" or "X"
        character. For example:</p>
      <blockquote>
        <pre>
X'53514697465'
</pre>
      </blockquote>
      <p>
        A literal value can also be the token "NULL".
      </p>
      <p>
        A parameter specifies a placeholder in the expression for a literal value that is
        filled in at runtime using the <a href="capi3ref.html#sqlite3_bind_int">sqlite3_bind</a>
        API. Parameters can take several forms:
      </p>
      <p>
        <table>
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              <b>?</b><i>NNN</i></td>
            <td width="20">
            </td>
            <td>
              A question mark followed by a number <i>NNN</i> holds a spot for the NNN-th parameter.
              NNN must be between 1 and 999.</td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              <b>?</b></td>
            <td width="20">
            </td>
            <td>
              A question mark that is not followed by a number holds a spot for the next unused
              parameter.</td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              <b>:</b><i>AAAA</i></td>
            <td width="20">
            </td>
            <td>
              A colon followed by an identifier name holds a spot for a named parameter with the
              name AAAA. Named parameters are also numbered. The number assigned is the next unused
              number. To avoid confusion, it is best to avoid mixing named and numbered parameters.</td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              <b>@</b><i>AAAA</i></td>
            <td width="20">
            </td>
            <td>
              An "at" sign works exactly like a colon.</td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              <b>$</b><i>AAAA</i></td>
            <td width="20">
            </td>
            <td>
              A dollar-sign followed by an identifier name also holds a spot for a named parameter
              with the name AAAA. The identifier name in this case can include one or more occurances
              of "::" and a suffix enclosed in "(...)" containing any text at all. This syntax
              is the form of a variable name in the Tcl programming language.</td>
          </tr>
        </table>
      </p>
      <blockquote>
      </blockquote>
      <p>
        Parameters that are not assigned values using <a href="capi3ref.html#sqlite3_bind_int">
          sqlite3_bind</a> are treated as NULL.</p>
      <a name="like"></a>
      <p>
        The LIKE operator does a pattern matching comparison. The operand to the right contains
        the pattern, the left hand operand contains the string to match against the pattern.
        A percent symbol <font color="#2c2cf0"><big>%</big></font> in the pattern matches
        any sequence of zero or more characters in the string. An underscore <font color="#2c2cf0">
          <big>_</big></font> in the pattern matches any single character in the string.
        Any other character matches itself or it's lower/upper case equivalent (i.e. case-insensitive
        matching). (A bug: SQLite only understands upper/lower case for 7-bit Latin characters.
        Hence the LIKE operator is case sensitive for 8-bit iso8859 characters or UTF-8
        characters. For example, the expression <b>'a' LIKE 'A'</b> is TRUE but <b>'' LIKE
          ''</b> is FALSE.).</p>
      <p>
        If the optional ESCAPE clause is present, then the expression following the ESCAPE
        keyword must evaluate to a string consisting of a single character. This character
        may be used in the LIKE pattern to include literal percent or underscore characters.
        The escape character followed by a percent symbol, underscore or itself matches
        a literal percent symbol, underscore or escape character in the string, respectively.
        The infix LIKE operator is implemented by calling the user function <a href="#likeFunc">
          like(<i>X</i>,<i>Y</i>)</a>.</p>
      <p>
        The LIKE operator is not case sensitive and will match upper case characters on
        one side against lower case characters on the other. (A bug: SQLite only understands
        upper/lower case for 7-bit Latin characters. Hence the LIKE operator is case sensitive
        for 8-bit iso8859 characters or UTF-8 characters. For example, the expression <b>'a'
          LIKE 'A'</b> is TRUE but <b>'' LIKE ''</b> is FALSE.).
      </p>
      <p>
      </p>
      <p>
        The infix LIKE operator is implemented by calling the user function <a href="#likeFunc">
          like(<i>X</i>,<i>Y</i>)</a>. If an ESCAPE clause is present, it adds a third parameter
        to the function call. If the functionality of LIKE can be overridden by defining
        an alternative implementation of the like() SQL function.</p>
      <p>
      </p>
      <a name="glob"></a>
      <p>
        The GLOB operator is similar to LIKE but uses the Unix file globbing syntax for
        its wildcards. Also, GLOB is case sensitive, unlike LIKE. Both GLOB and LIKE may
        be preceded by the NOT keyword to invert the sense of the test. The infix GLOB operator
        is implemented by calling the user function <a href="#globFunc">glob(<i>X</i>,<i>Y</i>)</a>
        and can be modified by overriding that function.</p>
      <a name="regexp"></a>
      <p>
        The REGEXP operator is a special syntax for the regexp() user function. No regexp()
        user function is defined by default and so use of the REGEXP operator will normally
        result in an error message. If a user-defined function named "regexp" is added at
        run-time, that function will be called in order to implement the REGEXP operator.</p>
      <a name="match"></a>
      <p>
        The MATCH operator is a special syntax for the match() user function. The default
        match() function implementation raises and exception and is not really useful for
        anything. But extensions can override the match() function with more helpful logic.</p>
      <p>
        A column name can be any of the names defined in the CREATE TABLE statement or one
        of the following special identifiers: "<b>ROWID</b>", "<b>OID</b>", or "<b>_ROWID_</b>".
        These special identifiers all describe the unique random integer key (the "row key")
        associated with every row of every table. The special identifiers only refer to
        the row key if the CREATE TABLE statement does not define a real column with the
        same name. Row keys act like read-only columns. A row key can be used anywhere a
        regular column can be used, except that you cannot change the value of a row key
        in an UPDATE or INSERT statement. "SELECT * ..." does not return the row key.</p>
      <p>
        SELECT statements can appear in expressions as either the right-hand operand of
        the IN operator, as a scalar quantity, or as the operand of an EXISTS operator.
        As a scalar quantity or the operand of an IN operator, the SELECT should have only
        a single column in its result. Compound SELECTs (connected with keywords like UNION
        or EXCEPT) are allowed. With the EXISTS operator, the columns in the result set
        of the SELECT are ignored and the expression returns TRUE if one or more rows exist
        and FALSE if the result set is empty. If no terms in the SELECT expression refer
        to value in the containing query, then the expression is evaluated once prior to
        any other processing and the result is reused as necessary. If the SELECT expression
        does contain variables from the outer query, then the SELECT is reevaluated every
        time it is needed.</p>
      <p>
        When a SELECT is the right operand of the IN operator, the IN operator returns TRUE
        if the result of the left operand is any of the values generated by the select.
        The IN operator may be preceded by the NOT keyword to invert the sense of the test.</p>
      <p>
        When a SELECT appears within an expression but is not the right operand of an IN
        operator, then the first row of the result of the SELECT becomes the value used
        in the expression. If the SELECT yields more than one result row, all rows after the first are ignored. If the SELECT yields no rows, then the value of the SELECT
        is NULL.</p>
      <p>
        A CAST expression changes the datatype of the
        <expr>
</expr>
        into the type specified by &lt;type&gt;. &lt;type&gt; can be any non-empty type
        name that is valid for the type in a column definition of a CREATE TABLE statement.</p>
      <p>
        Both simple and aggregate functions are supported. A simple function can be used
        in any expression. Simple functions return a result immediately based on their inputs.
        Aggregate functions may only be used in a SELECT statement. Aggregate functions
        compute their result across all rows of the result set.</p>
      <p>
        <a name="corefunctions"></a><b>Core Functions</b>
      </p>
      <p>
        The core functions shown below are available by default. Additional functions may
        be written in C and added to the database engine using the <a href="capi3ref.html#cfunc">
          sqlite3_create_function()</a> API.</p>
      <p>
        <table border="0" cellpadding="10">
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top" width="120">
              abs(<i>X</i>)</td>
            <td valign="top">
              Return the absolute value of argument <i>X</i>.</td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              coalesce(<i>X</i>,<i>Y</i>,...)</td>
            <td valign="top">
              Return a copy of the first non-NULL argument. If all arguments are NULL then NULL
              is returned. There must be at least 2 arguments.</td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <a name="globFunc"></a>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              glob(<i>X</i>,<i>Y</i>)</td>
            <td valign="top">
              This function is used to implement the "<b>X GLOB Y</b>" syntax of SQLite. The <a
                href="capi3ref.html#sqlite3_create_function">sqlite3_create_function()</a> interface
              can be used to override this function and thereby change the operation of the <a
                href="#globFunc">GLOB</a> operator.</td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              ifnull(<i>X</i>,<i>Y</i>)</td>
            <td valign="top">
              Return a copy of the first non-NULL argument. If both arguments are NULL then NULL
              is returned. This behaves the same as <b>coalesce()</b> above.</td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              last_insert_rowid()</td>
            <td valign="top">
              Return the ROWID of the last row insert from this connection to the database. This
              is the same value that would be returned from the <b>sqlite_last_insert_rowid()</b>
              API function.</td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              length(<i>X</i>)</td>
            <td valign="top">
              Return the string length of <i>X</i> in characters. If SQLite is configured to support
              UTF-8, then the number of UTF-8 characters is returned, not the number of bytes.</td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <a name="likeFunc"></a>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              like(<i>X</i>,<i>Y</i> [,<i>Z</i>])</td>
            <td valign="top">
              This function is used to implement the "<b>X LIKE Y [ESCAPE Z]</b>" syntax of SQL.
              If the optional ESCAPE clause is present, then the user-function is invoked with
              three arguments. Otherwise, it is invoked with two arguments only. The <a href="capi3ref.html#sqlite3_create_function">
                sqlite_create_function()</a> interface can be used to override this function and
              thereby change the operation of the <a href="#like">LIKE</a> operator. When doing
              this, it may be important to override both the two and three argument versions of
              the like() function. Otherwise, different code may be called to implement the LIKE
              operator depending on whether or not an ESCAPE clause was specified.</td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              load_extension(<i>X</i>)<br />
              load_extension(<i>X</i>,<i>Y</i>)</td>
            <td valign="top">
              Load SQLite extensions out of the shared library file named <i>X</i> using the entry
              point <i>Y</i>. The result is a NULL. If <i>Y</i> is omitted then the default entry
              point of <b>sqlite3_extension_init</b> is used. This function raises an exception
              if the extension fails to load or initialize correctly.
            </td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              lower(<i>X</i>)</td>
            <td valign="top">
              Return a copy of string <i>X</i> will all characters converted to lower case. The
              C library <b>tolower()</b> routine is used for the conversion, which means that
              this function might not work correctly on UTF-8 characters.</td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              max(<i>X</i>,<i>Y</i>,...)</td>
            <td valign="top">
              Return the argument with the maximum value. Arguments may be strings in addition
              to numbers. The maximum value is determined by the usual sort order. Note that <b>
                max()</b> is a simple function when it has 2 or more arguments but converts to
              an aggregate function if given only a single argument.</td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              min(<i>X</i>,<i>Y</i>,...)</td>
            <td valign="top">
              Return the argument with the minimum value. Arguments may be strings in addition
              to numbers. The minimum value is determined by the usual sort order. Note that <b>
                min()</b> is a simple function when it has 2 or more arguments but converts to
              an aggregate function if given only a single argument.</td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              nullif(<i>X</i>,<i>Y</i>)</td>
            <td valign="top">
              Return the first argument if the arguments are different, otherwise return NULL.</td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              quote(<i>X</i>)</td>
            <td valign="top">
              This routine returns a string which is the value of its argument suitable for inclusion
              into another SQL statement. Strings are surrounded by single-quotes with escapes
              on interior quotes as needed. BLOBs are encoded as hexadecimal literals. The current
              implementation of
          VACUUM uses this function. The function is also useful when writing
              triggers to implement undo/redo functionality.
            </td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              random(*)</td>
            <td valign="top">
              Return a pseudo-random integer between -9223372036854775808 and +9223372036854775807.</td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              round(<i>X</i>)<br />
              round(<i>X</i>,<i>Y</i>)</td>
            <td valign="top">
              Round off the number <i>X</i> to <i>Y</i> digits to the right of the decimal point.
              If the <i>Y</i> argument is omitted, 0 is assumed.</td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              soundex(<i>X</i>)</td>
            <td valign="top">
              Compute the soundex encoding of the string <i>X</i>. The string "?000" is returned
              if the argument is NULL. This function is omitted from SQLite by default. It is
              only available the -DSQLITE_SOUNDEX=1 compiler option is used when SQLite is built.</td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              sqlite_version(*)</td>
            <td valign="top">
              Return the version string for the SQLite library that is running. Example: "2.8.0"</td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              substr(<i>X</i>,<i>Y</i>,<i>Z</i>)</td>
            <td valign="top">
              Return a substring of input string <i>X</i> that begins with the <i>Y</i>-th character
              and which is <i>Z</i> characters long. The left-most character of <i>X</i> is number
              1. If <i>Y</i> is negative the the first character of the substring is found by
              counting from the right rather than the left. If SQLite is configured to support
              UTF-8, then characters indices refer to actual UTF-8 characters, not bytes.</td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              typeof(<i>X</i>)</td>
            <td valign="top">
              Return the type of the expression <i>X</i>. The only return values are "null", "integer",
              "real", "text", and "blob".
        SQLite's type handling is explained in <a href="http://www.sqlite.org/datatype3.html">
                Datatypes in SQLite Version 3</a>.</td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              upper(<i>X</i>)</td>
            <td valign="top">
              Return a copy of input string <i>X</i> converted to all upper-case letters. The
              implementation of this function uses the C library routine <b>toupper()</b> which
              means it may not work correctly on UTF-8 strings.</td>
          </tr>
        </table>
        <b>Date And Time Functions</b>
      </p>
      <p>
        Date and time functions are documented in the <a href="http://www.sqlite.org/cvstrac/wiki?p=DateAndTimeFunctions">
          SQLite Wiki</a>.</p>
      <p>
        <a name="aggregatefunctions"></a><b>Aggregate Functions</b>
      </p>
      <p>
        The aggregate functions shown below are available by default. Additional aggregate
        functions written in C may be added using the <a href="capi3ref.html#sqlite3_create_function">
          sqlite3_create_function()</a> API.</p>
      <p>
        In any aggregate function that takes a single argument, that argument can be preceeded
        by the keyword DISTINCT. In such cases, duplicate elements are filtered before being
        passed into the aggregate function. For example, the function "count(distinct X)"
        will return the number of distinct values of column X instead of the total number
        of non-null values in column X.
      </p>
      <p>
        <table border="0" cellpadding="10">
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top" width="120">
              avg(<i>X</i>)</td>
            <td valign="top">
              Return the average value of all non-NULL <i>X</i> within a group. String and BLOB
              values that do not look like numbers are interpreted as 0. The result of avg() is
              always a floating point value even if all inputs are integers.
              <p>
              </p>
            </td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              count(<i>X</i>)<br />
              count(*)</td>
            <td valign="top">
              The first form return a count of the number of times that <i>X</i> is not NULL in
              a group. The second form (with no argument) returns the total number of rows in
              the group.</td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              max(<i>X</i>)</td>
            <td valign="top">
              Return the maximum value of all values in the group. The usual sort order is used
              to determine the maximum.</td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              min(<i>X</i>)</td>
            <td valign="top">
              Return the minimum non-NULL value of all values in the group. The usual sort order
              is used to determine the minimum. NULL is only returned if all values in the group
              are NULL.</td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              sum(<i>X</i>)<br />
              total(<i>X</i>)</td>
            <td valign="top">
              Return the numeric sum of all non-NULL values in the group. If there are no non-NULL
              input rows then sum() returns NULL but total() returns 0.0. NULL is not normally
              a helpful result for the sum of no rows but the SQL standard requires it and most
              other SQL database engines implement sum() that way so SQLite does it in the same
              way in order to be compatible. The non-standard total() function is provided as
              a convenient way to work around this design problem in the SQL language.
              <p>
              </p>
              <p>
                The result of total() is always a floating point value. The result of sum() is an
                integer value if all non-NULL inputs are integers. If any input to sum() is neither
                an integer or a NULL then sum() returns a floating point value which might be an
                approximation to the true sum.</p>
              <p>
                Sum() will throw an "integer overflow" exception if all inputs are integers or NULL
                and an integer overflow occurs at any point during the computation. Total() never
                throws an exception.</p>
            </td>
          </tr>
        </table>
      </p>
      <p>
      <hr>
        &nbsp;</p>
      <div id="footer">
        <p>
          &nbsp;</p>
        <p>
        </p>
      </div>
    </div>
    </div>
  </body>
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<html dir="LTR" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:MSHelp="http://msdn.microsoft.com/mshelp" xmlns:tool="http://www.microsoft.com/tooltip" xmlns:ndoc="urn:ndoc-preprocess">
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    <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=Windows-1252" />
    <title>INSERT</title>
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    <link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="user.css"> </link>
    <script type="text/javascript" src="ndoc.js"> </script>
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    <div id="header">
      <table width="100%" id="topTable">
        <tr id="headerTableRow1">
          <td align="left">
            <span id="runningHeaderText">INSERT</span>&nbsp;</td>
        </tr>
        <tr id="headerTableRow2">
          <td align="left">
            <span id="nsrTitle">SQLite Language Reference Documentation</span>
          </td>
        </tr>
        <tr id="headerTableRow3" style="display:none">
          <td>
            <a id="seeAlsoSectionLink" href="#seeAlsoToggle" onclick="OpenSection(seeAlsoToggle)">See Also</a>
            <a id="exampleSectionLink" href="#codeExampleToggle" onclick="OpenSection(codeExampleToggle)">Example</a>
          </td>
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    </div>
    <div id="mainSection">
    <div id="mainBody">
      <h1 class="heading">
        SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1>
      <h4>
        INSERT</h4>
      <p>
        <table cellpadding="10">
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              <i><font color="#ff3434">sql-statement</font></i> ::=</td>
            <td>
              <b><font color="#2c2cf0">INSERT </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0">OR </font></b>
              <i><font color="#ff3434">conflict-algorithm</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b>]<b><font
                color="#2c2cf0"> INTO </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">database-name</font></i><b><font
                  color="#2c2cf0"> <big>.</big></font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b>
              <i><font color="#ff3434">table-name</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b>
              [<b><font color="#2c2cf0"><big>(</big></font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">column-list</font></i><b><font
                color="#2c2cf0"><big>)</big></font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"> VALUES<big>(</big></font></b><i><font
                  color="#ff3434">value-list</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"><big>)</big> </font>
                  </b><big>|</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0"><br />
                    INSERT </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0">OR </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">
                      conflict-algorithm</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0">
                        INTO </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">database-name</font></i><b><font
                          color="#2c2cf0"> <big>.</big></font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b>
              <i><font color="#ff3434">table-name</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b>
              [<b><font color="#2c2cf0"><big>(</big></font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">column-list</font></i><b><font
                color="#2c2cf0"><big>)</big></font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b><i><font
                  color="#ff3434">select-statement</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b></td>
          </tr>
        </table>
      </p>
      <p>
        The INSERT statement comes in two basic forms. The first form (with the "VALUES"
        keyword) creates a single new row in an existing table. If no column-list is specified
        then the number of values must be the same as the number of columns in the table.
        If a column-list is specified, then the number of values must match the number of
        specified columns. Columns of the table that do not appear in the column list are
        filled with the default value, or with NULL if not default value is specified.
      </p>
      <p>
        The second form of the INSERT statement takes it data
        from a SELECT statement. The
        number of columns in the result of the SELECT must exactly match the number of columns
        in the table if no column list is specified, or it must match the number of columns
        name in the column list. A new entry is made in the table for every row of the SELECT
        result. The SELECT may be simple or compound. If the SELECT statement has an ORDER
        BY clause, the ORDER BY is ignored.</p>
      <p>
        The optional conflict-clause allows the specification of an alternative constraint conflict resolution algorithm to use during this one command. See the section titled
        <a href="lang_conflict.html">ON CONFLICT</a> for additional information. For compatibility
        with MySQL, the parser allows the use of the single keyword <a href="lang_replace.html">
          REPLACE</a> as an alias for "INSERT OR REPLACE".
      </p>
      <p>
      <hr>
        &nbsp;</p>
      <div id="footer">
        <p>
          &nbsp;</p>
        <p>
        </p>
      </div>
    </div>
    </div>
  </body>
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Added Doc/Extra/lang_reindex.html.































































































































































































































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<html dir="LTR" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:MSHelp="http://msdn.microsoft.com/mshelp" xmlns:tool="http://www.microsoft.com/tooltip" xmlns:ndoc="urn:ndoc-preprocess">
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          <td align="left">
            REINDEX&nbsp;</td>
        </tr>
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          <td align="left">
            <span id="nsrTitle">SQLite Language Reference Documentation</span>
          </td>
        </tr>
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          <td>
            <a id="seeAlsoSectionLink" href="#seeAlsoToggle" onclick="OpenSection(seeAlsoToggle)">See Also</a>
            <a id="exampleSectionLink" href="#codeExampleToggle" onclick="OpenSection(codeExampleToggle)">Example</a>
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    <div id="mainSection">
    <div id="mainBody">
      <h1 class="heading">
        SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1>
      <h4>
        REINDEX</h4>
      <p>
        <table cellpadding="10">
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              <i><font color="#ff3434">sql-statement</font></i> ::=</td>
            <td>
              <b><font color="#2c2cf0">REINDEX </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">collation
        name</font></i><b><font
                color="#2c2cf0"></font></b></td>
          </tr>
        </table>
        <table cellpadding="10">
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              <i><font color="#ff3434">sql-statement</font></i> ::=</td>
            <td>
              <b><font color="#2c2cf0">REINDEX </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b><i><font
                color="#ff3434">database-name</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> <big>.</big></font></b>]<b><font
                  color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">table/index-name</font></i><b><font
                    color="#2c2cf0"></font></b></td>
          </tr>
        </table>
      </p>
      <p>
        The REINDEX command is used to delete and recreate indices from scratch. This is
        useful when the definition of a collation sequence has changed.
      </p>
      <p>
        In the first form, all indices in all attached databases that use the named collation
        sequence are recreated. In the second form, if <i>[database-name.]table/index-name</i>
        identifies a table, then all indices associated with the table are rebuilt. If an
        index is identified, then only this specific index is deleted and recreated.
      </p>
      <p>
        If no <i>database-name</i> is specified and there exists both a table or index and
        a collation sequence of the specified name, then indices associated with the collation
        sequence only are reconstructed. This ambiguity may be dispelled by always specifying
        a <i>database-name</i> when reindexing a specific table or index.
      </p>
      <p>
      <hr>
        &nbsp;</p>
      <div id="footer">
        <p>
          &nbsp;</p>
        <p>
        </p>
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            REPLACE&nbsp;</td>
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            <span id="nsrTitle">SQLite Language Reference Documentation</span>
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        SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1>
      <h4>
        REPLACE</h4>
      <p>
        <table cellpadding="10">
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              <i><font color="#ff3434">sql-statement</font></i> ::=</td>
            <td>
              <b><font color="#2c2cf0">REPLACE INTO </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b><i><font
                color="#ff3434">database-name</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> <big>.</big></font></b>]<b><font
                  color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">table-name</font></i><b><font
                    color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0"><big>(</big> </font></b>
              <i><font color="#ff3434">column-list</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> <big>)</big></font></b>]<b><font
                color="#2c2cf0"> VALUES <big>(</big> </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">value-list</font></i><b><font
                  color="#2c2cf0"> <big>)</big> </font></b><big>|</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0"><br />
                    REPLACE INTO </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">database-name</font></i><b><font
                      color="#2c2cf0"> <big>.</big></font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b>
              <i><font color="#ff3434">table-name</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b>
              [<b><font color="#2c2cf0"><big>(</big> </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">column-list</font></i><b><font
                color="#2c2cf0"> <big>)</big></font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b>
              <i><font color="#ff3434">select-statement</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b></td>
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      </p>
      <p>
        The REPLACE command is an alias for the "INSERT OR REPLACE" variant of the <a href="lang_insert.html">
          INSERT</a> command. This alias is provided for compatibility with MySQL. See the
        <a href="lang_insert.html">INSERT</a> command documentation for additional information.</p>
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            SELECT&nbsp;</td>
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            <span id="nsrTitle">SQLite Language Reference Documentation</span>
          </td>
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      <h1 class="heading">
        SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1>
      <h4>
        SELECT</h4>
      <p>
        <table cellpadding="10">
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              <i><font color="#ff3434">sql-statement</font></i> ::=</td>
            <td>
              <b><font color="#2c2cf0">SELECT </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0">ALL </font></b>
              <big>|</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> DISTINCT</font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0">
              </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">result</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> </font>
              </b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0">FROM </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">table-list</font></i><b><font
                color="#2c2cf0"></font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"><br />
                </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0">WHERE </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">expr</font></i><b><font
                  color="#2c2cf0"></font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"><br />
                  </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0">GROUP BY </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">
                    expr-list</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"><br />
                    </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0">HAVING </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">expr</font></i><b><font
                      color="#2c2cf0"></font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"><br />
                      </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">compound-op</font></i><b><font
                        color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">select</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b>]<b><font
                          color="#2c2cf0"></font></b><big>*</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0"><br />
                          </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0">ORDER BY </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">
                            sort-expr-list</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"><br />
                            </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0">LIMIT </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">integer</font></i><b><font
                              color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b>(<b><font color="#2c2cf0">
                                OFFSET </font></b><big>|</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> <big>,</big> </font></b>
              )<b><font color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">integer</font></i><b><font
                color="#2c2cf0"></font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b></td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              <i><font color="#ff3434">result</font></i> ::=</td>
            <td>
              <b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">result-column</font></i><b><font
                color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0"><big>,</big> </font></b>
              <i><font color="#ff3434">result-column</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b>]<b><font
                color="#2c2cf0"></font></b><big>*</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b></td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              <i><font color="#ff3434">result-column</font></i> ::=</td>
            <td>
              <b><font color="#2c2cf0"><big>*</big> </font></b><big>|</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0">
              </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">table-name</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0">
                <big>.</big> <big>*</big> </font></b><big>|</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> </font>
                </b><i><font color="#ff3434">expr</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b>
              [<b><font color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0">AS</font></b>]<b><font
                color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">string</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0">
                </font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b></td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              <i><font color="#ff3434">table-list</font></i> ::=</td>
            <td>
              <b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">table</font></i><b><font
                color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">join-op</font></i><b><font
                  color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">table</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0">
                  </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">join-args</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b>]<b><font
                    color="#2c2cf0"></font></b><big>*</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b></td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              <i><font color="#ff3434">table</font></i> ::=</td>
            <td>
              <b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">table-name</font></i><b><font
                color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0">AS </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">
                  alias</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"> </font>
                  </b><big>|</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0"><br />
                    <big>(</big> </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">select</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0">
                      <big>)</big> </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0">AS </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">
                        alias</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b></td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              <i><font color="#ff3434">join-op</font></i> ::=</td>
            <td>
              <b><font color="#2c2cf0"><big>,</big> </font></b><big>|</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0">
              </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0">NATURAL</font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0">
              </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0">LEFT </font></b><big>|</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0">
                RIGHT </font></b><big>|</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> FULL</font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0">
                </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0">OUTER </font></b><big>|</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0">
                  INNER </font></b><big>|</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> CROSS</font></b>]<b><font
                    color="#2c2cf0"> JOIN</font></b></td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              <i><font color="#ff3434">join-args</font></i> ::=</td>
            <td>
              <b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0">ON </font></b><i><font
                color="#ff3434">expr</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0">
                </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0">USING <big>(</big> </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">
                  id-list</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> <big>)</big></font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b></td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              <i><font color="#ff3434">sort-expr-list</font></i> ::=</td>
            <td>
              <b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">expr</font></i><b><font
                color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">sort-order</font></i><b><font
                  color="#2c2cf0"></font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0"><big>,</big>
                  </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">expr</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> </font>
                  </b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">sort-order</font></i><b><font
                    color="#2c2cf0"></font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b><big>*</big><b><font
                      color="#2c2cf0"></font></b></td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              <i><font color="#ff3434">sort-order</font></i> ::=</td>
            <td>
              <b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0"> COLLATE </font></b>
              <i><font color="#ff3434">collation-name</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> </font>
              </b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0"> ASC </font></b>
              <big>|</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> DESC </font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b></td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              <i><font color="#ff3434">compound_op</font></i> ::=</td>
            <td>
              <b><font color="#2c2cf0">UNION </font></b><big>|</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> UNION
                ALL </font></b><big>|</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> INTERSECT </font></b><big>|</big><b><font
                  color="#2c2cf0"> EXCEPT</font></b></td>
          </tr>
        </table>
      </p>
      <p>
        The SELECT statement is used to query the database. The result of a SELECT is zero
        or more rows of data where each row has a fixed number of columns. The number of
        columns in the result is specified by the expression list in between the SELECT
        and FROM keywords. Any arbitrary expression can be used as a result. If a result
        expression is <font color="#2c2cf0"><big>*</big></font> then all columns of all
        tables are substituted for that one expression. If the expression is the name of
        a table followed by <font color="#2c2cf0"><big>.*</big></font> then the result is
        all columns in that one table.</p>
      <p>
        The DISTINCT keyword causes a subset of result rows to be returned, in which each
        result row is different. NULL values are not treated as distinct from each other.
        The default behavior is that all result rows be returned, which can be made explicit
        with the keyword ALL.</p>
      <p>
        The query is executed against one or more tables specified after the FROM keyword.
        If multiple tables names are separated by commas, then the query is against the
        cross join of the various tables. The full SQL-92 join syntax can also be used to
        specify joins. A sub-query in parentheses may be substituted for any table name
        in the FROM clause. The entire FROM clause may be omitted, in which case the result
        is a single row consisting of the values of the expression list.
      </p>
      <p>
        The WHERE clause can be used to limit the number of rows over which the query operates.</p>
      <p>
        The GROUP BY clauses causes one or more rows of the result to be combined into a
        single row of output. This is especially useful when the result contains aggregate
        functions. The expressions in the GROUP BY clause do <em>not</em> have to be expressions
        that appear in the result. The HAVING clause is similar to WHERE except that HAVING
        applies after grouping has occurred. The HAVING expression may refer to values,
        even aggregate functions, that are not in the result.</p>
      <p>
        The ORDER BY clause causes the output rows to be sorted. The argument to ORDER BY
        is a list of expressions that are used as the key for the sort. The expressions
        do not have to be part of the result for a simple SELECT, but in a compound SELECT
        each sort expression must exactly match one of the result columns. Each sort expression
        may be optionally followed by a COLLATE keyword and the name of a collating function
        used for ordering text and/or keywords ASC or DESC to specify the sort order.</p>
      <p>
        The LIMIT clause places an upper bound on the number of rows returned in the result.
        A negative LIMIT indicates no upper bound. The optional OFFSET following LIMIT specifies
        how many rows to skip at the beginning of the result set. In a compound query, the
        LIMIT clause may only appear on the final SELECT statement. The limit is applied
        to the entire query not to the individual SELECT statement to which it is attached.
        Note that if the OFFSET keyword is used in the LIMIT clause, then the limit is the
        first number and the offset is the second number. If a comma is used instead of
        the OFFSET keyword, then the offset is the first number and the limit is the second
        number. This seeming contradition is intentional - it maximizes compatibility with
        legacy SQL database systems.
      </p>
      <p>
        A compound SELECT is formed from two or more simple SELECTs connected by one of
        the operators UNION, UNION ALL, INTERSECT, or EXCEPT. In a compound SELECT, all
        the constituent SELECTs must specify the same number of result columns. There may
        be only a single ORDER BY clause at the end of the compound SELECT. The UNION and
        UNION ALL operators combine the results of the SELECTs to the right and left into
        a single big table. The difference is that in UNION all result rows are distinct
        where in UNION ALL there may be duplicates. The INTERSECT operator takes the intersection
        of the results of the left and right SELECTs. EXCEPT takes the result of left SELECT
        after removing the results of the right SELECT. When three or more SELECTs are connected
        into a compound, they group from left to right.</p>
      <p>
      <hr>
        &nbsp;</p>
      <div id="footer">
        <p>
          &nbsp;</p>
        <p>
        </p>
      </div>
    </div>
    </div>
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<html dir="LTR" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:MSHelp="http://msdn.microsoft.com/mshelp" xmlns:tool="http://www.microsoft.com/tooltip" xmlns:ndoc="urn:ndoc-preprocess">
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    <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=Windows-1252" />
    <title>TRANSACTIONS</title>
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      <table width="100%" id="topTable">
        <tr id="headerTableRow1">
          <td align="left">
            <span id="runningHeaderText">BEGIN TRANSACTION</span>&nbsp;</td>
        </tr>
        <tr id="headerTableRow2">
          <td align="left">
            <span id="nsrTitle">SQLite Language Reference Documentation</span>
          </td>
        </tr>
        <tr id="headerTableRow3" style="display:none">
          <td>
            <a id="seeAlsoSectionLink" href="#seeAlsoToggle" onclick="OpenSection(seeAlsoToggle)">See Also</a>
            <a id="exampleSectionLink" href="#codeExampleToggle" onclick="OpenSection(codeExampleToggle)">Example</a>
          </td>
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    </div>
    <div id="mainSection">
    <div id="mainBody">
      <h1 class="heading">
        SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1>
      <h4>
        BEGIN TRANSACTION</h4>
      <p>
        <table cellpadding="10">
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              <i><font color="#ff3434">sql-statement</font></i> ::=</td>
            <td>
              <b><font color="#2c2cf0">BEGIN </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0"> DEFERRED </font>
              </b><big>|</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> IMMEDIATE </font></b><big>|</big><b><font
                color="#2c2cf0"> EXCLUSIVE </font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b>[<b><font
                  color="#2c2cf0">TRANSACTION </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b><i><font
                    color="#ff3434">name</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b>]<b><font
                      color="#2c2cf0"></font></b></td>
          </tr>
        </table>
        <table cellpadding="10">
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              <i><font color="#ff3434">sql-statement</font></i> ::=</td>
            <td>
              <b><font color="#2c2cf0">END </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0">TRANSACTION </font>
              </b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">name</font></i><b><font
                color="#2c2cf0"></font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b></td>
          </tr>
        </table>
        <table cellpadding="10">
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              <i><font color="#ff3434">sql-statement</font></i> ::=</td>
            <td>
              <b><font color="#2c2cf0">COMMIT </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0">TRANSACTION </font>
              </b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">name</font></i><b><font
                color="#2c2cf0"></font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b></td>
          </tr>
        </table>
        <table cellpadding="10">
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              <i><font color="#ff3434">sql-statement</font></i> ::=</td>
            <td>
              <b><font color="#2c2cf0">ROLLBACK </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0">TRANSACTION
              </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">name</font></i><b><font
                color="#2c2cf0"></font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b></td>
          </tr>
        </table>
      </p>
      <p>
        Beginning in version 2.0, SQLite supports transactions with rollback and atomic
        commit.</p>
      <p>
        The optional transaction name is ignored. SQLite currently does not allow nested
        transactions.</p>
      <p>
        No changes can be made to the database except within a transaction. Any command
        that changes the database (basically, any SQL command
          other than SELECT) will automatically start a transaction if one is not already in effect. Automatically started transactions
        are committed at the conclusion of the command.
      </p>
      <p>
        Transactions can be started manually using the BEGIN command. Such transactions
        usually persist until the next COMMIT or ROLLBACK command. But a transaction will
        also ROLLBACK if the database is closed or if an error occurs and the ROLLBACK conflict
        resolution algorithm is specified. See the documentation on the <a href="lang_conflict.html">
          ON CONFLICT</a> clause for additional information about the ROLLBACK conflict
        resolution algorithm.
      </p>
      <p>
        In SQLite version 3.0.8 and later, transactions can be deferred, immediate, or exclusive.
        Deferred means that no locks are acquired on the database until the database is
        first accessed. Thus with a deferred transaction, the BEGIN statement itself does
        nothing. Locks are not acquired until the first read or write operation. The first
        read operation against a database creates a SHARED lock and the first write operation
        creates a RESERVED lock. Because the acquisition of locks is deferred until they
        are needed, it is possible that another thread or process could create a separate
        transaction and write to the database after the BEGIN on the current thread has
        executed. If the transaction is immediate, then RESERVED locks are acquired on all
        databases as soon as the BEGIN command is executed, without waiting for the database
        to be used. After a BEGIN IMMEDIATE, you are guaranteed that no other thread or
        process will be able to write to the database or do a BEGIN IMMEDIATE or BEGIN EXCLUSIVE.
        Other processes can continue to read from the database, however. An exclusive transaction
        causes EXCLUSIVE locks to be acquired on all databases. After a BEGIN EXCLUSIVE,
        you are guaranteed that no other thread or process will be able to read or write
        the database until the transaction is complete.
      </p>
      <p>
        A description of the meaning of SHARED, RESERVED, and EXCLUSIVE locks is available
        <a href="lockingv3.html">separately</a>.
      </p>
      <p>
        The default behavior for SQLite version 3.0.8 is a deferred transaction. For SQLite
        version 3.0.0 through 3.0.7, deferred is the only kind of transaction available.
        For SQLite version 2.8 and earlier, all transactions are exclusive.
      </p>
      <p>
        The COMMIT command does not actually perform a commit until all pending SQL commands
        finish. Thus if two or more SELECT statements are in the middle of processing and
        a COMMIT is executed, the commit will not actually occur until all SELECT statements
        finish.
      </p>
      <p>
        An attempt to execute COMMIT might result in an SQLITE_BUSY return code. This indicates
        that another thread or process had a read lock on the database that prevented the
        database from being updated. When COMMIT fails in this way, the transaction remains
        active and the COMMIT can be retried later after the reader has had a chance to
        clear.
      </p>
      <p>
      <hr>
        &nbsp;</p>
      <div id="footer">
        <p>
          &nbsp;</p>
        <p>
        </p>
      </div>
    </div>
    </div>
  </body>
</html>

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<html dir="LTR" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:MSHelp="http://msdn.microsoft.com/mshelp" xmlns:tool="http://www.microsoft.com/tooltip" xmlns:ndoc="urn:ndoc-preprocess">
  <head>
    <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=Windows-1252" />
    <title>UPDATE</title>
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    <div id="header">
      <table width="100%" id="topTable">
        <tr id="headerTableRow1">
          <td align="left">
            UPDATE&nbsp;</td>
        </tr>
        <tr id="headerTableRow2">
          <td align="left">
            <span id="nsrTitle">SQLite Language Reference Documentation</span>
          </td>
        </tr>
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          <td>
            <a id="seeAlsoSectionLink" href="#seeAlsoToggle" onclick="OpenSection(seeAlsoToggle)">See Also</a>
            <a id="exampleSectionLink" href="#codeExampleToggle" onclick="OpenSection(codeExampleToggle)">Example</a>
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    <div id="mainSection">
    <div id="mainBody">
      <h1 class="heading">
        SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1>
      <h4>
        UPDATE</h4>
      <p>
        <table cellpadding="10">
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              <i><font color="#ff3434">sql-statement</font></i> ::=</td>
            <td>
              <b><font color="#2c2cf0">UPDATE </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0"> OR </font></b>
              <i><font color="#ff3434">conflict-algorithm</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> </font>
              </b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b><i><font
                color="#ff3434">database-name</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> <big>.</big></font></b>]<b><font
                  color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">table-name</font></i><b><font
                    color="#2c2cf0"><br />
                    SET </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">assignment</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0">
                    </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0"><big>,</big> </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">
                      assignment</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b><big>*</big><b><font
                        color="#2c2cf0"><br />
                      </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0">WHERE </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">expr</font></i><b><font
                        color="#2c2cf0"></font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b></td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              <i><font color="#ff3434">assignment</font></i> ::=</td>
            <td>
              <b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">column-name</font></i><b><font
                color="#2c2cf0"> <big>=</big> </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">expr</font></i><b><font
                  color="#2c2cf0"></font></b></td>
          </tr>
        </table>
      </p>
      <p>
        The UPDATE statement is used to change the value of columns in selected rows of
        a table. Each assignment in an UPDATE specifies a column
        name to the left of the
        equals sign and an arbitrary expression to the right. The expressions may use the
        values of
          other columns. All expressions are evaluated before any assignments are
        made. A WHERE clause can be used to restrict which rows are updated.</p>
      <p>
        The optional conflict-clause allows the specification of an alternative constraint conflict resolution algorithm to use during this one command. See the section titled
        <a href="lang_conflict.html">ON CONFLICT</a> for additional information.</p>
      <p>
      <hr>
        &nbsp;</p>
      <div id="footer">
        <p>
          &nbsp;</p>
        <p>
        </p>
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            VACUUM&nbsp;</td>
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            <span id="nsrTitle">SQLite Language Reference Documentation</span>
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      <h1 class="heading">
        SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1>
      <h4>
        VACUUM</h4>
      <p>
        <table cellpadding="10">
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              <i><font color="#ff3434">sql-statement</font></i> ::=</td>
            <td>
              <b><font color="#2c2cf0">VACUUM </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b><i><font
                color="#ff3434">index-or-table-name</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b>]<b><font
                  color="#2c2cf0"></font></b></td>
          </tr>
        </table>
      </p>
      <p>
        The VACUUM command is an SQLite extension modeled after a similar command found
        in PostgreSQL. If VACUUM is invoked with the name of a table or index then it is
        suppose to clean up the named table or index. In version 1.0 of SQLite, the VACUUM
        command would invoke <b>gdbm_reorganize()</b> to clean up the backend database file.</p>
      <p>
        VACUUM became a no-op when the GDBM backend was removed from SQLITE in version 2.0.0.
        VACUUM was reimplemented in version 2.8.1. The index or table name argument is now
        ignored.
      </p>
      <p>
        When an object (table, index, or trigger) is dropped from the database, it leaves
        behind empty space. This makes the database file larger than it needs to be, but
        can speed up inserts. In time inserts and deletes can leave the database file structure
        fragmented, which slows down disk access to the database contents. The VACUUM command
        cleans the main database by copying its contents to a temporary database file and
        reloading the original database file from the copy. This eliminates free pages,
        aligns table data to be contiguous, and otherwise cleans up the database file structure.
        It is not possible to perform the same process on an attached database file.</p>
      <p>
        This command will fail if there is an active transaction. This command has no effect
        on an in-memory database.</p>
      <p>
        As of SQLite version 3.1, an alternative to using the VACUUM command is auto-vacuum
        mode, enabled using the <a href="pragma.html#pragma_auto_vacuum">auto_vacuum pragma</a>.</p>
      <p>
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        &nbsp;</p>
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            <span id="runningHeaderText">PRAGMA</span>&nbsp;</td>
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            <span id="nsrTitle">SQLite Language Reference Documentation</span>
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      <h1 class="heading">
        SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1>
      <h4>
        PRAGMA</h4>
      <p>
        The <a href="#syntax">PRAGMA command</a> is a special command used to modify the
        operation of the SQLite library or to query the library for internal (non-table)
        data. The PRAGMA command is issued using the same interface as other SQLite commands
        (e.g. SELECT, INSERT) but is different in the following important respects:
      </p>
      <ul>
        <li>Specific pragma statements may be removed and others added in future releases
          of SQLite. Use with caution! </li>
        <li>No error messages are generated if an unknown pragma is issued. Unknown pragmas
          are simply ignored. This means if there is a typo in a pragma statement the library
          does not inform the user of the fact. </li>
        <li>Some pragmas take effect during the SQL compilation stage, not the execution stage.
          This means if using the C-language sqlite3_compile(), sqlite3_step(), sqlite3_finalize()
          API (or similar in a wrapper interface), the pragma may be applied to the library
          during the sqlite3_compile() call. </li>
        <li>The pragma command is unlikely to be compatible with any other SQL engine. </li>
      </ul>
      <p>
        The available pragmas fall into four basic categories:</p>
      <ul>
        <li>Pragmas used to <a href="#schema">query the schema</a> of the current database.
        </li>
        <li>Pragmas used to <a href="#modify">modify the operation</a> of the SQLite library
          in some manner, or to query for the current mode of operation. </li>
        <li>Pragmas used to <a href="#version">query or modify the databases two version values</a>,
          the schema-version and the user-version. </li>
        <li>Pragmas used to <a href="#debug">debug the library</a> and verify that database
          files are not corrupted. </li>
      </ul>
      <hr />
      <a name="syntax"></a>
      <h1>
        PRAGMA command syntax</h1>
      <p>
        <table cellpadding="10">
          <tr>
            <td align="right" valign="top">
              <i><font color="#ff3434">sql-statement</font></i> ::=</td>
            <td>
              <b><font color="#2c2cf0">PRAGMA </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">name</font></i><b><font
                color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0">= </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">
                  value</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"> </font>
                  </b><big>|</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0"><br />
                    PRAGMA </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">function</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"><big>(</big></font></b><i><font
                      color="#ff3434">arg</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"><big>)</big></font></b></td>
          </tr>
        </table>
      </p>
      <p>
        The pragmas that take an integer <b><i>value</i></b> also accept symbolic names.
        The strings "<b>on</b>", "<b>true</b>", and "<b>yes</b>" are equivalent to <b>1</b>.
        The strings "<b>off</b>", "<b>false</b>", and "<b>no</b>" are equivalent to <b>0</b>.
        These strings are case- insensitive, and do not require quotes. An unrecognized
        string will be treated as <b>1</b>, and will not generate an error. When the <i>value</i>
        is returned it is as an integer.</p>
      <hr />
      <a name="modify"></a>
      <h1>
        Pragmas to modify library operation</h1>
      <ul>
        <a name="pragma_auto_vacuum"></a>
        <li>
          <p>
            <b>PRAGMA auto_vacuum;
              <br />
              PRAGMA auto_vacuum = </b><i>0 | 1</i><b>;</b></p>
          <p>
            Query or set the auto-vacuum flag in the database.</p>
          <p>
            Normally, when a transaction that deletes data from a database is committed, the
            database file remains the same size. Unused database file pages are marked as such
            and reused later on, when data is inserted into the database. In this mode the <a
              href="lang_vacuum.html">VACUUM</a> command is used to reclaim unused space.</p>
          <p>
            When the auto-vacuum flag is set, the database file shrinks when a transaction that
            deletes data is committed (The VACUUM command is not useful in a database with the
            auto-vacuum flag set). To support this functionality the database stores extra information
            internally, resulting in slightly larger database files than would otherwise be
            possible.</p>
          <p>
            It is only possible to modify the value of the auto-vacuum flag before any tables
            have been created in the database. No error message is returned if an attempt to
            modify the auto-vacuum flag is made after one or more tables have been created.
          </p>
          <a name="pragma_cache_size"></a></li>
        <li>
          <p>
            <b>PRAGMA cache_size;
              <br />
              PRAGMA cache_size = </b><i>Number-of-pages</i><b>;</b></p>
          <p>
            Query or change the maximum number of database disk pages that SQLite will hold
            in memory at once. Each page uses about 1.5K of memory. The default cache size is
            2000. If you are doing UPDATEs or DELETEs that change many rows of a database and
            you do not mind if SQLite uses more memory, you can increase the cache size for
            a possible speed improvement.</p>
          <p>
            When you change the cache size using the cache_size pragma, the change only endures
            for the current session. The cache size reverts to the default value when the database
            is closed and reopened. Use the <a href="#pragma_default_cache_size"><b>default_cache_size</b></a>
            pragma to check the cache size permanently.</p>
          <a name="pragma_case_sensitive_like"></a></li>
        <li>
          <p>
            <b>PRAGMA case_sensitive_like;
              <br />
              PRAGMA case_sensitive_like = </b><i>0 | 1</i><b>;</b></p>
          <p>
            The default behavior of the LIKE operator is to ignore case for latin1 characters.
            Hence, by default <b>'a' LIKE 'A'</b> is true. The case_sensitive_like pragma can
            be turned on to change this behavior. When case_sensitive_like is enabled, <b>'a'
              LIKE 'A'</b> is false but <b>'a' LIKE 'a'</b> is still true.</p>
          <a name="pragma_count_changes"></a></li>
        <li>
          <p>
            <b>PRAGMA count_changes;
              <br />
              PRAGMA count_changes = </b><i>0 | 1</i><b>;</b></p>
          <p>
            Query or change the count-changes flag. Normally, when the count-changes flag is
            not set, INSERT, UPDATE and DELETE statements return no data. When count-changes
            is set, each of these commands returns a single row of data consisting of one integer
            value - the number of rows inserted, modified or deleted by the command. The returned
            change count does not include any insertions, modifications or deletions performed
            by triggers.</p>
          <a name="pragma_default_cache_size"></a></li>
        <li>
          <p>
            <b>PRAGMA default_cache_size;
              <br />
              PRAGMA default_cache_size = </b><i>Number-of-pages</i><b>;</b></p>
          <p>
            Query or change the maximum number of database disk pages that SQLite will hold
            in memory at once. Each page uses 1K on disk and about 1.5K in memory. This pragma
            works like the <a href="#pragma_cache_size"><b>cache_size</b></a> pragma with the
            additional feature that it changes the cache size persistently. With this pragma,
            you can set the cache size once and that setting is retained and reused every time
            you reopen the database.</p>
          <a name="pragma_default_synchronous"></a></li>
        <li>
          <p>
            <b>PRAGMA default_synchronous;</b></p>
          <p>
            This pragma was available in version 2.8 but was removed in version 3.0. It is a
            dangerous pragma whose use is discouraged. To help dissuide users of version 2.8
            from employing this pragma, the documentation will not tell you what it does.</p>
          <a name="pragma_empty_result_callbacks"></a></li>
        <li>
          <p>
            <b>PRAGMA empty_result_callbacks;
              <br />
              PRAGMA empty_result_callbacks = </b><i>0 | 1</i><b>;</b></p>
          <p>
            Query or change the empty-result-callbacks flag.</p>
          <p>
            The empty-result-callbacks flag affects the sqlite3_exec API only. Normally, when
            the empty-result-callbacks flag is cleared, the callback function supplied to the
            sqlite3_exec() call is not invoked for commands that return zero rows of data. When
            empty-result-callbacks is set in this situation, the callback function is invoked
            exactly once, with the third parameter set to 0 (NULL). This is to enable programs
            that use the sqlite3_exec() API to retrieve column-names even when a query returns
            no data.
          </p>
          <a name="pragma_encoding"></a></li>
        <li>
          <p>
            <b>PRAGMA encoding;
              <br />
              PRAGMA encoding = "UTF-8";
              <br />
              PRAGMA encoding = "UTF-16";
              <br />
              PRAGMA encoding = "UTF-16le";
              <br />
              PRAGMA encoding = "UTF-16be";</b></p>
          <p>
            In first form, if the main database has already been created, then this pragma returns
            the text encoding used by the main database, one of "UTF-8", "UTF-16le" (little-endian
            UTF-16 encoding) or "UTF-16be" (big-endian UTF-16 encoding). If the main database
            has not already been created, then the value returned is the text encoding that
            will be used to create the main database, if it is created by this session.</p>
          <p>
            The second and subsequent forms of this pragma are only useful if the main database
            has not already been created. In this case the pragma sets the encoding that the
            main database will be created with if it is created by this session. The string
            "UTF-16" is interpreted as "UTF-16 encoding using native machine byte-ordering".
            If the second and subsequent forms are used after the database file has already
            been created, they have no effect and are silently ignored.</p>
          <p>
            Once an encoding has been set for a database, it cannot be changed.</p>
          <p>
            Databases created by the ATTACH command always use the same encoding as the main
            database.</p>
          <a name="pragma_full_column_names"></a></li>
        <li>
          <p>
            <b>PRAGMA full_column_names;
              <br />
              PRAGMA full_column_names = </b><i>0 | 1</i><b>;</b></p>
          <p>
            Query or change the full-column-names flag. This flag affects the way SQLite names
            columns of data returned by SELECT statements when the expression for the column
            is a table-column name or the wildcard "*". Normally, such result columns are named
            &lt;table-name/alias&gt;&lt;column-name&gt; if the SELECT statement joins two or
            more tables together, or simply &lt;column-name&gt; if the SELECT statement queries
            a single table. When the full-column-names flag is set, such columns are always
            named &lt;table-name/alias&gt; &lt;column-name&gt; regardless of whether or not
            a join is performed.
          </p>
          <p>
            If both the short-column-names and full-column-names are set, then the behaviour
            associated with the full-column-names flag is exhibited.
          </p>
          <a name="pragma_fullfsync"></a></li>
        <li>
          <p>
            <b>PRAGMA fullfsync
              <br />
              PRAGMA fullfsync = </b><i>0 | 1</i><b>;</b></p>
          <p>
            Query or change the fullfsync flag. This flag affects determines whether or not
            the F_FULLFSYNC syncing method is used on systems that support it. The default value
            is off. As of this writing (2006-02-10) only Mac OS X supports F_FULLFSYNC.
          </p>
          <a name="pragma_legacy_file_format"></a></li>
        <li>
          <p>
            <b>PRAGMA legacy_file_format;
              <br />
              PRAGMA legacy_file_format = <i>ON | OFF</i></b></p>
          <p>
            This pragma sets or queries the value of the legacy_file_format flag. When this
            flag is on, new SQLite databases are created in a file format that is readable and
            writable by all versions of SQLite going back to 3.0.0. When the flag is off, new
            databases are created using the latest file format which might to be readable or
            writable by older versions of SQLite.</p>
          <p>
            This flag only effects newly created databases. It has no effect on databases that
            already exists.</p>
          <a name="pragma_page_size"></a></li>
        <li>
          <p>
            <b>PRAGMA page_size;
              <br />
              PRAGMA page_size = </b><i>bytes</i><b>;</b></p>
          <p>
            Query or set the page-size of the database. The page-size may only be set if the
            database has not yet been created. The page size must be a power of two greater
            than or equal to 512 and less than or equal to 8192. The upper limit may be modified
            by setting the value of macro SQLITE_MAX_PAGE_SIZE during compilation. The maximum
            upper bound is 32768.
          </p>
          <a name="pragma_read_uncommitted"></a></li>
        <li>
          <p>
            <b>PRAGMA read_uncommitted;
              <br />
              PRAGMA read_uncommitted = </b><i>0 | 1</i><b>;</b></p>
          <p>
            Query, set, or clear READ UNCOMMITTED isolation. The default isolation level for
            SQLite is SERIALIZABLE. Any process or thread can select READ UNCOMMITTED isolation,
            but SERIALIZABLE will still be used except between connections that share a common
            page and schema cache. Cache sharing is enabled using the <a href="capi3ref.html#sqlite3_enable_shared_cache">
              sqlite3_enable_shared_cache()</a> API and is only available between connections
            running the same thread. Cache sharing is off by default.
          </p>
          <a name="pragma_short_column_names"></a></li>
        <li>
          <p>
            <b>PRAGMA short_column_names;
              <br />
              PRAGMA short_column_names = </b><i>0 | 1</i><b>;</b></p>
          <p>
            Query or change the short-column-names flag. This flag affects the way SQLite names
            columns of data returned by SELECT statements when the expression for the column
            is a table-column name or the wildcard "*". Normally, such result columns are named
            &lt;table-name/alias&gt;lt;column-name&gt; if the SELECT statement joins two or
            more tables together, or simply &lt;column-name&gt; if the SELECT statement queries
            a single table. When the short-column-names flag is set, such columns are always
            named &lt;column-name&gt; regardless of whether or not a join is performed.
          </p>
          <p>
            If both the short-column-names and full-column-names are set, then the behaviour
            associated with the full-column-names flag is exhibited.
          </p>
          <a name="pragma_synchronous"></a></li>
        <li>
          <p>
            <b>PRAGMA synchronous;
              <br />
              PRAGMA synchronous = FULL; </b>(2)<b>
                <br />
                PRAGMA synchronous = NORMAL; </b>(1)<b>
                  <br />
                  PRAGMA synchronous = OFF; </b>(0)</p>
          <p>
            Query or change the setting of the "synchronous" flag. The first (query) form will
            return the setting as an integer. When synchronous is FULL (2), the SQLite database
            engine will pause at critical moments to make sure that data has actually been written
            to the disk surface before continuing. This ensures that if the operating system
            crashes or if there is a power failure, the database will be uncorrupted after rebooting.
            FULL synchronous is very safe, but it is also slow. When synchronous is NORMAL,
            the SQLite database engine will still pause at the most critical moments, but less
            often than in FULL mode. There is a very small (though non-zero) chance that a power
            failure at just the wrong time could corrupt the database in NORMAL mode. But in
            practice, you are more likely to suffer a catastrophic disk failure or some other
            unrecoverable hardware fault. With synchronous OFF (0), SQLite continues without
            pausing as soon as it has handed data off to the operating system. If the application
            running SQLite crashes, the data will be safe, but the database might become corrupted
            if the operating system crashes or the computer loses power before that data has
            been written to the disk surface. On the other hand, some operations are as much
            as 50 or more times faster with synchronous OFF.
          </p>
          <p>
            In SQLite version 2, the default value is NORMAL. For version 3, the default was
            changed to FULL.
          </p>
          <a name="pragma_temp_store"></a></li>
        <li>
          <p>
            <b>PRAGMA temp_store;
              <br />
              PRAGMA temp_store = DEFAULT;</b> (0)<b>
                <br />
                PRAGMA temp_store = FILE;</b> (1)<b>
                  <br />
                  PRAGMA temp_store = MEMORY;</b> (2)</p>
          <p>
            Query or change the setting of the "<b>temp_store</b>" parameter. When temp_store
            is DEFAULT (0), the compile-time C preprocessor macro TEMP_STORE is used to determine
            where temporary tables and indices are stored. When temp_store is MEMORY (2) temporary
            tables and indices are kept in memory. When temp_store is FILE (1) temporary tables
            and indices are stored in a file. The <a href="#pragma_temp_store_directory">temp_store_directory</a>
            pragma can be used to specify the directory containing this file. <b>FILE</b> is
            specified. When the temp_store setting is changed, all existing temporary tables,
            indices, triggers, and views are immediately deleted.</p>
          <p>
            It is possible for the library compile-time C preprocessor symbol TEMP_STORE to
            override this pragma setting. The following table summarizes the interaction of
            the TEMP_STORE preprocessor macro and the temp_store pragma:</p>
          <blockquote>
            <table border="1" cellpadding="2">
              <tr>
                <th valign="bottom">
                  TEMP_STORE</th>
                <th valign="bottom">
                  PRAGMA<br />
                  temp_store</th>
                <th>
                  Storage used for<br />
                  TEMP tables and indices</th>
              </tr>
              <tr>
                <td align="middle">
                  0</td>
                <td align="middle">
                  <em>any</em></td>
                <td align="middle">
                  file</td>
              </tr>
              <tr>
                <td align="middle">
                  1</td>
                <td align="middle">
                  0</td>
                <td align="middle">
                  file</td>
              </tr>
              <tr>
                <td align="middle">
                  1</td>
                <td align="middle">
                  1</td>
                <td align="middle">
                  file</td>
              </tr>
              <tr>
                <td align="middle">
                  1</td>
                <td align="middle">
                  2</td>
                <td align="middle">
                  memory</td>
              </tr>
              <tr>
                <td align="middle">
                  2</td>
                <td align="middle">
                  0</td>
                <td align="middle">
                  memory</td>
              </tr>
              <tr>
                <td align="middle">
                  2</td>
                <td align="middle">
                  1</td>
                <td align="middle">
                  file</td>
              </tr>
              <tr>
                <td align="middle">
                  2</td>
                <td align="middle">
                  2</td>
                <td align="middle">
                  memory</td>
              </tr>
              <tr>
                <td align="middle">
                  3</td>
                <td align="middle">
                  <em>any</em></td>
                <td align="middle">
                  memory</td>
              </tr>
            </table>
          </blockquote>
          <br />
          <a name="pragma_temp_store_directory"></a></li>
        <li>
          <p>
            <b>PRAGMA temp_store_directory;
              <br />
              PRAGMA temp_store_directory = 'directory-name';</b></p>
          <p>
            Query or change the setting of the "temp_store_directory" - the directory where
            files used for storing temporary tables and indices are kept. This setting lasts
            for the duration of the current connection only and resets to its default value
            for each new connection opened.
          </p>
          <p>
            When the temp_store_directory setting is changed, all existing temporary tables,
            indices, triggers, and viewers are immediately deleted. In practice, temp_store_directory
            should be set immediately after the database is opened.
          </p>
          <p>
            The value <i>directory-name</i> should be enclosed in single quotes. To revert the
            directory to the default, set the <i>directory-name</i> to an empty string, e.g.,
            <i>PRAGMA temp_store_directory = ''</i>. An error is raised if <i>directory-name</i>
            is not found or is not writable.
          </p>
          <p>
            The default directory for temporary files depends on the OS. For Unix/Linux/OSX,
            the default is the is the first writable directory found in the list of: <b>/var/tmp,
              /usr/tmp, /tmp,</b> and <b><i>current-directory</i></b>. For Windows NT, the default
            directory is determined by Windows, generally <b>C:\Documents and Settings\<i>user-name</i>\Local
              Settings\Temp\</b>. Temporary files created by SQLite are unlinked immediately
            after opening, so that the operating system can automatically delete the files when
            the SQLite process exits. Thus, temporary files are not normally visible through
            <i>ls</i> or <i>dir</i> commands.</p>
        </li>
      </ul>
      <hr />
      <a name="schema"></a>
      <h1>
        Pragmas to query the database schema</h1>
      <ul>
        <a name="pragma_database_list"></a>
        <li>
          <p>
            <b>PRAGMA database_list;</b></p>
          <p>
            For each open database, invoke the callback function once with information about
            that database. Arguments include the index and the name the database was attached
            with. The first row will be for the main database. The second row will be for the
            database used to store temporary tables.</p>
          <a name="pragma_foreign_key_list"></a></li>
        <li>
          <p>
            <b>PRAGMA foreign_key_list(</b><i>table-name</i><b>);</b></p>
          <p>
            For each foreign key that references a column in the argument table, invoke the
            callback function with information about that foreign key. The callback function
            will be invoked once for each column in each foreign key.</p>
          <a name="pragma_index_info"></a></li>
        <li>
          <p>
            <b>PRAGMA index_info(</b><i>index-name</i><b>);</b></p>
          <p>
            For each column that the named index references, invoke the callback function once
            with information about that column, including the column name, and the column number.</p>
          <a name="pragma_index_list"></a></li>
        <li>
          <p>
            <b>PRAGMA index_list(</b><i>table-name</i><b>);</b></p>
          <p>
            For each index on the named table, invoke the callback function once with information
            about that index. Arguments include the index name and a flag to indicate whether
            or not the index must be unique.</p>
          <a name="pragma_table_info"></a></li>
        <li>
          <p>
            <b>PRAGMA table_info(</b><i>table-name</i><b>);</b></p>
          <p>
            For each column in the named table, invoke the callback function once with information
            about that column, including the column name, data type, whether or not the column
            can be NULL, and the default value for the column.</p>
        </li>
      </ul>
      <hr />
      <a name="version"></a>
      <h1>
        Pragmas to query/modify version values</h1>
      <ul>
        <a name="pragma_schema_version"></a><a name="pragma_user_version"></a>
        <li>
          <p>
            <b>PRAGMA [database.]schema_version;
              <br />
              PRAGMA [database.]schema_version = </b><i>integer </i><b>;
                <br />
                PRAGMA [database.]user_version;
                <br />
                PRAGMA [database.]user_version = </b><i>integer </i><b>;</b>
          </p>
          <p>
            The pragmas schema_version and user_version are used to set or get the value of
            the schema-version and user-version, respectively. Both the schema-version and the
            user-version are 32-bit signed integers stored in the database header.</p>
          <p>
            The schema-version is usually only manipulated internally by SQLite. It is incremented
            by SQLite whenever the database schema is modified (by creating or dropping a table
            or index). The schema version is used by SQLite each time a query is executed to
            ensure that the internal cache of the schema used when compiling the SQL query matches
            the schema of the database against which the compiled query is actually executed.
            Subverting this mechanism by using "PRAGMA schema_version" to modify the schema-version
            is potentially dangerous and may lead to program crashes or database corruption.
            Use with caution!</p>
          <p>
            The user-version is not used internally by SQLite. It may be used by applications
            for any purpose.</p>
        </li>
      </ul>
      <hr />
      <a name="debug"></a>
      <h1>
        Pragmas to debug the library</h1>
      <ul>
        <a name="pragma_integrity_check"></a>
        <li>
          <p>
            <b>PRAGMA integrity_check;</b></p>
          <p>
            The command does an integrity check of the entire database. It looks for out-of-order
            records, missing pages, malformed records, and corrupt indices. If any problems
            are found, then a single string is returned which is a description of all problems.
            If everything is in order, "ok" is returned.</p>
          <a name="pragma_parser_trace"></a></li>
        <li>
          <p>
            <b>PRAGMA parser_trace = ON; </b>(1)<b>
              <br />
              PRAGMA parser_trace = OFF;</b> (0)</p>
          <p>
            Turn tracing of the SQL parser inside of the SQLite library on and off. This is
            used for debugging. This only works if the library is compiled without the NDEBUG
            macro.
          </p>
          <a name="pragma_vdbe_trace"></a></li>
        <li>
          <p>
            <b>PRAGMA vdbe_trace = ON; </b>(1)<b>
              <br />
              PRAGMA vdbe_trace = OFF;</b> (0)</p>
          <p>
            Turn tracing of the virtual database engine inside of the SQLite library on and
            off. This is used for debugging. See the <a href="vdbe.html#trace">VDBE documentation</a>
            for more information.</p>
          <a name="pragma_vdbe_listing"></a></li>
        <li>
          <p>
            <b>PRAGMA vdbe_listing = ON; </b>(1)<b>
              <br />
              PRAGMA vdbe_listing = OFF;</b> (0)</p>
          <p>
            Turn listings of virtual machine programs on and off. With listing is on, the entire
            content of a program is printed just prior to beginning execution. This is like
            automatically executing an EXPLAIN prior to each statement. The statement executes
            normally after the listing is printed. This is used for debugging. See the <a href="vdbe.html#trace">
              VDBE documentation</a> for more information.</p>
        </li>
      </ul>
      <p>
      <hr>
        &nbsp;</p>
      <div id="footer">
        <p>
          &nbsp;</p>
        <p>
        </p>
      </div>
    </div>
    </div>
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            <span id="runningHeaderText">SQLite Query Syntax</span>&nbsp;</td>
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            <span id="nsrTitle">SQLite Language Reference Documentation</span>
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          <td>
            <a id="seeAlsoSectionLink" href="#seeAlsoToggle" onclick="OpenSection(seeAlsoToggle)">See Also</a>
            <a id="exampleSectionLink" href="#codeExampleToggle" onclick="OpenSection(codeExampleToggle)">Example</a>
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      <h1 class="heading">
        SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1>
      <p>
        The SQLite library understands most of the standard SQL language. But it does omit
        some features while at the same time adding a few features of its own. This document
        attempts to describe precisely what parts of the SQL language SQLite does and does
        not support. A list of keywords is also provided. In all of the syntax diagrams
        that follow, literal text is shown in bold blue. Non-terminal symbols are shown
        in italic red. Operators that are part of the syntactic markup itself are shown
        in black roman. This document is just an overview of the SQL syntax implemented
        by SQLite.
      </p>
      <h4>
        SQLite implements the follow syntax:</h4>
      <p>
        <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" style="border-collapse: collapse">
          <tr>
            <td>
              <a href="lang_altertable.html">
              ALTER TABLE</a></td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td>
              <a href="lang_analyze.html">
              ANALYZE</a></td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td style="height: 19px">
              <a href="lang_attach.html">
              ATTACH DATABASE</a></td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td>
              <a href="lang_transaction.html">
              BEGIN TRANSACTION</a></td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td>
              <a href="lang_comment.html">
              comment</a></td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td>
              <a href="lang_transaction.html">
              COMMIT TRANSACTION</a></td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td>
              <a href="lang_createindex.html">CREATE INDEX</a></td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td>
              <a href="lang_createtable.html">CREATE TABLE</a></td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td>
              <a href="lang_createtrigger.html">CREATE TRIGGER</a></td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td>
              <a href="lang_createview.html">CREATE VIEW</a></td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td>
              <a href="lang_createvtab.html">
              CREATE VIRTUAL TABLE</a></td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td>
              <a href="lang_delete.html">
              DELETE</a></td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td>
              <a href="lang_detach.html">
              DETACH DATABASE</a></td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td>
              <a href="lang_dropindex.html">DROP INDEX</a></td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td>
              <a href="lang_droptable.html">DROP TABLE</a></td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td>
              <a href="lang_droptrigger.html">DROP TRIGGER</a></td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td>
              <a href="lang_dropview.html">DROP VIEW</a></td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td>
              <a href="lang_transaction.html">
              END TRANSACTION</a></td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td>
              <a href="lang_explain.html">
              EXPLAIN</a></td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td>
              <a href="lang_expr.html">
              expression</a></td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td>
              <a href="lang_insert.html">
              INSERT</a></td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td>
              <a href="lang_conflict.html">
              ON CONFLICT clause</a></td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td style="height: 19px">
              <a href="pragma.html">
              PRAGMA</a></td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td>
              <a href="lang_reindex.html">
              REINDEX</a></td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td>
              <a href="lang_replace.html">
              REPLACE</a></td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td>
              <a href="lang_transaction.html">
              ROLLBACK TRANSACTION</a></td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td>
              <a href="lang_select.html">
              SELECT</a></td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td>
              <a href="lang_update.html">
              UPDATE</a></td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td>
              <a href="lang_vacuum.html">
              VACUUM</a></td>
          </tr>
        </table>
      </p>
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          &nbsp;</p>
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