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Comment:Update the included core library documentation.
Downloads: Tarball | ZIP archive | SQL archive
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SHA1: b57c9d07fcc31ced5ffd36bd03ec6a2af524791c
User & Date: mistachkin 2015-10-17 21:09:39
Context
2015-10-18
00:18
Move the ISQLiteNativeModule interface to its own file. check-in: b233d0f72d user: mistachkin tags: trunk
2015-10-17
21:09
Update the included core library documentation. check-in: b57c9d07fc user: mistachkin tags: trunk
2015-10-16
20:36
Update SQLite core library to the 3.9.1 release. Update version history docs. check-in: ca9e4bc86f user: mistachkin tags: trunk
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<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>ALTER TABLE</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/alter-table-stmt.html">alter-table-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x737' onclick='hideorshow("x737","x738")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x738'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram alter-table-stmt" src="images/syntax/alter-table-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/column-def.html">column-def:</a></b>
<button id='x739' onclick='hideorshow("x739","x740")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x740' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram column-def" src="images/syntax/column-def.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/column-constraint.html">column-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x741' onclick='hideorshow("x741","x742")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x742' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram column-constraint" src="images/syntax/column-constraint.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/conflict-clause.html">conflict-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x743' onclick='hideorshow("x743","x744")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x744' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram conflict-clause" src="images/syntax/conflict-clause.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
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 <blockquote id='x746' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x747' onclick='hideorshow("x747","x748")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x748' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x749' onclick='hideorshow("x749","x750")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x750' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
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 <blockquote id='x752' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
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 <blockquote id='x754' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x755' onclick='hideorshow("x755","x756")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x756' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x757' onclick='hideorshow("x757","x758")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x758' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x759' onclick='hideorshow("x759","x760")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x760' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x761' onclick='hideorshow("x761","x762")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x762' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x763' onclick='hideorshow("x763","x764")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x764' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x765' onclick='hideorshow("x765","x766")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x766' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
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</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/foreign-key-clause.html">foreign-key-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x767' onclick='hideorshow("x767","x768")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x768' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram foreign-key-clause" src="images/syntax/foreign-key-clause.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x769' onclick='hideorshow("x769","x770")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x770' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x771' onclick='hideorshow("x771","x772")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x772' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x773' onclick='hideorshow("x773","x774")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x774' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x775' onclick='hideorshow("x775","x776")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x776' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>


<p>SQLite supports a limited subset of ALTER TABLE.
The ALTER TABLE command in SQLite allows the user to rename a table
or to add a new column to an existing table.
</p>

<p> The RENAME TO syntax is used to rename the table identified by 
<i>&#91;database-name.&#93;table-name</i> to <i>new-table-name</i>.
This command 
cannot be used to move a table between attached databases, only to rename 
a table within the same database.</p>

<p> If the table being renamed has triggers or indices, then these remain
attached to the table after it has been renamed.  However, if there are
any view definitions, or statements executed by triggers that refer to







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<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>ALTER TABLE</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/alter-table-stmt.html">alter-table-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x739' onclick='hideorshow("x739","x740")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x740'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram alter-table-stmt" src="images/syntax/alter-table-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/column-def.html">column-def:</a></b>
<button id='x741' onclick='hideorshow("x741","x742")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x742' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram column-def" src="images/syntax/column-def.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/column-constraint.html">column-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x743' onclick='hideorshow("x743","x744")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x744' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram column-constraint" src="images/syntax/column-constraint.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/conflict-clause.html">conflict-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x745' onclick='hideorshow("x745","x746")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x746' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram conflict-clause" src="images/syntax/conflict-clause.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x747' onclick='hideorshow("x747","x748")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x748' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x749' onclick='hideorshow("x749","x750")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x750' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x751' onclick='hideorshow("x751","x752")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x752' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x753' onclick='hideorshow("x753","x754")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x754' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x755' onclick='hideorshow("x755","x756")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x756' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x757' onclick='hideorshow("x757","x758")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x758' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x759' onclick='hideorshow("x759","x760")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x760' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x761' onclick='hideorshow("x761","x762")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x762' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x763' onclick='hideorshow("x763","x764")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x764' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x765' onclick='hideorshow("x765","x766")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x766' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x767' onclick='hideorshow("x767","x768")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x768' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/foreign-key-clause.html">foreign-key-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x769' onclick='hideorshow("x769","x770")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x770' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram foreign-key-clause" src="images/syntax/foreign-key-clause.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x771' onclick='hideorshow("x771","x772")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x772' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x773' onclick='hideorshow("x773","x774")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x774' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x775' onclick='hideorshow("x775","x776")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x776' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x777' onclick='hideorshow("x777","x778")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x778' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>


<p>SQLite supports a limited subset of ALTER TABLE.
The ALTER TABLE command in SQLite allows the user to rename a table
or to add a new column to an existing table.
</p>

<p> The RENAME TO syntax changes the name of <span class='yyterm'>table-name</span>
to <span class='yyterm'>new-table-name</span>.
This command 
cannot be used to move a table between attached databases, only to rename 
a table within the same database.</p>

<p> If the table being renamed has triggers or indices, then these remain
attached to the table after it has been renamed.  However, if there are
any view definitions, or statements executed by triggers that refer to

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<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>ANALYZE</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/analyze-stmt.html">analyze-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x777' onclick='hideorshow("x777","x778")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x778'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram analyze-stmt" src="images/syntax/analyze-stmt.gif" />
</blockquote>


<p> The ANALYZE command gathers statistics about tables and
indices and stores the collected information
in <a href="fileformat2.html#intschema">internal tables</a> of the database where the query optimizer can
access the information and use it to help make better query planning choices.
If no arguments are given, all attached databases are
analyzed.  If a database name is given as the argument, then all tables
and indices in that one database are analyzed.  
If the argument is a table name, then only that table and the
indices associated with that table are analyzed.  If the argument
is an index name, then only that one index is analyzed.</p>

<p> The default implementation stores all statistics in a single
table named "<a href="fileformat2.html#stat1tab">sqlite_stat1</a>".  If SQLite is compiled with the







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<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>ANALYZE</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/analyze-stmt.html">analyze-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x779' onclick='hideorshow("x779","x780")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x780'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram analyze-stmt" src="images/syntax/analyze-stmt.gif" />
</blockquote>


<p> The ANALYZE command gathers statistics about tables and
indices and stores the collected information
in <a href="fileformat2.html#intschema">internal tables</a> of the database where the query optimizer can
access the information and use it to help make better query planning choices.
If no arguments are given, all attached databases are
analyzed.  If a schema name is given as the argument, then all tables
and indices in that one database are analyzed.  
If the argument is a table name, then only that table and the
indices associated with that table are analyzed.  If the argument
is an index name, then only that one index is analyzed.</p>

<p> The default implementation stores all statistics in a single
table named "<a href="fileformat2.html#stat1tab">sqlite_stat1</a>".  If SQLite is compiled with the

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<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>ATTACH DATABASE</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/attach-stmt.html">attach-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x779' onclick='hideorshow("x779","x780")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x780'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram attach-stmt" src="images/syntax/attach-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x781' onclick='hideorshow("x781","x782")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x782' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x783' onclick='hideorshow("x783","x784")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x784' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x785' onclick='hideorshow("x785","x786")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x786' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x787' onclick='hideorshow("x787","x788")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x788' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x789' onclick='hideorshow("x789","x790")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x790' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x791' onclick='hideorshow("x791","x792")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x792' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x793' onclick='hideorshow("x793","x794")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x794' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x795' onclick='hideorshow("x795","x796")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x796' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x797' onclick='hideorshow("x797","x798")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x798' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x799' onclick='hideorshow("x799","x800")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x800' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x801' onclick='hideorshow("x801","x802")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x802' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x803' onclick='hideorshow("x803","x804")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x804' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x805' onclick='hideorshow("x805","x806")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x806' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x807' onclick='hideorshow("x807","x808")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x808' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>


................................................................................
The filename argument can be a <a href="uri.html">URI filename</a> if URI filename processing
is enable on the database connection.  The default behavior is for
URI filenames to be disabled, however that might change in a future release
of SQLite, so application developers are advised to plan accordingly.

<p>The name that occurs after the AS keyword is the name of the database
used internally by SQLite.
The database-names 'main' and 
'temp' refer to the main database and the database used for 
temporary tables.  The main and temp databases cannot be attached or
detached.</p>

<p> Tables in an attached database can be referred to using the syntax 
<i>database-name.table-name</i>.  If the name of the table is unique
across all attached databases and the main and temp databases, then the
<i>database-name</i> prefix is not required.  If two or more tables in
different databases have the same name and the 
<i>database-name</i> prefix is not used on a table reference, then the
table chosen is the one in the database that was least recently attached.</p>

<p>
Transactions involving multiple attached databases are atomic,
assuming that the main database is not "<a href="inmemorydb.html">:memory:</a>" and the 
<a href="pragma.html#pragma_journal_mode">journal_mode</a> is not <a href="wal.html">WAL</a>.  If the main
database is ":memory:" or if the journal_mode is WAL, then 







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.yyterm {
  background: #fff;
  border: 1px solid #000;
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  padding-left: 4px;
  padding-right: 4px;
}
</style>
  
</head>
<body>
<div><!-- container div to satisfy validator -->

<a href="index.html">
................................................................................
    </form>
    </div>
  </table>

<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>ATTACH DATABASE</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/attach-stmt.html">attach-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x781' onclick='hideorshow("x781","x782")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x782'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram attach-stmt" src="images/syntax/attach-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x783' onclick='hideorshow("x783","x784")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x784' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x785' onclick='hideorshow("x785","x786")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x786' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x787' onclick='hideorshow("x787","x788")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x788' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x789' onclick='hideorshow("x789","x790")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x790' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x791' onclick='hideorshow("x791","x792")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x792' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x793' onclick='hideorshow("x793","x794")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x794' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x795' onclick='hideorshow("x795","x796")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x796' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x797' onclick='hideorshow("x797","x798")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x798' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x799' onclick='hideorshow("x799","x800")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x800' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x801' onclick='hideorshow("x801","x802")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x802' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x803' onclick='hideorshow("x803","x804")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x804' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x805' onclick='hideorshow("x805","x806")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x806' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x807' onclick='hideorshow("x807","x808")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x808' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x809' onclick='hideorshow("x809","x810")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x810' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>


................................................................................
The filename argument can be a <a href="uri.html">URI filename</a> if URI filename processing
is enable on the database connection.  The default behavior is for
URI filenames to be disabled, however that might change in a future release
of SQLite, so application developers are advised to plan accordingly.

<p>The name that occurs after the AS keyword is the name of the database
used internally by SQLite.
The schema-names 'main' and 
'temp' refer to the main database and the database used for 
temporary tables.  The main and temp databases cannot be attached or
detached.</p>

<p> Tables in an attached database can be referred to using the syntax 
<i>schema-name.table-name</i>.  If the name of the table is unique
across all attached databases and the main and temp databases, then the
<i>schema-name</i> prefix is not required.  If two or more tables in
different databases have the same name and the 
<i>schema-name</i> prefix is not used on a table reference, then the
table chosen is the one in the database that was least recently attached.</p>

<p>
Transactions involving multiple attached databases are atomic,
assuming that the main database is not "<a href="inmemorydb.html">:memory:</a>" and the 
<a href="pragma.html#pragma_journal_mode">journal_mode</a> is not <a href="wal.html">WAL</a>.  If the main
database is ":memory:" or if the journal_mode is WAL, then 

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</style>
  
</head>
<body>
<div><!-- container div to satisfy validator -->

<a href="index.html">
................................................................................
    </form>
    </div>
  </table>

<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>comment</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/comment-syntax.html">comment-syntax:</a></b>
<button id='x821' onclick='hideorshow("x821","x822")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x822'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram comment-syntax" src="images/syntax/comment-syntax.gif" />
</blockquote>


<p>Comments are not SQL commands, but can occur within the text of
SQL queries passed to <a href="c3ref/prepare.html">sqlite3_prepare_v2()</a> and related interfaces.
Comments are treated as whitespace by the parser.







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<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>comment</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/comment-syntax.html">comment-syntax:</a></b>
<button id='x823' onclick='hideorshow("x823","x824")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x824'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram comment-syntax" src="images/syntax/comment-syntax.gif" />
</blockquote>


<p>Comments are not SQL commands, but can occur within the text of
SQL queries passed to <a href="c3ref/prepare.html">sqlite3_prepare_v2()</a> and related interfaces.
Comments are treated as whitespace by the parser.

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<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>ON CONFLICT clause</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/conflict-clause.html">conflict-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1133' onclick='hideorshow("x1133","x1134")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1134'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram conflict-clause" src="images/syntax/conflict-clause.gif" />
</blockquote>


<p>The ON CONFLICT clause is not a separate SQL command.  It is a
non-standard clause that can appear in many other SQL commands.
It is given its own section in this document because it is not







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<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>ON CONFLICT clause</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/conflict-clause.html">conflict-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1135' onclick='hideorshow("x1135","x1136")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1136'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram conflict-clause" src="images/syntax/conflict-clause.gif" />
</blockquote>


<p>The ON CONFLICT clause is not a separate SQL command.  It is a
non-standard clause that can appear in many other SQL commands.
It is given its own section in this document because it is not

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<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>Core Functions</h2>

<p>The core functions shown below are available by default. 
<a href="lang_datefunc.html">Date &amp; Time functions</a> and
<a href="lang_aggfunc.html">aggregate functions</a> are documented separately.  An

application may define additional
functions written in C and added to the database engine using
the <a href="c3ref/create_function.html">sqlite3_create_function()</a> API.</p>

<table border=0 cellpadding=10>
<tr><td valign="top" align="right" width="120"><a name="abs"></a>
abs(<i>X</i>)</td><td valign="top">
................................................................................
  is the name of a compile-time option, this routine returns true (1) or
  false (0) depending on whether or not that option was used during the
  build.
</td></tr><tr><td valign="top" align="right" width="120"><a name="sqlite_source_id"></a>
sqlite_source_id()</td><td valign="top">
  The sqlite_source_id() function returns a string that identifies the
  specific version of the source code that was used to build the SQLite
  library.  The string returned by sqlite_source_id() begins with
  the date and time that the source code was checked in and is follows by
  an SHA1 hash that uniquely identifies the source tree.  This function is
  an SQL wrapper around the <a href="c3ref/libversion.html">sqlite3_sourceid()</a> C interface.
</td></tr><tr><td valign="top" align="right" width="120"><a name="sqlite_version"></a>
sqlite_version()</td><td valign="top">
  The sqlite_version() function returns the version string for the SQLite
  library that is running.  This function is an SQL
  wrapper around the <a href="c3ref/libversion.html">sqlite3_libversion()</a> C-interface.
</td></tr><tr><td valign="top" align="right" width="120"><a name="substr"></a>







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<div><!-- container div to satisfy validator -->

<a href="index.html">
................................................................................
  </table>

<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>Core Functions</h2>

<p>The core functions shown below are available by default. 
<a href="lang_datefunc.html">Date &amp; Time functions</a>,
<a href="lang_aggfunc.html">aggregate functions</a>, and
<a href="json1.html">JSON functions</a> are documented separately.  An
application may define additional
functions written in C and added to the database engine using
the <a href="c3ref/create_function.html">sqlite3_create_function()</a> API.</p>

<table border=0 cellpadding=10>
<tr><td valign="top" align="right" width="120"><a name="abs"></a>
abs(<i>X</i>)</td><td valign="top">
................................................................................
  is the name of a compile-time option, this routine returns true (1) or
  false (0) depending on whether or not that option was used during the
  build.
</td></tr><tr><td valign="top" align="right" width="120"><a name="sqlite_source_id"></a>
sqlite_source_id()</td><td valign="top">
  The sqlite_source_id() function returns a string that identifies the
  specific version of the source code that was used to build the SQLite
  library.  The string returned by sqlite_source_id() is
  the date and time that the source code was checked in followed by
  the SHA1 hash for that check-in.  This function is
  an SQL wrapper around the <a href="c3ref/libversion.html">sqlite3_sourceid()</a> C interface.
</td></tr><tr><td valign="top" align="right" width="120"><a name="sqlite_version"></a>
sqlite_version()</td><td valign="top">
  The sqlite_version() function returns the version string for the SQLite
  library that is running.  This function is an SQL
  wrapper around the <a href="c3ref/libversion.html">sqlite3_libversion()</a> C-interface.
</td></tr><tr><td valign="top" align="right" width="120"><a name="substr"></a>

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</style>
  
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  </table>

<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>CREATE INDEX</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/create-index-stmt.html">create-index-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x823' onclick='hideorshow("x823","x824")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x824'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram create-index-stmt" src="images/syntax/create-index-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x825' onclick='hideorshow("x825","x826")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x826' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x827' onclick='hideorshow("x827","x828")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x828' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x829' onclick='hideorshow("x829","x830")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x830' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x831' onclick='hideorshow("x831","x832")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x832' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x833' onclick='hideorshow("x833","x834")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x834' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x835' onclick='hideorshow("x835","x836")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x836' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x837' onclick='hideorshow("x837","x838")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x838' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x839' onclick='hideorshow("x839","x840")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x840' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x841' onclick='hideorshow("x841","x842")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x842' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x843' onclick='hideorshow("x843","x844")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x844' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x845' onclick='hideorshow("x845","x846")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x846' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x847' onclick='hideorshow("x847","x848")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x848' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x849' onclick='hideorshow("x849","x850")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x850' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x851' onclick='hideorshow("x851","x852")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x852' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/indexed-column.html">indexed-column:</a></b>
<button id='x853' onclick='hideorshow("x853","x854")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x854' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram indexed-column" src="images/syntax/indexed-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>


<p>The CREATE INDEX command consists of the keywords "CREATE INDEX" followed
by the name of the new index, the keyword "ON", the name of a previously
created table that is to be indexed, and a parenthesized list of names of
columns in the table that are used for the index key.
If the optional WHERE clause is included, then the index is a "<a href="partialindex.html">partial index</a>".
</p>

<a name="descidx"></a>


<p>Each column name can be followed by one of the "ASC" or "DESC" keywords
to indicate sort order.  The sort order may or may not be ignored depending
on the database file format, and in particular the <a href="fileformat2.html#schemaformat">schema format number</a>.
The "legacy" schema format (1) ignores index
sort order.  The descending index schema format (4) takes index sort order
into account.  Only versions of SQLite 3.3.0 and later are able to understand
the descending index format. For compatibility, version of SQLite between 3.3.0
and 3.7.9 use the legacy schema format by default.  The newer schema format is
used by default in version 3.7.10 and later.
The <a href="pragma.html#pragma_legacy_file_format">legacy_file_format pragma</a> can be used to change set the specific
behavior for any version of SQLite.</p>

<p>The COLLATE clause optionally following each column name defines a

collating sequence used for text entries in that column.
The default collating
sequence is the collating sequence defined for that column in the
<a href="lang_createtable.html">CREATE TABLE</a> statement.  Or if no collating sequence is otherwise defined,
the built-in BINARY collating sequence is used.</p>













<p>There are no arbitrary limits on the number of indices that can be
attached to a single table.  The number of columns in an index is 
limited to the value set by
<a href="c3ref/limit.html">sqlite3_limit</a>(<a href="c3ref/c_limit_attached.html#sqlitelimitcolumn">SQLITE_LIMIT_COLUMN</a>,...).</p>

<a name="uniqueidx"></a>








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.fancy li p { margin: 1em 0 }
/* End of "fancyformat" specific rules. */

.yyterm {
  background: #fff;
  border: 1px solid #000;
  border-radius: 11px;
  padding-left: 4px;
  padding-right: 4px;
}
</style>
  
</head>
<body>
<div><!-- container div to satisfy validator -->

<a href="index.html">
................................................................................
    </form>
    </div>
  </table>

<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>CREATE INDEX</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/create-index-stmt.html">create-index-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x825' onclick='hideorshow("x825","x826")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x826'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram create-index-stmt" src="images/syntax/create-index-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x827' onclick='hideorshow("x827","x828")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x828' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x829' onclick='hideorshow("x829","x830")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x830' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x831' onclick='hideorshow("x831","x832")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x832' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x833' onclick='hideorshow("x833","x834")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x834' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x835' onclick='hideorshow("x835","x836")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x836' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x837' onclick='hideorshow("x837","x838")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x838' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x839' onclick='hideorshow("x839","x840")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x840' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x841' onclick='hideorshow("x841","x842")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x842' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x843' onclick='hideorshow("x843","x844")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x844' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x845' onclick='hideorshow("x845","x846")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x846' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x847' onclick='hideorshow("x847","x848")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x848' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x849' onclick='hideorshow("x849","x850")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x850' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x851' onclick='hideorshow("x851","x852")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x852' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x853' onclick='hideorshow("x853","x854")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x854' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/indexed-column.html">indexed-column:</a></b>
<button id='x855' onclick='hideorshow("x855","x856")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x856' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram indexed-column" src="images/syntax/indexed-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>


<p>The CREATE INDEX command consists of the keywords "CREATE INDEX" followed
by the name of the new index, the keyword "ON", the name of a previously
created table that is to be indexed, and a parenthesized list of table column
names and/or expressions that are used for the index key.
If the optional WHERE clause is included, then the index is a "<a href="partialindex.html">partial index</a>".
</p>

<a name="descidx"></a>

<p>Each column name or expression can be followed by one
of the "ASC" or "DESC" keywords to indicate sort order.
The sort order may or may not be ignored depending
on the database file format, and in particular the <a href="fileformat2.html#schemaformat">schema format number</a>.
The "legacy" schema format (1) ignores index
sort order.  The descending index schema format (4) takes index sort order
into account.  Only versions of SQLite 3.3.0 and later are able to understand
the descending index format. For compatibility, version of SQLite between 3.3.0
and 3.7.9 use the legacy schema format by default.  The newer schema format is
used by default in version 3.7.10 and later.
The <a href="pragma.html#pragma_legacy_file_format">legacy_file_format pragma</a> can be used to change set the specific
behavior for any version of SQLite.</p>

<p>The COLLATE clause optionally following each column name
or expression defines a
collating sequence used for text entries in that column.
The default collating
sequence is the collating sequence defined for that column in the
<a href="lang_createtable.html">CREATE TABLE</a> statement.  Or if no collating sequence is otherwise defined,
the built-in BINARY collating sequence is used.</p>

<a name="indexexpr"></a>

<p>Expressions in an index may not reference other tables
and may not use subqueries nor functions whose result might
change (ex: <a href="lang_corefunc.html#random">random()</a> or <a href="lang_corefunc.html#sqlite_version">sqlite_version()</a>).
Expressions in an index may only refer to columns in the table
that is being indexed.
Indexes on expression will not work with versions of SQLite prior
to <a href="releaselog/3_9_0.html">version 3.9.0</a>.
See the <a href="expridx.html">Indexes On Expressions</a> document for additional information
about using general expressions in CREATE INDEX statements.

<p>There are no arbitrary limits on the number of indices that can be
attached to a single table.  The number of columns in an index is 
limited to the value set by
<a href="c3ref/limit.html">sqlite3_limit</a>(<a href="c3ref/c_limit_attached.html#sqlitelimitcolumn">SQLITE_LIMIT_COLUMN</a>,...).</p>

<a name="uniqueidx"></a>

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<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>CREATE TABLE</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/create-table-stmt.html">create-table-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x855' onclick='hideorshow("x855","x856")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x856'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram create-table-stmt" src="images/syntax/create-table-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/column-def.html">column-def:</a></b>
<button id='x857' onclick='hideorshow("x857","x858")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x858' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram column-def" src="images/syntax/column-def.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/column-constraint.html">column-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x859' onclick='hideorshow("x859","x860")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x860' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram column-constraint" src="images/syntax/column-constraint.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/conflict-clause.html">conflict-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x861' onclick='hideorshow("x861","x862")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x862' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram conflict-clause" src="images/syntax/conflict-clause.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x863' onclick='hideorshow("x863","x864")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x864' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x865' onclick='hideorshow("x865","x866")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x866' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/foreign-key-clause.html">foreign-key-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x867' onclick='hideorshow("x867","x868")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x868' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram foreign-key-clause" src="images/syntax/foreign-key-clause.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x869' onclick='hideorshow("x869","x870")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x870' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x871' onclick='hideorshow("x871","x872")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x872' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x873' onclick='hideorshow("x873","x874")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x874' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x875' onclick='hideorshow("x875","x876")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x876' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x877' onclick='hideorshow("x877","x878")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x878' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x879' onclick='hideorshow("x879","x880")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x880' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x881' onclick='hideorshow("x881","x882")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x882' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x883' onclick='hideorshow("x883","x884")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x884' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x885' onclick='hideorshow("x885","x886")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x886' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x887' onclick='hideorshow("x887","x888")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x888' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x889' onclick='hideorshow("x889","x890")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x890' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x891' onclick='hideorshow("x891","x892")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x892' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x893' onclick='hideorshow("x893","x894")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x894' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x895' onclick='hideorshow("x895","x896")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x896' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x897' onclick='hideorshow("x897","x898")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x898' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x899' onclick='hideorshow("x899","x900")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x900' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x901' onclick='hideorshow("x901","x902")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x902' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x903' onclick='hideorshow("x903","x904")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x904' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-constraint.html">table-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x905' onclick='hideorshow("x905","x906")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x906' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-constraint" src="images/syntax/table-constraint.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/conflict-clause.html">conflict-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x907' onclick='hideorshow("x907","x908")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x908' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram conflict-clause" src="images/syntax/conflict-clause.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x909' onclick='hideorshow("x909","x910")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x910' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x911' onclick='hideorshow("x911","x912")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x912' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x913' onclick='hideorshow("x913","x914")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x914' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x915' onclick='hideorshow("x915","x916")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x916' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x917' onclick='hideorshow("x917","x918")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x918' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/foreign-key-clause.html">foreign-key-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x919' onclick='hideorshow("x919","x920")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x920' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram foreign-key-clause" src="images/syntax/foreign-key-clause.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/indexed-column.html">indexed-column:</a></b>
<button id='x921' onclick='hideorshow("x921","x922")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x922' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram indexed-column" src="images/syntax/indexed-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>


<p>The "CREATE TABLE" command is used to create a new table in an SQLite 
................................................................................
</ul>

<p>Every CREATE TABLE statement must specify a name for the new table.
  Table names that begin with "sqlite_" are reserved for internal use. It
  is an error to attempt to create a table with a name that starts with
  "sqlite_".

<p> If a &lt;database-name&gt; is specified, it must be either "main", 
  "temp", or the name of an <a href="lang_attach.html">attached database</a>. In this case
  the new table is created in the named database. If the "TEMP" or "TEMPORARY"
  keyword occurs between the "CREATE" and "TABLE" then the new table is
  created in the temp database. It is an error to specify both a 
  &lt;database-name&gt; and the TEMP or TEMPORARY keyword, unless the

  &lt;database-name&gt; is "temp". If no database name is specified and the
  TEMP keyword is not present then the table is created in the main
  database.

<p>
  It is usually an error to attempt to create a new table in a database that
  already contains a table, index or view of the same name. However, if the
  "IF NOT EXISTS" clause is specified as part of the CREATE TABLE statement and
................................................................................
FOREIGN KEY constraints - impose restrictions on the tables data, and are are
described under <a href="lang_createtable.html#constraints">SQL Data Constraints</a> below.

<p>Unlike most SQL databases, SQLite does not restrict the type of data that
may be inserted into a column based on the columns declared type. Instead,
SQLite uses <a href="datatype3.html">dynamic typing</a>. The declared type of a column is used to
determine the <a href="datatype3.html#affinity">affinity</a> of the column only.



<p>The DEFAULT clause specifies a default value to use for the column if no
value is explicitly provided by the user when doing an <a href="lang_insert.html">INSERT</a>. If there
is no explicit DEFAULT clause attached to a column definition, then the 
default value of the column is NULL. An explicit DEFAULT clause may specify
that the default value is NULL, a string constant, a blob constant, a
signed-number, or any constant expression enclosed in parentheses. A
................................................................................
<a name="primkeyconst"></a>

<p>Each table in SQLite may have at most one <b>PRIMARY KEY</b>. If the
  keywords PRIMARY KEY are added to a column definition, then the primary key
  for the table consists of that single column. Or, if a PRIMARY KEY clause 
  is specified as a <a href="syntax/table-constraint.html">table-constraint</a>, then the primary key of the table
  consists of the list of columns specified as part of the PRIMARY KEY clause.


  An error is raised if more than one PRIMARY KEY clause appears in a
  CREATE TABLE statement.  The PRIMARY KEY is optional for ordinary tables
  but is required for <a href="withoutrowid.html">WITHOUT ROWID</a> tables.

<p>If a table has a single column primary key and the declared type of that
  column is "INTEGER" and the table is not a <a href="withoutrowid.html">WITHOUT ROWID</a> table,
  then the column is known as an <a href="lang_createtable.html#rowid">INTEGER PRIMARY KEY</a>.
  See below for a description of the special properties and behaviors
  associated with an <a href="lang_createtable.html#rowid">INTEGER PRIMARY KEY</a>.

<p>Each row in a table with a primary key must have a unique combination
  of values in its primary key columns. For the purposes of determining
  the uniqueness of primary key values, NULL values are considered distinct from
  all other values, including other NULLs. If an <a href="lang_insert.html">INSERT</a> or <a href="lang_update.html">UPDATE</a>
  statement attempts to modify the table content so that two or more rows
................................................................................

<p>A <b>UNIQUE</b> constraint is similar to a PRIMARY KEY constraint, except
  that a single table may have any number of UNIQUE constraints. For each
  UNIQUE constraint on the table, each row must contain a unique combination
  of values in the columns identified by the UNIQUE constraint. 
  For the purposes of UNIQUE constraints, NULL values
  are considered distinct from all other values, including other NULLs.






<p>In most cases, UNIQUE and PRIMARY KEY
  constraints are implemented by creating a unique index in the database.
  (The exceptions are <a href="lang_createtable.html#rowid">INTEGER PRIMARY KEY</a> and PRIMARY KEYs on 
  <a href="withoutrowid.html">WITHOUT ROWID</a> tables.)
  Hence, the following schemas are logically equivalent:








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<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>CREATE TABLE</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/create-table-stmt.html">create-table-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x857' onclick='hideorshow("x857","x858")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x858'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram create-table-stmt" src="images/syntax/create-table-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/column-def.html">column-def:</a></b>
<button id='x859' onclick='hideorshow("x859","x860")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x860' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram column-def" src="images/syntax/column-def.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/column-constraint.html">column-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x861' onclick='hideorshow("x861","x862")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x862' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram column-constraint" src="images/syntax/column-constraint.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/conflict-clause.html">conflict-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x863' onclick='hideorshow("x863","x864")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x864' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram conflict-clause" src="images/syntax/conflict-clause.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x865' onclick='hideorshow("x865","x866")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x866' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x867' onclick='hideorshow("x867","x868")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x868' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/foreign-key-clause.html">foreign-key-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x869' onclick='hideorshow("x869","x870")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x870' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram foreign-key-clause" src="images/syntax/foreign-key-clause.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x871' onclick='hideorshow("x871","x872")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x872' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x873' onclick='hideorshow("x873","x874")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x874' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x875' onclick='hideorshow("x875","x876")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x876' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x877' onclick='hideorshow("x877","x878")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x878' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x879' onclick='hideorshow("x879","x880")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x880' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x881' onclick='hideorshow("x881","x882")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x882' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x883' onclick='hideorshow("x883","x884")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x884' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x885' onclick='hideorshow("x885","x886")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x886' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x887' onclick='hideorshow("x887","x888")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x888' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x889' onclick='hideorshow("x889","x890")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x890' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x891' onclick='hideorshow("x891","x892")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x892' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x893' onclick='hideorshow("x893","x894")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x894' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x895' onclick='hideorshow("x895","x896")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x896' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x897' onclick='hideorshow("x897","x898")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x898' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x899' onclick='hideorshow("x899","x900")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x900' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x901' onclick='hideorshow("x901","x902")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x902' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x903' onclick='hideorshow("x903","x904")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x904' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x905' onclick='hideorshow("x905","x906")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x906' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-constraint.html">table-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x907' onclick='hideorshow("x907","x908")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x908' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-constraint" src="images/syntax/table-constraint.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/conflict-clause.html">conflict-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x909' onclick='hideorshow("x909","x910")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x910' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram conflict-clause" src="images/syntax/conflict-clause.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x911' onclick='hideorshow("x911","x912")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x912' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x913' onclick='hideorshow("x913","x914")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x914' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x915' onclick='hideorshow("x915","x916")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x916' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x917' onclick='hideorshow("x917","x918")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x918' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x919' onclick='hideorshow("x919","x920")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x920' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/foreign-key-clause.html">foreign-key-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x921' onclick='hideorshow("x921","x922")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x922' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram foreign-key-clause" src="images/syntax/foreign-key-clause.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/indexed-column.html">indexed-column:</a></b>
<button id='x923' onclick='hideorshow("x923","x924")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x924' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram indexed-column" src="images/syntax/indexed-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>


<p>The "CREATE TABLE" command is used to create a new table in an SQLite 
................................................................................
</ul>

<p>Every CREATE TABLE statement must specify a name for the new table.
  Table names that begin with "sqlite_" are reserved for internal use. It
  is an error to attempt to create a table with a name that starts with
  "sqlite_".

<p> If a <span class='yyterm'>schema-name</span> is specified, it must be either "main", 
  "temp", or the name of an <a href="lang_attach.html">attached database</a>. In this case
  the new table is created in the named database. If the "TEMP" or "TEMPORARY"
  keyword occurs between the "CREATE" and "TABLE" then the new table is
  created in the temp database. It is an error to specify both a 
  <span class='yyterm'>schema-name</span> and the TEMP or TEMPORARY keyword, unless the
  <span class='yyterm'>schema-name</span> is "temp". 
  If no schema name is specified and the
  TEMP keyword is not present then the table is created in the main
  database.

<p>
  It is usually an error to attempt to create a new table in a database that
  already contains a table, index or view of the same name. However, if the
  "IF NOT EXISTS" clause is specified as part of the CREATE TABLE statement and
................................................................................
FOREIGN KEY constraints - impose restrictions on the tables data, and are are
described under <a href="lang_createtable.html#constraints">SQL Data Constraints</a> below.

<p>Unlike most SQL databases, SQLite does not restrict the type of data that
may be inserted into a column based on the columns declared type. Instead,
SQLite uses <a href="datatype3.html">dynamic typing</a>. The declared type of a column is used to
determine the <a href="datatype3.html#affinity">affinity</a> of the column only.

<a name="dfltval"></a>

<p>The DEFAULT clause specifies a default value to use for the column if no
value is explicitly provided by the user when doing an <a href="lang_insert.html">INSERT</a>. If there
is no explicit DEFAULT clause attached to a column definition, then the 
default value of the column is NULL. An explicit DEFAULT clause may specify
that the default value is NULL, a string constant, a blob constant, a
signed-number, or any constant expression enclosed in parentheses. A
................................................................................
<a name="primkeyconst"></a>

<p>Each table in SQLite may have at most one <b>PRIMARY KEY</b>. If the
  keywords PRIMARY KEY are added to a column definition, then the primary key
  for the table consists of that single column. Or, if a PRIMARY KEY clause 
  is specified as a <a href="syntax/table-constraint.html">table-constraint</a>, then the primary key of the table
  consists of the list of columns specified as part of the PRIMARY KEY clause.
  The PRIMARY KEY clause must contain only column names &mdash; the use of 
  expressions in an <a href="syntax/indexed-column.html">indexed-column</a> of a PRIMARY KEY is not supported.
  An error is raised if more than one PRIMARY KEY clause appears in a
  CREATE TABLE statement.  The PRIMARY KEY is optional for ordinary tables
  but is required for <a href="withoutrowid.html">WITHOUT ROWID</a> tables.

<p>If a table has a single column primary key and the declared type of that
  column is "INTEGER" and the table is not a <a href="withoutrowid.html">WITHOUT ROWID</a> table,
  then the column is known as an <a href="lang_createtable.html#rowid">INTEGER PRIMARY KEY</a>.
  See <a href="lang_createtable.html#rowid">below</a> for a description of the special properties and behaviors
  associated with an <a href="lang_createtable.html#rowid">INTEGER PRIMARY KEY</a>.

<p>Each row in a table with a primary key must have a unique combination
  of values in its primary key columns. For the purposes of determining
  the uniqueness of primary key values, NULL values are considered distinct from
  all other values, including other NULLs. If an <a href="lang_insert.html">INSERT</a> or <a href="lang_update.html">UPDATE</a>
  statement attempts to modify the table content so that two or more rows
................................................................................

<p>A <b>UNIQUE</b> constraint is similar to a PRIMARY KEY constraint, except
  that a single table may have any number of UNIQUE constraints. For each
  UNIQUE constraint on the table, each row must contain a unique combination
  of values in the columns identified by the UNIQUE constraint. 
  For the purposes of UNIQUE constraints, NULL values
  are considered distinct from all other values, including other NULLs.
  As with PRIMARY KEYs, a UNIQUE <a href="syntax/table-constraint.html">table-constraint</a> clause must contain
  only column names &mdash; the use of 
  expressions in an <a href="syntax/indexed-column.html">indexed-column</a> of a UNIQUE <a href="syntax/table-constraint.html">table-constraint</a>
  is not supported.
  

<p>In most cases, UNIQUE and PRIMARY KEY
  constraints are implemented by creating a unique index in the database.
  (The exceptions are <a href="lang_createtable.html#rowid">INTEGER PRIMARY KEY</a> and PRIMARY KEYs on 
  <a href="withoutrowid.html">WITHOUT ROWID</a> tables.)
  Hence, the following schemas are logically equivalent:

Changes to Doc/Extra/Core/lang_createtrigger.html.

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</style>
  
</head>
<body>
<div><!-- container div to satisfy validator -->

<a href="index.html">
................................................................................
    </form>
    </div>
  </table>

<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>CREATE TRIGGER</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/create-trigger-stmt.html">create-trigger-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x923' onclick='hideorshow("x923","x924")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x924'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram create-trigger-stmt" src="images/syntax/create-trigger-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/delete-stmt.html">delete-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x925' onclick='hideorshow("x925","x926")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x926' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram delete-stmt" src="images/syntax/delete-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/qualified-table-name.html">qualified-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x927' onclick='hideorshow("x927","x928")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x928' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram qualified-table-name" src="images/syntax/qualified-table-name.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/with-clause.html">with-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x929' onclick='hideorshow("x929","x930")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x930' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram with-clause" src="images/syntax/with-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/cte-table-name.html">cte-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x931' onclick='hideorshow("x931","x932")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x932' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram cte-table-name" src="images/syntax/cte-table-name.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x933' onclick='hideorshow("x933","x934")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x934' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x935' onclick='hideorshow("x935","x936")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x936' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x937' onclick='hideorshow("x937","x938")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x938' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x939' onclick='hideorshow("x939","x940")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x940' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x941' onclick='hideorshow("x941","x942")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x942' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/insert-stmt.html">insert-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x943' onclick='hideorshow("x943","x944")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x944' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram insert-stmt" src="images/syntax/insert-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/with-clause.html">with-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x945' onclick='hideorshow("x945","x946")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x946' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram with-clause" src="images/syntax/with-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/cte-table-name.html">cte-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x947' onclick='hideorshow("x947","x948")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x948' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram cte-table-name" src="images/syntax/cte-table-name.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x949' onclick='hideorshow("x949","x950")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x950' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x951' onclick='hideorshow("x951","x952")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x952' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x953' onclick='hideorshow("x953","x954")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x954' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x955' onclick='hideorshow("x955","x956")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x956' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x957' onclick='hideorshow("x957","x958")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x958' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x959' onclick='hideorshow("x959","x960")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x960' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x961' onclick='hideorshow("x961","x962")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x962' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x963' onclick='hideorshow("x963","x964")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x964' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x965' onclick='hideorshow("x965","x966")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x966' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/update-stmt.html">update-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x967' onclick='hideorshow("x967","x968")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x968' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram update-stmt" src="images/syntax/update-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/qualified-table-name.html">qualified-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x969' onclick='hideorshow("x969","x970")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x970' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram qualified-table-name" src="images/syntax/qualified-table-name.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/with-clause.html">with-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x971' onclick='hideorshow("x971","x972")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x972' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram with-clause" src="images/syntax/with-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/cte-table-name.html">cte-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x973' onclick='hideorshow("x973","x974")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x974' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram cte-table-name" src="images/syntax/cte-table-name.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>


................................................................................
in the following statement, it is important to say "main.tab1" instead
of just "tab1":</p>

<blockquote><pre>
CREATE TEMP TRIGGER ex1 AFTER INSERT ON <b>main.</b>tab1 BEGIN ...
</pre></blockquote>

<p>Failure to specify the database name on the target table could result
in the TEMP trigger being reattached to a table with the same name in
another database whenever any schema change occurs.</p>









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................................................................................
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<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>CREATE TRIGGER</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/create-trigger-stmt.html">create-trigger-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x925' onclick='hideorshow("x925","x926")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x926'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram create-trigger-stmt" src="images/syntax/create-trigger-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/delete-stmt.html">delete-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x927' onclick='hideorshow("x927","x928")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x928' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram delete-stmt" src="images/syntax/delete-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/qualified-table-name.html">qualified-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x929' onclick='hideorshow("x929","x930")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x930' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram qualified-table-name" src="images/syntax/qualified-table-name.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/with-clause.html">with-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x931' onclick='hideorshow("x931","x932")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x932' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram with-clause" src="images/syntax/with-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/cte-table-name.html">cte-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x933' onclick='hideorshow("x933","x934")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x934' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram cte-table-name" src="images/syntax/cte-table-name.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x935' onclick='hideorshow("x935","x936")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x936' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x937' onclick='hideorshow("x937","x938")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x938' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x939' onclick='hideorshow("x939","x940")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x940' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x941' onclick='hideorshow("x941","x942")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x942' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x943' onclick='hideorshow("x943","x944")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x944' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/insert-stmt.html">insert-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x945' onclick='hideorshow("x945","x946")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x946' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram insert-stmt" src="images/syntax/insert-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/with-clause.html">with-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x947' onclick='hideorshow("x947","x948")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x948' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram with-clause" src="images/syntax/with-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/cte-table-name.html">cte-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x949' onclick='hideorshow("x949","x950")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x950' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram cte-table-name" src="images/syntax/cte-table-name.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x951' onclick='hideorshow("x951","x952")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x952' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x953' onclick='hideorshow("x953","x954")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x954' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x955' onclick='hideorshow("x955","x956")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x956' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x957' onclick='hideorshow("x957","x958")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x958' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x959' onclick='hideorshow("x959","x960")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x960' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x961' onclick='hideorshow("x961","x962")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x962' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x963' onclick='hideorshow("x963","x964")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x964' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x965' onclick='hideorshow("x965","x966")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x966' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x967' onclick='hideorshow("x967","x968")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x968' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/update-stmt.html">update-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x969' onclick='hideorshow("x969","x970")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x970' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram update-stmt" src="images/syntax/update-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/qualified-table-name.html">qualified-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x971' onclick='hideorshow("x971","x972")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x972' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram qualified-table-name" src="images/syntax/qualified-table-name.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/with-clause.html">with-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x973' onclick='hideorshow("x973","x974")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x974' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram with-clause" src="images/syntax/with-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/cte-table-name.html">cte-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x975' onclick='hideorshow("x975","x976")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x976' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram cte-table-name" src="images/syntax/cte-table-name.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>


................................................................................
in the following statement, it is important to say "main.tab1" instead
of just "tab1":</p>

<blockquote><pre>
CREATE TEMP TRIGGER ex1 AFTER INSERT ON <b>main.</b>tab1 BEGIN ...
</pre></blockquote>

<p>Failure to specify the schema name on the target table could result
in the TEMP trigger being reattached to a table with the same name in
another database whenever any schema change occurs.</p>


Changes to Doc/Extra/Core/lang_createview.html.

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.fancy p.todo        { border: solid #AA3333 1px; padding: 1ex }
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</style>
  
</head>
<body>
<div><!-- container div to satisfy validator -->

<a href="index.html">
................................................................................
    </form>
    </div>
  </table>

<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>CREATE VIEW</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/create-view-stmt.html">create-view-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x975' onclick='hideorshow("x975","x976")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x976'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram create-view-stmt" src="images/syntax/create-view-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x977' onclick='hideorshow("x977","x978")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x978' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x979' onclick='hideorshow("x979","x980")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x980' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x981' onclick='hideorshow("x981","x982")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x982' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x983' onclick='hideorshow("x983","x984")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x984' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x985' onclick='hideorshow("x985","x986")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x986' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x987' onclick='hideorshow("x987","x988")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x988' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x989' onclick='hideorshow("x989","x990")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x990' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x991' onclick='hideorshow("x991","x992")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x992' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x993' onclick='hideorshow("x993","x994")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x994' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x995' onclick='hideorshow("x995","x996")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x996' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x997' onclick='hideorshow("x997","x998")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x998' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x999' onclick='hideorshow("x999","x1000")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1000' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1001' onclick='hideorshow("x1001","x1002")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1002' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1003' onclick='hideorshow("x1003","x1004")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1004' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>


<p>The CREATE VIEW command assigns a name to a pre-packaged 
................................................................................
</p>

<p>If the "TEMP" or "TEMPORARY" keyword occurs in between "CREATE"
and "VIEW" then the view that is created is only visible to the
<a href="c3ref/sqlite3.html">database connection</a> that created it and is automatically deleted when
the database connection is closed.</p>

<p> If a &lt;database-name&gt; is specified, then the view is created in 

the named database. It is an error to specify both a &lt;database-name&gt;
and the TEMP keyword on a VIEW, unless the &lt;database-name&gt; is "temp".

If no database name is specified, and the TEMP keyword is not present,
the VIEW is created in the main database.</p>

<p>You cannot <a href="lang_delete.html">DELETE</a>, <a href="lang_insert.html">INSERT</a>, or <a href="lang_update.html">UPDATE</a> a view.  Views are read-only 
in SQLite.  However, in many cases you can use an
<a href="lang_createtrigger.html#instead_of_trigger">INSTEAD OF trigger</a> on the view to accomplish 
the same thing.  Views are removed 
with the <a href="lang_dropview.html">DROP VIEW</a> command.</p>

















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<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>CREATE VIEW</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/create-view-stmt.html">create-view-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x977' onclick='hideorshow("x977","x978")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x978'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram create-view-stmt" src="images/syntax/create-view-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x979' onclick='hideorshow("x979","x980")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x980' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x981' onclick='hideorshow("x981","x982")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x982' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x983' onclick='hideorshow("x983","x984")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x984' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x985' onclick='hideorshow("x985","x986")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x986' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x987' onclick='hideorshow("x987","x988")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x988' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x989' onclick='hideorshow("x989","x990")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x990' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x991' onclick='hideorshow("x991","x992")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x992' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x993' onclick='hideorshow("x993","x994")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x994' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x995' onclick='hideorshow("x995","x996")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x996' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x997' onclick='hideorshow("x997","x998")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x998' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x999' onclick='hideorshow("x999","x1000")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1000' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1001' onclick='hideorshow("x1001","x1002")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1002' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1003' onclick='hideorshow("x1003","x1004")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1004' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1005' onclick='hideorshow("x1005","x1006")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1006' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>


<p>The CREATE VIEW command assigns a name to a pre-packaged 
................................................................................
</p>

<p>If the "TEMP" or "TEMPORARY" keyword occurs in between "CREATE"
and "VIEW" then the view that is created is only visible to the
<a href="c3ref/sqlite3.html">database connection</a> that created it and is automatically deleted when
the database connection is closed.</p>

<p> If a <span class='yyterm'>schema-name</span> is specified, then the view 
is created in the specified database.
It is an error to specify both a <span class='yyterm'>schema-name</span>
and the TEMP keyword on a VIEW, unless the <span class='yyterm'>schema-name</span> 
is "temp".
If no schema name is specified, and the TEMP keyword is not present,
the VIEW is created in the main database.</p>

<p>You cannot <a href="lang_delete.html">DELETE</a>, <a href="lang_insert.html">INSERT</a>, or <a href="lang_update.html">UPDATE</a> a view.  Views are read-only 
in SQLite.  However, in many cases you can use an
<a href="lang_createtrigger.html#instead_of_trigger">INSTEAD OF trigger</a> on the view to accomplish 
the same thing.  Views are removed 
with the <a href="lang_dropview.html">DROP VIEW</a> command.</p>

<p>If a <span class='yyterm'>column-name</span> list follows 
the <span class='yyterm'>view-name</span>, then that list determines
the names of the columns for the view.  If the <span class='yyterm'>column-name</span>
list is omitted, then the names of the columns in the view are derived
from the names of the result-set columns in the <a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt</a>.
Note that the <span class='yyterm'>column-name</span> list syntax is only
supported in SQLite versions 3.9.0 and later.


Changes to Doc/Extra/Core/lang_createvtab.html.

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<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>CREATE VIRTUAL TABLE</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/create-virtual-table-stmt.html">create-virtual-table-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1005' onclick='hideorshow("x1005","x1006")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1006'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram create-virtual-table-stmt" src="images/syntax/create-virtual-table-stmt.gif" />
</blockquote>


<p>A <a href="vtab.html">virtual table</a> is an interface to an external storage or computation
engine that appears to be a table but does not actually store information
in the database file.</p>

<p>In general, you can do anything with a <a href="vtab.html">virtual table</a> that can be done
with an ordinary table, except that you cannot create indices or triggers on a
virtual table.  Some virtual table implementations might impose additional
restrictions.  For example, many virtual tables are read-only.</p>

<p>The &lt;module-name&gt; is the name of an object that implements
the virtual table.  The &lt;module-name&gt; must be registered with
the SQLite database connection using
<a href="c3ref/create_module.html">sqlite3_create_module()</a> or <a href="c3ref/create_module.html">sqlite3_create_module_v2()</a>
prior to issuing the CREATE VIRTUAL TABLE statement.
The module takes zero or more comma-separated arguments.
The arguments can be just about any text as long as it has balanced
parentheses.  The argument syntax is sufficiently general that the
arguments can be made to appear as <a href="lang_createtable.html#tablecoldef">column definitions</a> in a traditional







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<div><!-- container div to satisfy validator -->

<a href="index.html">
................................................................................
    </form>
    </div>
  </table>

<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>CREATE VIRTUAL TABLE</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/create-virtual-table-stmt.html">create-virtual-table-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1007' onclick='hideorshow("x1007","x1008")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1008'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram create-virtual-table-stmt" src="images/syntax/create-virtual-table-stmt.gif" />
</blockquote>


<p>A <a href="vtab.html">virtual table</a> is an interface to an external storage or computation
engine that appears to be a table but does not actually store information
in the database file.</p>

<p>In general, you can do anything with a <a href="vtab.html">virtual table</a> that can be done
with an ordinary table, except that you cannot create indices or triggers on a
virtual table.  Some virtual table implementations might impose additional
restrictions.  For example, many virtual tables are read-only.</p>

<p>The <span class='yyterm'>module-name</span> is the name of an object that implements
the virtual table.  The <span class='yyterm'>module-name</span> must be registered with
the SQLite database connection using
<a href="c3ref/create_module.html">sqlite3_create_module()</a> or <a href="c3ref/create_module.html">sqlite3_create_module_v2()</a>
prior to issuing the CREATE VIRTUAL TABLE statement.
The module takes zero or more comma-separated arguments.
The arguments can be just about any text as long as it has balanced
parentheses.  The argument syntax is sufficiently general that the
arguments can be made to appear as <a href="lang_createtable.html#tablecoldef">column definitions</a> in a traditional

Changes to Doc/Extra/Core/lang_datefunc.html.

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    </form>
    </div>
  </table>

<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>DELETE</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/delete-stmt.html">delete-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1007' onclick='hideorshow("x1007","x1008")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1008'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram delete-stmt" src="images/syntax/delete-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1009' onclick='hideorshow("x1009","x1010")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1010' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1011' onclick='hideorshow("x1011","x1012")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1012' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x1013' onclick='hideorshow("x1013","x1014")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1014' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1015' onclick='hideorshow("x1015","x1016")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1016' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1017' onclick='hideorshow("x1017","x1018")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1018' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1019' onclick='hideorshow("x1019","x1020")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1020' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1021' onclick='hideorshow("x1021","x1022")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1022' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1023' onclick='hideorshow("x1023","x1024")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1024' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1025' onclick='hideorshow("x1025","x1026")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1026' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1027' onclick='hideorshow("x1027","x1028")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1028' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1029' onclick='hideorshow("x1029","x1030")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1030' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1031' onclick='hideorshow("x1031","x1032")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1032' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1033' onclick='hideorshow("x1033","x1034")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1034' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1035' onclick='hideorshow("x1035","x1036")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1036' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/qualified-table-name.html">qualified-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1037' onclick='hideorshow("x1037","x1038")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1038' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram qualified-table-name" src="images/syntax/qualified-table-name.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/with-clause.html">with-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1039' onclick='hideorshow("x1039","x1040")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1040' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram with-clause" src="images/syntax/with-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/cte-table-name.html">cte-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1041' onclick='hideorshow("x1041","x1042")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1042' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram cte-table-name" src="images/syntax/cte-table-name.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1043' onclick='hideorshow("x1043","x1044")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1044' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1045' onclick='hideorshow("x1045","x1046")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1046' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1047' onclick='hideorshow("x1047","x1048")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1048' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1049' onclick='hideorshow("x1049","x1050")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1050' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1051' onclick='hideorshow("x1051","x1052")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1052' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1053' onclick='hideorshow("x1053","x1054")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1054' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1055' onclick='hideorshow("x1055","x1056")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1056' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1057' onclick='hideorshow("x1057","x1058")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1058' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1059' onclick='hideorshow("x1059","x1060")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1060' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>


<p>The DELETE command removes records from the table identified by the
   <i>qualified-table-name</i>. 

<p>If the WHERE clause is not present, all records in the table are deleted.
   If a WHERE clause is supplied, then only those rows for which the
   result of evaluating the WHERE clause as a <a href="lang_expr.html#booleanexpr">boolean expression is true</a> are deleted.


<h3>Restrictions on DELETE Statements Within CREATE TRIGGER</h3>

<p>The following restrictions apply to DELETE statements that occur within the
   body of a <a href="lang_createtrigger.html">CREATE TRIGGER</a> statement:

<ul>

  <li><p>The <i>table-name</i> specified as part of a DELETE statement within
    a trigger body must be unqualified.  In other words, the
    <i>database-name</i><b>.</b> prefix on the table name is not allowed 
    within triggers. If the table to which the trigger is attached is
    not in the temp database, then DELETE statements within the trigger
    body must operate on tables within the same database as it. If the table
    to which the trigger is attached is in the TEMP database, then the
    unqualified name of the table being deleted is resolved in the same way as
    it is for a top-level statement (by searching first the TEMP database, then
    the main database, then any other databases in the order they were







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</head>
<body>
<div><!-- container div to satisfy validator -->

<a href="index.html">
................................................................................
    </form>
    </div>
  </table>

<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>DELETE</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/delete-stmt.html">delete-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1009' onclick='hideorshow("x1009","x1010")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1010'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram delete-stmt" src="images/syntax/delete-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1011' onclick='hideorshow("x1011","x1012")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1012' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1013' onclick='hideorshow("x1013","x1014")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1014' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x1015' onclick='hideorshow("x1015","x1016")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1016' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1017' onclick='hideorshow("x1017","x1018")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1018' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1019' onclick='hideorshow("x1019","x1020")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1020' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1021' onclick='hideorshow("x1021","x1022")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1022' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1023' onclick='hideorshow("x1023","x1024")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1024' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1025' onclick='hideorshow("x1025","x1026")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1026' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1027' onclick='hideorshow("x1027","x1028")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1028' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1029' onclick='hideorshow("x1029","x1030")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1030' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1031' onclick='hideorshow("x1031","x1032")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1032' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1033' onclick='hideorshow("x1033","x1034")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1034' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1035' onclick='hideorshow("x1035","x1036")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1036' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1037' onclick='hideorshow("x1037","x1038")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1038' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/qualified-table-name.html">qualified-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1039' onclick='hideorshow("x1039","x1040")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1040' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram qualified-table-name" src="images/syntax/qualified-table-name.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/with-clause.html">with-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1041' onclick='hideorshow("x1041","x1042")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1042' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram with-clause" src="images/syntax/with-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/cte-table-name.html">cte-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1043' onclick='hideorshow("x1043","x1044")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1044' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram cte-table-name" src="images/syntax/cte-table-name.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1045' onclick='hideorshow("x1045","x1046")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1046' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1047' onclick='hideorshow("x1047","x1048")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1048' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1049' onclick='hideorshow("x1049","x1050")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1050' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1051' onclick='hideorshow("x1051","x1052")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1052' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1053' onclick='hideorshow("x1053","x1054")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1054' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1055' onclick='hideorshow("x1055","x1056")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1056' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1057' onclick='hideorshow("x1057","x1058")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1058' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1059' onclick='hideorshow("x1059","x1060")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1060' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1061' onclick='hideorshow("x1061","x1062")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1062' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>


<p>The DELETE command removes records from the table identified by the
   <a href="syntax/qualified-table-name.html">qualified-table-name</a>.

<p>If the WHERE clause is not present, all records in the table are deleted.
   If a WHERE clause is supplied, then only those rows for which the
   WHERE clause <a href="lang_expr.html#booleanexpr">boolean expression</a> is true are deleted.
   Rows for which the expression is false or NULL are retained.

<h3>Restrictions on DELETE Statements Within CREATE TRIGGER</h3>

<p>The following restrictions apply to DELETE statements that occur within the
   body of a <a href="lang_createtrigger.html">CREATE TRIGGER</a> statement:

<ul>
  <li><p>The <span class='yyterm'>table-name</span> specified as part of a 
    DELETE statement within
    a trigger body must be unqualified.  In other words, the
    <i>schema-name</i><b>.</b> prefix on the table name is not allowed 
    within triggers. If the table to which the trigger is attached is
    not in the temp database, then DELETE statements within the trigger
    body must operate on tables within the same database as it. If the table
    to which the trigger is attached is in the TEMP database, then the
    unqualified name of the table being deleted is resolved in the same way as
    it is for a top-level statement (by searching first the TEMP database, then
    the main database, then any other databases in the order they were

Changes to Doc/Extra/Core/lang_detach.html.

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</style>
  
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<div><!-- container div to satisfy validator -->

<a href="index.html">
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    </form>
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  </table>

<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>DETACH DATABASE</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/detach-stmt.html">detach-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1061' onclick='hideorshow("x1061","x1062")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1062'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram detach-stmt" src="images/syntax/detach-stmt.gif" />
</blockquote>


<p>This statement detaches an additional database connection previously 
attached using the <a href="lang_attach.html">ATTACH</a> statement.  
When not in <a href="sharedcache.html">shared cache mode</a>, 







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  background: #fff;
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</style>
  
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................................................................................
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<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>DETACH DATABASE</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/detach-stmt.html">detach-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1063' onclick='hideorshow("x1063","x1064")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1064'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram detach-stmt" src="images/syntax/detach-stmt.gif" />
</blockquote>


<p>This statement detaches an additional database connection previously 
attached using the <a href="lang_attach.html">ATTACH</a> statement.  
When not in <a href="sharedcache.html">shared cache mode</a>, 

Changes to Doc/Extra/Core/lang_dropindex.html.

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</style>
  
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<div><!-- container div to satisfy validator -->

<a href="index.html">
................................................................................
    </form>
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<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>DROP INDEX</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/drop-index-stmt.html">drop-index-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1063' onclick='hideorshow("x1063","x1064")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1064'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram drop-index-stmt" src="images/syntax/drop-index-stmt.gif" />
</blockquote>


<p>The DROP INDEX statement removes an index added
with the <a href="lang_createindex.html">CREATE INDEX</a> statement.  The index is completely removed from
the disk.  The only way to recover the index is to reenter the
appropriate <a href="lang_createindex.html">CREATE INDEX</a> command.</p>









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  background: #fff;
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<body>
<div><!-- container div to satisfy validator -->

<a href="index.html">
................................................................................
    </form>
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<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>DROP INDEX</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/drop-index-stmt.html">drop-index-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1065' onclick='hideorshow("x1065","x1066")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1066'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram drop-index-stmt" src="images/syntax/drop-index-stmt.gif" />
</blockquote>


<p>The DROP INDEX statement removes an index added
with the <a href="lang_createindex.html">CREATE INDEX</a> statement.  The index is completely removed from
the disk.  The only way to recover the index is to reenter the
appropriate <a href="lang_createindex.html">CREATE INDEX</a> command.</p>


Changes to Doc/Extra/Core/lang_droptable.html.

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<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>DROP TABLE</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/drop-table-stmt.html">drop-table-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1065' onclick='hideorshow("x1065","x1066")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1066'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram drop-table-stmt" src="images/syntax/drop-table-stmt.gif" />
</blockquote>


<p>The DROP TABLE statement removes a table added with the
<a href="lang_createtable.html">CREATE TABLE</a> statement.  The name specified is the
table name.  The dropped table is completely removed from the database 
................................................................................
All indices and triggers
associated with the table are also deleted.</p>

<p>The optional IF EXISTS clause suppresses the error that would normally
result if the table does not exist.</p>

<p>If <a href="foreignkeys.html">foreign key constraints</a> are enabled, a DROP TABLE command performs an
implicit <a href="lang_delete.html">DELETE FROM &lt;tbl&gt;</a> command before removing the
table from the database schema. Any triggers attached to the table are
dropped from the database schema before the implicit DELETE FROM &lt;tbl&gt; 
is executed, so this cannot cause any triggers to fire. By contrast, an
implicit DELETE FROM &lt;tbl&gt; does cause any configured
<a href="foreignkeys.html#fk_actions">foreign key actions</a> to take place. 
If the implicit DELETE FROM &lt;tbl&gt; executed
as part of a DROP TABLE command violates any immediate foreign key constraints,
an error is returned and the table is not dropped. If 
the implicit DELETE FROM &lt;tbl&gt; causes any 
deferred foreign key constraints to be violated, and the violations still
exist when the transaction is committed, an error is returned at the time
of commit.









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<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>DROP TABLE</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/drop-table-stmt.html">drop-table-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1067' onclick='hideorshow("x1067","x1068")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1068'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram drop-table-stmt" src="images/syntax/drop-table-stmt.gif" />
</blockquote>


<p>The DROP TABLE statement removes a table added with the
<a href="lang_createtable.html">CREATE TABLE</a> statement.  The name specified is the
table name.  The dropped table is completely removed from the database 
................................................................................
All indices and triggers
associated with the table are also deleted.</p>

<p>The optional IF EXISTS clause suppresses the error that would normally
result if the table does not exist.</p>

<p>If <a href="foreignkeys.html">foreign key constraints</a> are enabled, a DROP TABLE command performs an
implicit <a href="lang_delete.html">DELETE FROM</a> command before removing the
table from the database schema. Any triggers attached to the table are
dropped from the database schema before the implicit DELETE FROM
is executed, so this cannot cause any triggers to fire. By contrast, an
implicit DELETE FROM does cause any configured
<a href="foreignkeys.html#fk_actions">foreign key actions</a> to take place. 
If the implicit DELETE FROM executed
as part of a DROP TABLE command violates any immediate foreign key constraints,
an error is returned and the table is not dropped. If 
the implicit DELETE FROM causes any 
deferred foreign key constraints to be violated, and the violations still
exist when the transaction is committed, an error is returned at the time
of commit.


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<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>DROP TRIGGER</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/drop-trigger-stmt.html">drop-trigger-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1067' onclick='hideorshow("x1067","x1068")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1068'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram drop-trigger-stmt" src="images/syntax/drop-trigger-stmt.gif" />
</blockquote>


<p>The DROP TRIGGER statement removes a trigger created by the 
<a href="lang_createtrigger.html">CREATE TRIGGER</a> statement. Once removed, the trigger definition is no
longer present in the sqlite_master (or sqlite_temp_master) table and is
not fired by any subsequent INSERT, UPDATE or DELETE statements.

<p>Note that triggers are automatically dropped when the associated table is
dropped.









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<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>DROP TRIGGER</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/drop-trigger-stmt.html">drop-trigger-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1069' onclick='hideorshow("x1069","x1070")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1070'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram drop-trigger-stmt" src="images/syntax/drop-trigger-stmt.gif" />
</blockquote>


<p>The DROP TRIGGER statement removes a trigger created by the 
<a href="lang_createtrigger.html">CREATE TRIGGER</a> statement. Once removed, the trigger definition is no
longer present in the sqlite_master (or sqlite_temp_master) table and is
not fired by any subsequent INSERT, UPDATE or DELETE statements.

<p>Note that triggers are automatically dropped when the associated table is
dropped.


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<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>DROP VIEW</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/drop-view-stmt.html">drop-view-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1069' onclick='hideorshow("x1069","x1070")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1070'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram drop-view-stmt" src="images/syntax/drop-view-stmt.gif" />
</blockquote>


<p>The DROP VIEW statement removes a view created by the <a href="lang_createview.html">CREATE VIEW</a> 
  statement. The view definition is removed from the database schema, but 
  no actual data in the underlying base tables is modified.

<p>The view to drop is identified by the view-name and optional 
  database-name specified as part of the DROP VIEW statement. This 
  reference is resolved using the standard procedure for <a href="lang_naming.html">object resolution</a>.

<p>
  If the specified view cannot be found and the IF EXISTS clause is not 
  present, it is an error. If the specified view cannot be found and an IF
  EXISTS clause is present in the DROP VIEW statement, then the statement
  is a no-op.










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<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>DROP VIEW</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/drop-view-stmt.html">drop-view-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1071' onclick='hideorshow("x1071","x1072")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1072'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram drop-view-stmt" src="images/syntax/drop-view-stmt.gif" />
</blockquote>


<p>The DROP VIEW statement removes a view created by the <a href="lang_createview.html">CREATE VIEW</a> 
  statement. The view definition is removed from the database schema, but 
  no actual data in the underlying base tables is modified.

<p>The view to drop is identified by the view-name and optional 
  schema-name specified as part of the DROP VIEW statement. This 
  reference is resolved using the standard procedure for <a href="lang_naming.html">object resolution</a>.

<p>
  If the specified view cannot be found and the IF EXISTS clause is not 
  present, it is an error. If the specified view cannot be found and an IF
  EXISTS clause is present in the DROP VIEW statement, then the statement
  is a no-op.



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<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>expression</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1071' onclick='hideorshow("x1071","x1072")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1072'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1073' onclick='hideorshow("x1073","x1074")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1074' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x1075' onclick='hideorshow("x1075","x1076")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1076' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1077' onclick='hideorshow("x1077","x1078")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1078' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1079' onclick='hideorshow("x1079","x1080")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1080' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1081' onclick='hideorshow("x1081","x1082")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1082' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1083' onclick='hideorshow("x1083","x1084")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1084' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1085' onclick='hideorshow("x1085","x1086")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1086' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1087' onclick='hideorshow("x1087","x1088")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1088' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1089' onclick='hideorshow("x1089","x1090")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1090' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1091' onclick='hideorshow("x1091","x1092")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1092' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1093' onclick='hideorshow("x1093","x1094")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1094' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1095' onclick='hideorshow("x1095","x1096")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1096' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1097' onclick='hideorshow("x1097","x1098")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1098' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>


<p>This section is different from the others.  Most other sections of
................................................................................
its result is required. An uncorrelated subquery is evaluated only once
and the result reused as necessary.

<a name="castexpr"></a>

<h3>CAST expressions</h3>

<p>A CAST expression of the form "CAST(&lt;expr&gt; AS &lt;type-name&gt;)"
is used to convert the value of &lt;expr&gt; to 
a different <a href="datatype3.html#storageclasses">storage class</a> specified by &lt;type-name&gt;.
A CAST conversion is similar to the conversion that takes
place when a <a href="datatype3.html#affinity">column affinity</a> is applied to a value except that with
the CAST operator the conversion always takes place even if the conversion
lossy and irreversible, whereas column affinity only changes the data type
of a value if the change is lossless and reversible.

<p>If the value of &lt;expr&gt; is NULL, then the result of the CAST
expression is also NULL. Otherwise, the storage class of the result
is determined by applying the <a href="datatype3.html#affname">rules for determining column affinity</a> to
the &lt;type-name&gt;.

<table border=1>
<tr>
  <th> Affinity of &lt;type-name&gt;
  <th> Conversion Processing
<tr>
  <td> NONE 

  <td> Casting a value to a &lt;type-name&gt; with no affinity causes the value to
  be converted into a BLOB.  Casting to a BLOB consists of first casting
  the value to TEXT in the <a href="pragma.html#pragma_encoding">encoding</a> of the database connection, then
  interpreting the resulting byte sequence as a BLOB instead of as TEXT.

<tr>
  <td> TEXT
  <td> To cast a BLOB value to TEXT, the sequence of bytes that make up the
................................................................................
  <td> When casting a BLOB value to INTEGER, the value is first converted to
        TEXT.
       <p>When casting a TEXT value to INTEGER, the longest possible prefix of
        the value that can be interpreted as an integer number is extracted from
        the TEXT value and the remainder ignored. Any leading spaces in the
        TEXT value when converting from TEXT to INTEGER are ignored. If there
        is no prefix that can be interpreted as an integer number, the result
        of the conversion is 0.  The CAST operator understands decimal integers
        only &mdash; conversion of <a href="lang_expr.html#hexint">hexadecimal integers</a> stops at the "x" in the
        "0x" prefix of the hexadecimal integer string and thus result of the 
        CAST is always zero.

      <p>A cast of a REAL value into an INTEGER results in the integer
      between the REAL value and zero that is closest to the REAL value.
      If a REAL is greater than the greatest possible signed
      integer (+9223372036854775807) then the result is the greatest possible
      signed integer and if the REAL is less than the least possible signed
      integer (-9223372036854775808) then the result is the least possible







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<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>expression</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1073' onclick='hideorshow("x1073","x1074")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1074'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1075' onclick='hideorshow("x1075","x1076")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1076' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x1077' onclick='hideorshow("x1077","x1078")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1078' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1079' onclick='hideorshow("x1079","x1080")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1080' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1081' onclick='hideorshow("x1081","x1082")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1082' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1083' onclick='hideorshow("x1083","x1084")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1084' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1085' onclick='hideorshow("x1085","x1086")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1086' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1087' onclick='hideorshow("x1087","x1088")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1088' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1089' onclick='hideorshow("x1089","x1090")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1090' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1091' onclick='hideorshow("x1091","x1092")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1092' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1093' onclick='hideorshow("x1093","x1094")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1094' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1095' onclick='hideorshow("x1095","x1096")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1096' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1097' onclick='hideorshow("x1097","x1098")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1098' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1099' onclick='hideorshow("x1099","x1100")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1100' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>


<p>This section is different from the others.  Most other sections of
................................................................................
its result is required. An uncorrelated subquery is evaluated only once
and the result reused as necessary.

<a name="castexpr"></a>

<h3>CAST expressions</h3>

<p>A CAST expression of the form "CAST(<i>expr</i> AS <i>type-name</i>)"
is used to convert the value of <i>expr</i> to 
a different <a href="datatype3.html#storageclasses">storage class</a> specified by <span class='yyterm'>type-name</span>.
A CAST conversion is similar to the conversion that takes
place when a <a href="datatype3.html#affinity">column affinity</a> is applied to a value except that with
the CAST operator the conversion always takes place even if the conversion
lossy and irreversible, whereas column affinity only changes the data type
of a value if the change is lossless and reversible.

<p>If the value of <i>expr</i> is NULL, then the result of the CAST
expression is also NULL. Otherwise, the storage class of the result
is determined by applying the <a href="datatype3.html#affname">rules for determining column affinity</a> to
the <span class='yyterm'>type-name</span>.

<table border=1>
<tr>
  <th> Affinity of <span class='yyterm'>type-name</span>
  <th> Conversion Processing
<tr>
  <td> NONE 
  <td> Casting a value to a <span class='yyterm'>type-name</span> with no affinity 
  causes the value to
  be converted into a BLOB.  Casting to a BLOB consists of first casting
  the value to TEXT in the <a href="pragma.html#pragma_encoding">encoding</a> of the database connection, then
  interpreting the resulting byte sequence as a BLOB instead of as TEXT.

<tr>
  <td> TEXT
  <td> To cast a BLOB value to TEXT, the sequence of bytes that make up the
................................................................................
  <td> When casting a BLOB value to INTEGER, the value is first converted to
        TEXT.
       <p>When casting a TEXT value to INTEGER, the longest possible prefix of
        the value that can be interpreted as an integer number is extracted from
        the TEXT value and the remainder ignored. Any leading spaces in the
        TEXT value when converting from TEXT to INTEGER are ignored. If there
        is no prefix that can be interpreted as an integer number, the result
        of the conversion is 0.  The CAST operator understands decimal
        integers only &mdash; conversion of <a href="lang_expr.html#hexint">hexadecimal integers</a> stops 
        at the "x" in the "0x" prefix of the hexadecimal integer string 
        and thus result of the CAST is always zero.

      <p>A cast of a REAL value into an INTEGER results in the integer
      between the REAL value and zero that is closest to the REAL value.
      If a REAL is greater than the greatest possible signed
      integer (+9223372036854775807) then the result is the greatest possible
      signed integer and if the REAL is less than the least possible signed
      integer (-9223372036854775808) then the result is the least possible

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<a href="index.html">
................................................................................
<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>INDEXED BY</h2>
<p>The INDEXED BY phrase forces the <a href="optoverview.html">SQLite query planner</a> to use a
particular named index on a <a href="lang_delete.html">DELETE</a>, <a href="lang_select.html">SELECT</a>, or <a href="lang_update.html">UPDATE</a> statement.
The INDEXED BY phrase is an SQLite extension and
is not portable to other SQL database engines.</p>

<p><b><a href="syntax/qualified-table-name.html">qualified-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1433' onclick='hideorshow("x1433","x1434")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1434'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram qualified-table-name" src="images/syntax/qualified-table-name.gif" />
</blockquote>



<p>The "INDEXED BY index-name" phrase specifies that the named index
must be used in order to look up values on the preceding table.
If index-name does not exist or cannot be used for the query, then
the preparation of the SQL statement fails.
The "NOT INDEXED" clause specifies that no index shall be used when
accessing the preceding table, including implied indices create by
UNIQUE and PRIMARY KEY constraints.  However, the <a href="lang_createtable.html#rowid">rowid</a>
can still be used to look up entries even when "NOT INDEXED" is specified.</p>

<p>Some SQL database engines provide non-standard "hint" mechanisms which
can be used to give the query optimizer clues about what indices it should
................................................................................

<p>The INDEXED BY clause is <em>not</em> intended for use in tuning
the performance of a query.  The intent of the INDEXED BY clause is
to raise a run-time error if a schema change, such as dropping or
creating an index, causes the query plan for a time-sensitive query
to change.  The INDEXED BY clause is designed to help detect
undesirable query plan changes during regression testing.

Developers are admonished to omit all use of INDEXED BY during
application design, implementation, testing, and tuning.  If
INDEXED BY is to be used at all, it should be inserted at the very
end of the development process when "locking down" a design.</p>

<h3>See Also:</h3>

<ol>







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>
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<a href="index.html">
................................................................................
<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>INDEXED BY</h2>
<p>The INDEXED BY phrase forces the <a href="optoverview.html">SQLite query planner</a> to use a
particular named index on a <a href="lang_delete.html">DELETE</a>, <a href="lang_select.html">SELECT</a>, or <a href="lang_update.html">UPDATE</a> statement.
The INDEXED BY phrase is an SQLite extension and
is not portable to other SQL database engines.</p>

<p><b><a href="syntax/qualified-table-name.html">qualified-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1435' onclick='hideorshow("x1435","x1436")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1436'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram qualified-table-name" src="images/syntax/qualified-table-name.gif" />
</blockquote>


<p>The "INDEXED BY <span class='yyterm'>index-name</span>" phrase specifies 
that the named index
must be used in order to look up values on the preceding table.
If <span class='yyterm'>index-name</span> does not exist or cannot be used 
for the query, then the preparation of the SQL statement fails.
The "NOT INDEXED" clause specifies that no index shall be used when
accessing the preceding table, including implied indices create by
UNIQUE and PRIMARY KEY constraints.  However, the <a href="lang_createtable.html#rowid">rowid</a>
can still be used to look up entries even when "NOT INDEXED" is specified.</p>

<p>Some SQL database engines provide non-standard "hint" mechanisms which
can be used to give the query optimizer clues about what indices it should
................................................................................

<p>The INDEXED BY clause is <em>not</em> intended for use in tuning
the performance of a query.  The intent of the INDEXED BY clause is
to raise a run-time error if a schema change, such as dropping or
creating an index, causes the query plan for a time-sensitive query
to change.  The INDEXED BY clause is designed to help detect
undesirable query plan changes during regression testing.
Application 
developers are admonished to omit all use of INDEXED BY during
application design, implementation, testing, and tuning.  If
INDEXED BY is to be used at all, it should be inserted at the very
end of the development process when "locking down" a design.</p>

<h3>See Also:</h3>

<ol>

Changes to Doc/Extra/Core/lang_insert.html.

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<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>INSERT</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/insert-stmt.html">insert-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1099' onclick='hideorshow("x1099","x1100")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1100'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram insert-stmt" src="images/syntax/insert-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1101' onclick='hideorshow("x1101","x1102")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1102' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1103' onclick='hideorshow("x1103","x1104")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1104' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x1105' onclick='hideorshow("x1105","x1106")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1106' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1107' onclick='hideorshow("x1107","x1108")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1108' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1109' onclick='hideorshow("x1109","x1110")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1110' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1111' onclick='hideorshow("x1111","x1112")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1112' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1113' onclick='hideorshow("x1113","x1114")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1114' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1115' onclick='hideorshow("x1115","x1116")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1116' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1117' onclick='hideorshow("x1117","x1118")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1118' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1119' onclick='hideorshow("x1119","x1120")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1120' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1121' onclick='hideorshow("x1121","x1122")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1122' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1123' onclick='hideorshow("x1123","x1124")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1124' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1125' onclick='hideorshow("x1125","x1126")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1126' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1127' onclick='hideorshow("x1127","x1128")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1128' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/with-clause.html">with-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1129' onclick='hideorshow("x1129","x1130")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1130' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram with-clause" src="images/syntax/with-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/cte-table-name.html">cte-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1131' onclick='hideorshow("x1131","x1132")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1132' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram cte-table-name" src="images/syntax/cte-table-name.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>


<p>The INSERT statement comes in three basic forms.  
<ul>
<li><p>The first form (with the "VALUES" keyword) creates one or more
new rows in
an existing table. If no column-list is specified then the number

of values inserted into each row
must be the same as the number of columns in the table. In this case
the result of evaluating the left-most expression from each term of
the VALUES list is inserted into the left-most column of each new row,
and so forth for each subsequent expression. If a
column-list is specified, then the number of values in each term of the
VALUE list must match the number of
specified columns. Each of the named columns of the new row is populated
with the results of evaluating the corresponding VALUES expression. Table
columns that do not appear in the column list are populated with the default
column value (specified as part of the CREATE TABLE statement), or with NULL if
no default value is specified.

<li><p>The second form of the INSERT statement contains a SELECT statement
instead of a VALUES clause. A new entry is inserted into the table for each
row of data returned by executing the SELECT statement. If a column-list is
specified, the number of columns in the result of the SELECT must be the same
as the number of items in the column-list. Otherwise, if no column-list is
specified, the number of columns in the result of the SELECT must be the same
as the number of columns in the table. Any SELECT statement, including
<a href="lang_select.html#compound">compound SELECTs</a> and SELECT statements with <a href="lang_select.html#orderby">ORDER BY</a> and/or <a href="lang_select.html#limitoffset">LIMIT</a> clauses, 
may be used in an INSERT statement of this form.

<li><p>The third form of an INSERT statement is with DEFAULT VALUES.
The INSERT ... DEFAULT VALUES statement inserts a single new row into the
named table. Each column of the new row is populated with its default value,
or with a NULL if no default value is specified as part of the column
definition in the CREATE TABLE statement.

</ul>

<p>The "REPLACE" and "INSERT OR <i>action</i>" forms specify an alternative
constraint conflict resolution algorithm to use during this one INSERT command.
See the section titled <a href="lang_conflict.html">ON CONFLICT</a> for additional information.
For compatibility with MySQL, the parser allows the use of the
single keyword <a href="lang_replace.html">REPLACE</a> as an 
alias for "INSERT OR REPLACE".

<p>The optional "<i>database-name</i><b>.</b>" prefix on the <i>table-name</i>

is support for top-level INSERT statements only.  The table name must be
unqualified for INSERT statements that occur within <a href="lang_createtrigger.html">CREATE TRIGGER</a> statements.
Similarly, the "DEFAULT VALUES" form of the INSERT statement is supported for
top-level INSERT statements only and not for INSERT statements within
triggers.
<p>









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<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>INSERT</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/insert-stmt.html">insert-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1101' onclick='hideorshow("x1101","x1102")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1102'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram insert-stmt" src="images/syntax/insert-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1103' onclick='hideorshow("x1103","x1104")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1104' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1105' onclick='hideorshow("x1105","x1106")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1106' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x1107' onclick='hideorshow("x1107","x1108")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1108' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1109' onclick='hideorshow("x1109","x1110")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1110' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1111' onclick='hideorshow("x1111","x1112")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1112' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1113' onclick='hideorshow("x1113","x1114")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1114' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1115' onclick='hideorshow("x1115","x1116")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1116' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1117' onclick='hideorshow("x1117","x1118")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1118' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1119' onclick='hideorshow("x1119","x1120")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1120' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1121' onclick='hideorshow("x1121","x1122")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1122' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1123' onclick='hideorshow("x1123","x1124")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1124' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1125' onclick='hideorshow("x1125","x1126")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1126' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1127' onclick='hideorshow("x1127","x1128")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1128' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1129' onclick='hideorshow("x1129","x1130")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1130' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/with-clause.html">with-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1131' onclick='hideorshow("x1131","x1132")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1132' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram with-clause" src="images/syntax/with-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/cte-table-name.html">cte-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1133' onclick='hideorshow("x1133","x1134")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1134' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram cte-table-name" src="images/syntax/cte-table-name.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>


<p>The INSERT statement comes in three basic forms.  
<ul>
<li><p>The first form (with the "VALUES" keyword) creates one or more
new rows in
an existing table. If the <span class='yyterm'>column-name</span> list after
<span class='yyterm'>table-name</span> is omitted then the number
of values inserted into each row
must be the same as the number of columns in the table. In this case
the result of evaluating the left-most expression from each term of
the VALUES list is inserted into the left-most column of each new row,
and so forth for each subsequent expression. If a <span class='yyterm'>column-name</span>
list is specified, then the number of values in each term of the
VALUE list must match the number of
specified columns. Each of the named columns of the new row is populated
with the results of evaluating the corresponding VALUES expression. Table
columns that do not appear in the column list are populated with the 
<a href="lang_createtable.html#dfltval">default column value</a> (specified as part of the <a href="lang_createtable.html">CREATE TABLE</a> statement), or
with NULL if no <a href="lang_createtable.html#dfltval">default value</a> is specified.

<li><p>The second form of the INSERT statement contains a <a href="lang_select.html">SELECT</a> statement
instead of a VALUES clause. A new entry is inserted into the table for each
row of data returned by executing the SELECT statement. If a column-list is
specified, the number of columns in the result of the SELECT must be the same
as the number of items in the column-list. Otherwise, if no column-list is
specified, the number of columns in the result of the SELECT must be the same
as the number of columns in the table. Any SELECT statement, including
<a href="lang_select.html#compound">compound SELECTs</a> and SELECT statements with <a href="lang_select.html#orderby">ORDER BY</a> and/or <a href="lang_select.html#limitoffset">LIMIT</a> clauses, 
may be used in an INSERT statement of this form.

<li><p>The third form of an INSERT statement is with DEFAULT VALUES.
The INSERT ... DEFAULT VALUES statement inserts a single new row into the
named table. Each column of the new row is populated with its 
<a href="lang_createtable.html#dfltval">default value</a>, or with a NULL if no default value is specified 
as part of the column definition in the <a href="lang_createtable.html">CREATE TABLE</a> statement.

</ul>

<p>The "REPLACE" and "INSERT OR <i>action</i>" forms specify an alternative
constraint conflict resolution algorithm to use during this one INSERT command.
See the section titled <a href="lang_conflict.html">ON CONFLICT</a> for additional information.
For compatibility with MySQL, the parser allows the use of the
single keyword <a href="lang_replace.html">REPLACE</a> as an 
alias for "INSERT OR REPLACE".

<p>The optional "<i>schema-name</i><b>.</b>" prefix on the 
<span class='yyterm'>table-name</span>
is supported for top-level INSERT statements only.  The table name must be
unqualified for INSERT statements that occur within <a href="lang_createtrigger.html">CREATE TRIGGER</a> statements.
Similarly, the "DEFAULT VALUES" form of the INSERT statement is supported for
top-level INSERT statements only and not for INSERT statements within
triggers.
<p>


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      DROP TABLE t1;         /* Drop table in temp database */
      DROP TABLE t1;         /* Drop table in main database */
      DROP TABLE t1;         /* Drop table in aux database */
</pre>

<p>
  If a database name is specified as part of an object reference, it must be
  either "main", or "temp" or the name of an attached database. Like other
  SQL identifiers, database names are case-insensitive. If a database name

  is specified, then only the named database is searched for the named object.

<p>
  Most object references may only resolve to a specific type of object (for
  example a reference that is part of a DROP TABLE statement may only resolve
  to a table object, not an index, trigger or view). However in some contexts 
  (e.g. <a href="lang_reindex.html">REINDEX</a>) an object reference may be resolve to more than one type
  of object. When searching database schemas for a named object, objects of
  types that cannot be used in the context of the reference are always 
  ignored.









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      DROP TABLE t1;         /* Drop table in temp database */
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      DROP TABLE t1;         /* Drop table in aux database */
</pre>

<p>
  If a schema name is specified as part of an object reference, it must be
  either "main", or "temp" or the schema-name of an attached database.
  Like other SQL identifiers, schema names are case-insensitive.
  If a schema name is specified, then only that one schema is searched for
  the named object.

<p>
  Most object references may only resolve to a specific type of object (for
  example a reference that is part of a DROP TABLE statement may only resolve
  to a table object, not an index, trigger or view). However in some contexts 
  (e.g. <a href="lang_reindex.html">REINDEX</a>) an object reference may be resolve to more than one type
  of object. When searching database schemas for a named object, objects of
  types that cannot be used in the context of the reference are always 
  ignored.


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<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>REINDEX</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/reindex-stmt.html">reindex-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1135' onclick='hideorshow("x1135","x1136")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1136'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram reindex-stmt" src="images/syntax/reindex-stmt.gif" />
</blockquote>


<p>The REINDEX command is used to delete and recreate indices from scratch.
This is useful when the definition of a collation sequence has changed.
</p>
................................................................................
all indices in all attached databases that use the named collation sequences
are recreated. 

<p>Or, if the argument attached to the REINDEX identifies a specific 
database table, then all indices attached to the database table are rebuilt. 
If it identifies a specific database index, then just that index is recreated.

<p>If no <i>database-name</i> is specified and there exists both a table or
index and a collation sequence of the specified name, SQLite interprets
this as a request to rebuild the indices that use the named collation sequence.
This ambiguity in the syntax may be avoided by always specifying a
<i>database-name</i> when reindexing a specific table or index.









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<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>REINDEX</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/reindex-stmt.html">reindex-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1137' onclick='hideorshow("x1137","x1138")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1138'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram reindex-stmt" src="images/syntax/reindex-stmt.gif" />
</blockquote>


<p>The REINDEX command is used to delete and recreate indices from scratch.
This is useful when the definition of a collation sequence has changed.
</p>
................................................................................
all indices in all attached databases that use the named collation sequences
are recreated. 

<p>Or, if the argument attached to the REINDEX identifies a specific 
database table, then all indices attached to the database table are rebuilt. 
If it identifies a specific database index, then just that index is recreated.

<p>For a command of the form "REINDEX <i>name</i>", a match
against <span class='yyterm'>collation-name</span> takes precedence over a match
against <span class='yyterm'>index-name</span> or <span class='yyterm'>table-name</span>.
This ambiguity in the syntax may be avoided by always specifying a
<span class='yyterm'>schema-name</span> when reindexing a specific table or index.


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<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>SAVEPOINT</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/savepoint-stmt.html">savepoint-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x815' onclick='hideorshow("x815","x816")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x816'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram savepoint-stmt" src="images/syntax/savepoint-stmt.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/release-stmt.html">release-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x817' onclick='hideorshow("x817","x818")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x818'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram release-stmt" src="images/syntax/release-stmt.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/rollback-stmt.html">rollback-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x819' onclick='hideorshow("x819","x820")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x820'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram rollback-stmt" src="images/syntax/rollback-stmt.gif" />
</blockquote>


<p> SAVEPOINTs are a method of creating transactions, similar to
<a href="lang_transaction.html">BEGIN</a> and <a href="lang_transaction.html">COMMIT</a>, except that the SAVEPOINT and RELEASE commands
are named and may be nested.</p>







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<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>SAVEPOINT</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/savepoint-stmt.html">savepoint-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x817' onclick='hideorshow("x817","x818")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x818'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram savepoint-stmt" src="images/syntax/savepoint-stmt.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/release-stmt.html">release-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x819' onclick='hideorshow("x819","x820")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x820'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram release-stmt" src="images/syntax/release-stmt.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/rollback-stmt.html">rollback-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x821' onclick='hideorshow("x821","x822")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x822'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram rollback-stmt" src="images/syntax/rollback-stmt.gif" />
</blockquote>


<p> SAVEPOINTs are a method of creating transactions, similar to
<a href="lang_transaction.html">BEGIN</a> and <a href="lang_transaction.html">COMMIT</a>, except that the SAVEPOINT and RELEASE commands
are named and may be nested.</p>

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</style>
  
</head>
<body>
<div><!-- container div to satisfy validator -->

<a href="index.html">
................................................................................
    </form>
    </div>
  </table>

<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>SELECT</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1173' onclick='hideorshow("x1173","x1174")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1174'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1175' onclick='hideorshow("x1175","x1176")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1176' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1177' onclick='hideorshow("x1177","x1178")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1178' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1179' onclick='hideorshow("x1179","x1180")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1180' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1181' onclick='hideorshow("x1181","x1182")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1182' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x1183' onclick='hideorshow("x1183","x1184")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1184' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1185' onclick='hideorshow("x1185","x1186")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1186' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1187' onclick='hideorshow("x1187","x1188")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1188' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1189' onclick='hideorshow("x1189","x1190")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1190' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1191' onclick='hideorshow("x1191","x1192")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1192' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1193' onclick='hideorshow("x1193","x1194")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1194' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1195' onclick='hideorshow("x1195","x1196")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1196' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1197' onclick='hideorshow("x1197","x1198")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1198' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1199' onclick='hideorshow("x1199","x1200")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1200' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>



<p>The SELECT statement is used to query the database.  The
................................................................................
<p>The "<a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt</a>" syntax diagram above attempts to show as much of the
SELECT statement syntax as possible in a single diagram, because some readers
find that helpful.  The following "<a href="syntax/factored-select-stmt.html">factored-select-stmt</a>" is an alternative
syntax diagrams that expresses the same syntax but tries to break the syntax 
down into smaller chunks.

<p><b><a href="syntax/factored-select-stmt.html">factored-select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1201' onclick='hideorshow("x1201","x1202")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1202' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram factored-select-stmt" src="images/syntax/factored-select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1203' onclick='hideorshow("x1203","x1204")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1204' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1205' onclick='hideorshow("x1205","x1206")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1206' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1207' onclick='hideorshow("x1207","x1208")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1208' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1209' onclick='hideorshow("x1209","x1210")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1210' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1211' onclick='hideorshow("x1211","x1212")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1212' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1213' onclick='hideorshow("x1213","x1214")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1214' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1215' onclick='hideorshow("x1215","x1216")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1216' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1217' onclick='hideorshow("x1217","x1218")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1218' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1219' onclick='hideorshow("x1219","x1220")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1220' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1221' onclick='hideorshow("x1221","x1222")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1222' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x1223' onclick='hideorshow("x1223","x1224")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1224' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1225' onclick='hideorshow("x1225","x1226")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1226' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1227' onclick='hideorshow("x1227","x1228")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1228' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1229' onclick='hideorshow("x1229","x1230")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1230' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1231' onclick='hideorshow("x1231","x1232")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1232' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1233' onclick='hideorshow("x1233","x1234")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1234' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1235' onclick='hideorshow("x1235","x1236")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1236' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1237' onclick='hideorshow("x1237","x1238")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1238' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1239' onclick='hideorshow("x1239","x1240")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1240' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1241' onclick='hideorshow("x1241","x1242")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1242' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-core.html">select-core:</a></b>
<button id='x1243' onclick='hideorshow("x1243","x1244")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1244' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-core" src="images/syntax/select-core.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1245' onclick='hideorshow("x1245","x1246")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1246' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1247' onclick='hideorshow("x1247","x1248")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1248' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1249' onclick='hideorshow("x1249","x1250")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1250' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1251' onclick='hideorshow("x1251","x1252")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1252' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1253' onclick='hideorshow("x1253","x1254")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1254' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1255' onclick='hideorshow("x1255","x1256")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1256' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>


................................................................................
<h3>Simple Select Processing</h3>

<p>The core of a SELECT statement is a "simple SELECT" shown by the
<a href="syntax/select-core.html">select-core</a> and <a href="syntax/simple-select-stmt.html">simple-select-stmt</a> syntax diagrams below.  
In practice, most SELECT statements are simple SELECT statements.

<p><b><a href="syntax/simple-select-stmt.html">simple-select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1257' onclick='hideorshow("x1257","x1258")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1258'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram simple-select-stmt" src="images/syntax/simple-select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1259' onclick='hideorshow("x1259","x1260")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1260' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1261' onclick='hideorshow("x1261","x1262")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1262' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1263' onclick='hideorshow("x1263","x1264")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1264' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1265' onclick='hideorshow("x1265","x1266")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1266' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1267' onclick='hideorshow("x1267","x1268")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1268' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1269' onclick='hideorshow("x1269","x1270")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1270' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1271' onclick='hideorshow("x1271","x1272")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1272' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1273' onclick='hideorshow("x1273","x1274")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1274' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1275' onclick='hideorshow("x1275","x1276")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1276' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1277' onclick='hideorshow("x1277","x1278")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1278' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x1279' onclick='hideorshow("x1279","x1280")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1280' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1281' onclick='hideorshow("x1281","x1282")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1282' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1283' onclick='hideorshow("x1283","x1284")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1284' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1285' onclick='hideorshow("x1285","x1286")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1286' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1287' onclick='hideorshow("x1287","x1288")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1288' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1289' onclick='hideorshow("x1289","x1290")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1290' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1291' onclick='hideorshow("x1291","x1292")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1292' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1293' onclick='hideorshow("x1293","x1294")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1294' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1295' onclick='hideorshow("x1295","x1296")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1296' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1297' onclick='hideorshow("x1297","x1298")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1298' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1299' onclick='hideorshow("x1299","x1300")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1300' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-core.html">select-core:</a></b>
<button id='x1301' onclick='hideorshow("x1301","x1302")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1302'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-core" src="images/syntax/select-core.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1303' onclick='hideorshow("x1303","x1304")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1304' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1305' onclick='hideorshow("x1305","x1306")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1306' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1307' onclick='hideorshow("x1307","x1308")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1308' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1309' onclick='hideorshow("x1309","x1310")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1310' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1311' onclick='hideorshow("x1311","x1312")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1312' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1313' onclick='hideorshow("x1313","x1314")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1314' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1315' onclick='hideorshow("x1315","x1316")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1316' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>

................................................................................
<h3>Compound Select Statements</h3>

<p>Two or more <a href="lang_select.html#simpleselect">simple SELECT</a> statements may be connected together to form
a compound SELECT using the UNION, UNION ALL, INTERSECT or EXCEPT operator,
as shown by the following diagram:

<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-select-stmt.html">compound-select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1317' onclick='hideorshow("x1317","x1318")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1318'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-select-stmt" src="images/syntax/compound-select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1319' onclick='hideorshow("x1319","x1320")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1320' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1321' onclick='hideorshow("x1321","x1322")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1322' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1323' onclick='hideorshow("x1323","x1324")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1324' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1325' onclick='hideorshow("x1325","x1326")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1326' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1327' onclick='hideorshow("x1327","x1328")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1328' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1329' onclick='hideorshow("x1329","x1330")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1330' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1331' onclick='hideorshow("x1331","x1332")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1332' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1333' onclick='hideorshow("x1333","x1334")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1334' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1335' onclick='hideorshow("x1335","x1336")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1336' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1337' onclick='hideorshow("x1337","x1338")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1338' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x1339' onclick='hideorshow("x1339","x1340")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1340' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1341' onclick='hideorshow("x1341","x1342")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1342' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1343' onclick='hideorshow("x1343","x1344")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1344' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1345' onclick='hideorshow("x1345","x1346")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1346' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1347' onclick='hideorshow("x1347","x1348")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1348' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1349' onclick='hideorshow("x1349","x1350")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1350' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1351' onclick='hideorshow("x1351","x1352")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1352' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1353' onclick='hideorshow("x1353","x1354")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1354' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1355' onclick='hideorshow("x1355","x1356")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1356' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1357' onclick='hideorshow("x1357","x1358")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1358' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1359' onclick='hideorshow("x1359","x1360")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1360' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-core.html">select-core:</a></b>
<button id='x1361' onclick='hideorshow("x1361","x1362")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1362' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-core" src="images/syntax/select-core.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1363' onclick='hideorshow("x1363","x1364")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1364' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1365' onclick='hideorshow("x1365","x1366")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1366' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1367' onclick='hideorshow("x1367","x1368")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1368' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1369' onclick='hideorshow("x1369","x1370")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1370' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1371' onclick='hideorshow("x1371","x1372")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1372' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1373' onclick='hideorshow("x1373","x1374")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1374' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1375' onclick='hideorshow("x1375","x1376")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1376' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>

................................................................................

<h3>The WITH Clause</h3>

<p>SELECT statements may be optionally preceded by a single
<a href="lang_with.html">WITH clause</a> that defines one or more <a href="lang_with.html">common table expressions</a>
for use within the SELECT statement.



















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<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>SELECT</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1175' onclick='hideorshow("x1175","x1176")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1176'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1177' onclick='hideorshow("x1177","x1178")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1178' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1179' onclick='hideorshow("x1179","x1180")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1180' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1181' onclick='hideorshow("x1181","x1182")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1182' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1183' onclick='hideorshow("x1183","x1184")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1184' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x1185' onclick='hideorshow("x1185","x1186")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1186' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1187' onclick='hideorshow("x1187","x1188")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1188' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1189' onclick='hideorshow("x1189","x1190")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1190' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1191' onclick='hideorshow("x1191","x1192")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1192' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1193' onclick='hideorshow("x1193","x1194")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1194' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1195' onclick='hideorshow("x1195","x1196")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1196' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1197' onclick='hideorshow("x1197","x1198")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1198' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1199' onclick='hideorshow("x1199","x1200")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1200' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1201' onclick='hideorshow("x1201","x1202")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1202' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>



<p>The SELECT statement is used to query the database.  The
................................................................................
<p>The "<a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt</a>" syntax diagram above attempts to show as much of the
SELECT statement syntax as possible in a single diagram, because some readers
find that helpful.  The following "<a href="syntax/factored-select-stmt.html">factored-select-stmt</a>" is an alternative
syntax diagrams that expresses the same syntax but tries to break the syntax 
down into smaller chunks.

<p><b><a href="syntax/factored-select-stmt.html">factored-select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1203' onclick='hideorshow("x1203","x1204")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1204' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram factored-select-stmt" src="images/syntax/factored-select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1205' onclick='hideorshow("x1205","x1206")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1206' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1207' onclick='hideorshow("x1207","x1208")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1208' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1209' onclick='hideorshow("x1209","x1210")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1210' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1211' onclick='hideorshow("x1211","x1212")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1212' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1213' onclick='hideorshow("x1213","x1214")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1214' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1215' onclick='hideorshow("x1215","x1216")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1216' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1217' onclick='hideorshow("x1217","x1218")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1218' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1219' onclick='hideorshow("x1219","x1220")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1220' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1221' onclick='hideorshow("x1221","x1222")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1222' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1223' onclick='hideorshow("x1223","x1224")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1224' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x1225' onclick='hideorshow("x1225","x1226")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1226' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1227' onclick='hideorshow("x1227","x1228")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1228' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1229' onclick='hideorshow("x1229","x1230")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1230' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1231' onclick='hideorshow("x1231","x1232")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1232' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1233' onclick='hideorshow("x1233","x1234")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1234' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1235' onclick='hideorshow("x1235","x1236")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1236' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1237' onclick='hideorshow("x1237","x1238")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1238' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1239' onclick='hideorshow("x1239","x1240")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1240' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1241' onclick='hideorshow("x1241","x1242")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1242' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1243' onclick='hideorshow("x1243","x1244")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1244' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-core.html">select-core:</a></b>
<button id='x1245' onclick='hideorshow("x1245","x1246")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1246' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-core" src="images/syntax/select-core.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1247' onclick='hideorshow("x1247","x1248")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1248' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1249' onclick='hideorshow("x1249","x1250")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1250' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1251' onclick='hideorshow("x1251","x1252")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1252' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1253' onclick='hideorshow("x1253","x1254")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1254' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1255' onclick='hideorshow("x1255","x1256")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1256' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1257' onclick='hideorshow("x1257","x1258")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1258' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>


................................................................................
<h3>Simple Select Processing</h3>

<p>The core of a SELECT statement is a "simple SELECT" shown by the
<a href="syntax/select-core.html">select-core</a> and <a href="syntax/simple-select-stmt.html">simple-select-stmt</a> syntax diagrams below.  
In practice, most SELECT statements are simple SELECT statements.

<p><b><a href="syntax/simple-select-stmt.html">simple-select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1259' onclick='hideorshow("x1259","x1260")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1260'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram simple-select-stmt" src="images/syntax/simple-select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1261' onclick='hideorshow("x1261","x1262")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1262' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1263' onclick='hideorshow("x1263","x1264")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1264' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1265' onclick='hideorshow("x1265","x1266")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1266' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1267' onclick='hideorshow("x1267","x1268")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1268' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1269' onclick='hideorshow("x1269","x1270")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1270' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1271' onclick='hideorshow("x1271","x1272")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1272' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1273' onclick='hideorshow("x1273","x1274")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1274' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1275' onclick='hideorshow("x1275","x1276")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1276' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1277' onclick='hideorshow("x1277","x1278")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1278' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1279' onclick='hideorshow("x1279","x1280")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1280' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x1281' onclick='hideorshow("x1281","x1282")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1282' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1283' onclick='hideorshow("x1283","x1284")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1284' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1285' onclick='hideorshow("x1285","x1286")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1286' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1287' onclick='hideorshow("x1287","x1288")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1288' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1289' onclick='hideorshow("x1289","x1290")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1290' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1291' onclick='hideorshow("x1291","x1292")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1292' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1293' onclick='hideorshow("x1293","x1294")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1294' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1295' onclick='hideorshow("x1295","x1296")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1296' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1297' onclick='hideorshow("x1297","x1298")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1298' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1299' onclick='hideorshow("x1299","x1300")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1300' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1301' onclick='hideorshow("x1301","x1302")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1302' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-core.html">select-core:</a></b>
<button id='x1303' onclick='hideorshow("x1303","x1304")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1304'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-core" src="images/syntax/select-core.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1305' onclick='hideorshow("x1305","x1306")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1306' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1307' onclick='hideorshow("x1307","x1308")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1308' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1309' onclick='hideorshow("x1309","x1310")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1310' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1311' onclick='hideorshow("x1311","x1312")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1312' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1313' onclick='hideorshow("x1313","x1314")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1314' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1315' onclick='hideorshow("x1315","x1316")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1316' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1317' onclick='hideorshow("x1317","x1318")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1318' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>

................................................................................
<h3>Compound Select Statements</h3>

<p>Two or more <a href="lang_select.html#simpleselect">simple SELECT</a> statements may be connected together to form
a compound SELECT using the UNION, UNION ALL, INTERSECT or EXCEPT operator,
as shown by the following diagram:

<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-select-stmt.html">compound-select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1319' onclick='hideorshow("x1319","x1320")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1320'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-select-stmt" src="images/syntax/compound-select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1321' onclick='hideorshow("x1321","x1322")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1322' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1323' onclick='hideorshow("x1323","x1324")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1324' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1325' onclick='hideorshow("x1325","x1326")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1326' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1327' onclick='hideorshow("x1327","x1328")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1328' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1329' onclick='hideorshow("x1329","x1330")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1330' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1331' onclick='hideorshow("x1331","x1332")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1332' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1333' onclick='hideorshow("x1333","x1334")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1334' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1335' onclick='hideorshow("x1335","x1336")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1336' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1337' onclick='hideorshow("x1337","x1338")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1338' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1339' onclick='hideorshow("x1339","x1340")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1340' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x1341' onclick='hideorshow("x1341","x1342")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1342' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1343' onclick='hideorshow("x1343","x1344")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1344' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1345' onclick='hideorshow("x1345","x1346")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1346' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1347' onclick='hideorshow("x1347","x1348")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1348' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1349' onclick='hideorshow("x1349","x1350")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1350' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1351' onclick='hideorshow("x1351","x1352")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1352' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1353' onclick='hideorshow("x1353","x1354")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1354' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1355' onclick='hideorshow("x1355","x1356")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1356' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1357' onclick='hideorshow("x1357","x1358")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1358' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1359' onclick='hideorshow("x1359","x1360")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1360' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1361' onclick='hideorshow("x1361","x1362")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1362' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-core.html">select-core:</a></b>
<button id='x1363' onclick='hideorshow("x1363","x1364")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1364' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-core" src="images/syntax/select-core.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1365' onclick='hideorshow("x1365","x1366")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1366' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1367' onclick='hideorshow("x1367","x1368")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1368' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1369' onclick='hideorshow("x1369","x1370")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1370' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1371' onclick='hideorshow("x1371","x1372")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1372' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1373' onclick='hideorshow("x1373","x1374")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1374' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1375' onclick='hideorshow("x1375","x1376")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1376' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1377' onclick='hideorshow("x1377","x1378")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1378' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>

................................................................................

<h3>The WITH Clause</h3>

<p>SELECT statements may be optionally preceded by a single
<a href="lang_with.html">WITH clause</a> that defines one or more <a href="lang_with.html">common table expressions</a>
for use within the SELECT statement.

<a name="tabfunc1"></a>

<h3>Table-valued Functions In The FROM Clause</h3>

<p>A <a href="vtab.html">virtual table</a> that contains <a href="vtab.html#hiddencol">hidden columns</a> can be used like
a <a href="vtab.html#tabfunc2">table-valued function</a> in the FROM clause.  The arguments to the
table-valued function become constraints on the HIDDEN columns of
the virtual table.  Additional information can be found in the
<a href="vtab.html#tabfunc2">virtual table documentation</a>.


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<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>BEGIN TRANSACTION</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/begin-stmt.html">begin-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x809' onclick='hideorshow("x809","x810")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x810'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram begin-stmt" src="images/syntax/begin-stmt.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/commit-stmt.html">commit-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x811' onclick='hideorshow("x811","x812")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x812'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram commit-stmt" src="images/syntax/commit-stmt.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/rollback-stmt.html">rollback-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x813' onclick='hideorshow("x813","x814")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x814'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram rollback-stmt" src="images/syntax/rollback-stmt.gif" />
</blockquote>


<p>
No changes can be made to the database except within a transaction.
Any command that changes the database (basically, any SQL command
................................................................................

<p>
END TRANSACTION is an alias for COMMIT.
</p>

<p> Transactions created using BEGIN...COMMIT do not nest.
For nested transactions, use the <a href="lang_savepoint.html">SAVEPOINT</a> and <a href="lang_savepoint.html">RELEASE</a> commands.
The "TO SAVEPOINT <i>name</i>" clause of the ROLLBACK command shown
in the syntax diagram above is only applicable to <a href="lang_savepoint.html">SAVEPOINT</a>
transactions.  An attempt to invoke the BEGIN command within
a transaction will fail with an error, regardless of whether
the transaction was started by <a href="lang_savepoint.html">SAVEPOINT</a> or a prior BEGIN.
The COMMIT command and the ROLLBACK command without the TO clause
work the same on <a href="lang_savepoint.html">SAVEPOINT</a> transactions as they do with transactions
started by BEGIN.</p>







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<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>BEGIN TRANSACTION</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/begin-stmt.html">begin-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x811' onclick='hideorshow("x811","x812")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x812'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram begin-stmt" src="images/syntax/begin-stmt.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/commit-stmt.html">commit-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x813' onclick='hideorshow("x813","x814")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x814'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram commit-stmt" src="images/syntax/commit-stmt.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/rollback-stmt.html">rollback-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x815' onclick='hideorshow("x815","x816")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x816'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram rollback-stmt" src="images/syntax/rollback-stmt.gif" />
</blockquote>


<p>
No changes can be made to the database except within a transaction.
Any command that changes the database (basically, any SQL command
................................................................................

<p>
END TRANSACTION is an alias for COMMIT.
</p>

<p> Transactions created using BEGIN...COMMIT do not nest.
For nested transactions, use the <a href="lang_savepoint.html">SAVEPOINT</a> and <a href="lang_savepoint.html">RELEASE</a> commands.
The "TO SAVEPOINT <span class='yyterm'>name</span>" clause of the ROLLBACK command shown
in the syntax diagram above is only applicable to <a href="lang_savepoint.html">SAVEPOINT</a>
transactions.  An attempt to invoke the BEGIN command within
a transaction will fail with an error, regardless of whether
the transaction was started by <a href="lang_savepoint.html">SAVEPOINT</a> or a prior BEGIN.
The COMMIT command and the ROLLBACK command without the TO clause
work the same on <a href="lang_savepoint.html">SAVEPOINT</a> transactions as they do with transactions
started by BEGIN.</p>

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<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>UPDATE</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/update-stmt.html">update-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1377' onclick='hideorshow("x1377","x1378")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1378'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram update-stmt" src="images/syntax/update-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1379' onclick='hideorshow("x1379","x1380")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1380' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1381' onclick='hideorshow("x1381","x1382")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1382' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x1383' onclick='hideorshow("x1383","x1384")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1384' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1385' onclick='hideorshow("x1385","x1386")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1386' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1387' onclick='hideorshow("x1387","x1388")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1388' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1389' onclick='hideorshow("x1389","x1390")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1390' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1391' onclick='hideorshow("x1391","x1392")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1392' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1393' onclick='hideorshow("x1393","x1394")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1394' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1395' onclick='hideorshow("x1395","x1396")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1396' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1397' onclick='hideorshow("x1397","x1398")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1398' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1399' onclick='hideorshow("x1399","x1400")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1400' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1401' onclick='hideorshow("x1401","x1402")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1402' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1403' onclick='hideorshow("x1403","x1404")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1404' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1405' onclick='hideorshow("x1405","x1406")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1406' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/qualified-table-name.html">qualified-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1407' onclick='hideorshow("x1407","x1408")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1408' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram qualified-table-name" src="images/syntax/qualified-table-name.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/with-clause.html">with-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1409' onclick='hideorshow("x1409","x1410")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1410' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram with-clause" src="images/syntax/with-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/cte-table-name.html">cte-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1411' onclick='hideorshow("x1411","x1412")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1412' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram cte-table-name" src="images/syntax/cte-table-name.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1413' onclick='hideorshow("x1413","x1414")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1414' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1415' onclick='hideorshow("x1415","x1416")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1416' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1417' onclick='hideorshow("x1417","x1418")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1418' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1419' onclick='hideorshow("x1419","x1420")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1420' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1421' onclick='hideorshow("x1421","x1422")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1422' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1423' onclick='hideorshow("x1423","x1424")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1424' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1425' onclick='hideorshow("x1425","x1426")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1426' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1427' onclick='hideorshow("x1427","x1428")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1428' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1429' onclick='hideorshow("x1429","x1430")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1430' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>


<p>An UPDATE statement is used to modify a subset of the values stored in 
zero or more rows of the database table identified by the 
<i>qualified-table-name</i> specified as part of the UPDATE statement.

<p>If the UPDATE statement does not have a WHERE clause, all rows in the
table are modified by the UPDATE. Otherwise, the UPDATE affects only those
rows for which the result of evaluating the WHERE clause expression as a 
<a href="lang_expr.html#booleanexpr">boolean expression is true</a>. It is not an error if the
WHERE clause does not evaluate to true for any row in the table - this just
means that the UPDATE statement affects zero rows.

<p>The modifications made to each row affected by an UPDATE statement are
determined by the list of assignments following the SET keyword. Each

assignment specifies a column name to the left of the equals sign and a
scalar expression to the right. For each affected row, the named columns
are set to the values found by evaluating the corresponding scalar 
expressions. If a single column-name appears more than once in the list of
assignment expressions, all but the rightmost occurrence is ignored. Columns
that do not appear in the list of assignments are left unmodified. The scalar
expressions may refer to columns of the row being updated. In this case all
scalar expressions are evaluated before any assignments are made.


<p>The optional conflict-clause allows the user to nominate a specific
constraint conflict resolution algorithm to use during this one UPDATE command.
Refer to the section entitled <a href="lang_conflict.html">ON CONFLICT</a> for additional information.

<h3>Restrictions on UPDATE Statements Within CREATE TRIGGER</h3>

<p>The following additional syntax restrictions apply to UPDATE statements that
occur within the body of a <a href="lang_createtrigger.html">CREATE TRIGGER</a> statement.  

<ul>
  <li><p>The <i>table-name</i> specified as part of an UPDATE statement within

      a trigger body must be unqualified. In other words, the
      <i>database-name</i><b>.</b> prefix on the table name of the UPDATE is
      not allowed within triggers. Unless the table to which the trigger
      is attached is in the TEMP database, the table being updated by the
      trigger program must reside in the same database as it. If the table
      to which the trigger is attached is in the TEMP database, then the
      unqualified name of the table being updated is resolved in the same way
      as it is for a top-level statement (by searching first the TEMP database,
      then the main database, then any other databases in the order they were







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<a href="index.html">
................................................................................
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<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>UPDATE</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/update-stmt.html">update-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1379' onclick='hideorshow("x1379","x1380")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1380'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram update-stmt" src="images/syntax/update-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1381' onclick='hideorshow("x1381","x1382")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1382' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1383' onclick='hideorshow("x1383","x1384")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1384' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x1385' onclick='hideorshow("x1385","x1386")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1386' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1387' onclick='hideorshow("x1387","x1388")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1388' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1389' onclick='hideorshow("x1389","x1390")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1390' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1391' onclick='hideorshow("x1391","x1392")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1392' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1393' onclick='hideorshow("x1393","x1394")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1394' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1395' onclick='hideorshow("x1395","x1396")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1396' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1397' onclick='hideorshow("x1397","x1398")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1398' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1399' onclick='hideorshow("x1399","x1400")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1400' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1401' onclick='hideorshow("x1401","x1402")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1402' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1403' onclick='hideorshow("x1403","x1404")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1404' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1405' onclick='hideorshow("x1405","x1406")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1406' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1407' onclick='hideorshow("x1407","x1408")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1408' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/qualified-table-name.html">qualified-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1409' onclick='hideorshow("x1409","x1410")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1410' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram qualified-table-name" src="images/syntax/qualified-table-name.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/with-clause.html">with-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1411' onclick='hideorshow("x1411","x1412")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1412' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram with-clause" src="images/syntax/with-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/cte-table-name.html">cte-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1413' onclick='hideorshow("x1413","x1414")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1414' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram cte-table-name" src="images/syntax/cte-table-name.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1415' onclick='hideorshow("x1415","x1416")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1416' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1417' onclick='hideorshow("x1417","x1418")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1418' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1419' onclick='hideorshow("x1419","x1420")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1420' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1421' onclick='hideorshow("x1421","x1422")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1422' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1423' onclick='hideorshow("x1423","x1424")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1424' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1425' onclick='hideorshow("x1425","x1426")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1426' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1427' onclick='hideorshow("x1427","x1428")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1428' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1429' onclick='hideorshow("x1429","x1430")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1430' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1431' onclick='hideorshow("x1431","x1432")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1432' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>


<p>An UPDATE statement is used to modify a subset of the values stored in 
zero or more rows of the database table identified by the 
<a href="syntax/qualified-table-name.html">qualified-table-name</a> specified as part of the UPDATE statement.

<p>If the UPDATE statement does not have a WHERE clause, all rows in the
table are modified by the UPDATE. Otherwise, the UPDATE affects only those
rows for which the WHERE clause
<a href="lang_expr.html#booleanexpr">boolean expression is true</a>. It is not an error if the
WHERE clause does not evaluate to true for any row in the table - this just
means that the UPDATE statement affects zero rows.

<p>The modifications made to each row affected by an UPDATE statement are
determined by the list of assignments following the SET keyword. Each
assignment specifies a <span class='yyterm'>column-name</span> to the left of the 
equals sign and a
scalar expression to the right. For each affected row, the named columns
are set to the values found by evaluating the corresponding scalar 
expressions. If a single column-name appears more than once in the list of
assignment expressions, all but the rightmost occurrence is ignored. Columns
that do not appear in the list of assignments are left unmodified. The scalar
expressions may refer to columns of the row being updated. In this case all
scalar expressions are evaluated before any assignments are made.

<p>The optional "OR <i>action</i>" conflict clause that follows the
UPDATE keyword allows the user to nominate a specific
constraint conflict resolution algorithm to use during this one UPDATE command.
Refer to the section entitled <a href="lang_conflict.html">ON CONFLICT</a> for additional information.

<h3>Restrictions on UPDATE Statements Within CREATE TRIGGER</h3>

<p>The following additional syntax restrictions apply to UPDATE statements that
occur within the body of a <a href="lang_createtrigger.html">CREATE TRIGGER</a> statement.  

<ul>
  <li><p>The <span class='yyterm'>table-name</span> specified as part of an UPDATE 
      statement within
      a trigger body must be unqualified. In other words, the
      <i>schema-name</i><b>.</b> prefix on the table name of the UPDATE is
      not allowed within triggers. Unless the table to which the trigger
      is attached is in the TEMP database, the table being updated by the
      trigger program must reside in the same database as it. If the table
      to which the trigger is attached is in the TEMP database, then the
      unqualified name of the table being updated is resolved in the same way
      as it is for a top-level statement (by searching first the TEMP database,
      then the main database, then any other databases in the order they were

Changes to Doc/Extra/Core/lang_vacuum.html.

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</style>
  
</head>
<body>
<div><!-- container div to satisfy validator -->

<a href="index.html">
................................................................................
    </form>
    </div>
  </table>

<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>VACUUM</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/vacuum-stmt.html">vacuum-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1431' onclick='hideorshow("x1431","x1432")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1432'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram vacuum-stmt" src="images/syntax/vacuum-stmt.gif" />
</blockquote>


<p>
  The VACUUM command rebuilds the entire database. There are several 
  reasons an application might do this:







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<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>VACUUM</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/vacuum-stmt.html">vacuum-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1433' onclick='hideorshow("x1433","x1434")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1434'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram vacuum-stmt" src="images/syntax/vacuum-stmt.gif" />
</blockquote>


<p>
  The VACUUM command rebuilds the entire database. There are several 
  reasons an application might do this:

Changes to Doc/Extra/Core/lang_with.html.

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<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>WITH clause</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/with-clause.html">with-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1137' onclick='hideorshow("x1137","x1138")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1138'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram with-clause" src="images/syntax/with-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/cte-table-name.html">cte-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1139' onclick='hideorshow("x1139","x1140")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1140' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram cte-table-name" src="images/syntax/cte-table-name.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1141' onclick='hideorshow("x1141","x1142")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1142' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1143' onclick='hideorshow("x1143","x1144")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1144' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1145' onclick='hideorshow("x1145","x1146")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1146' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1147' onclick='hideorshow("x1147","x1148")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1148' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1149' onclick='hideorshow("x1149","x1150")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1150' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x1151' onclick='hideorshow("x1151","x1152")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1152' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1153' onclick='hideorshow("x1153","x1154")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1154' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1155' onclick='hideorshow("x1155","x1156")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1156' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1157' onclick='hideorshow("x1157","x1158")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1158' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1159' onclick='hideorshow("x1159","x1160")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1160' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1161' onclick='hideorshow("x1161","x1162")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1162' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1163' onclick='hideorshow("x1163","x1164")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1164' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1165' onclick='hideorshow("x1165","x1166")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1166' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1167' onclick='hideorshow("x1167","x1168")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1168' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>


<p>Common Table Expressions or CTEs act like temporary <a href="lang_createview.html">views</a> that exist
................................................................................
     of the compound select, and nowhere else.
</ol>

<p>To put it another way, a recursive common table expression must
look like the following:

<p><b><a href="syntax/recursive-cte.html">recursive-cte:</a></b>
<button id='x1169' onclick='hideorshow("x1169","x1170")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1170'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram recursive-cte" src="images/syntax/recursive-cte.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/cte-table-name.html">cte-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1171' onclick='hideorshow("x1171","x1172")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1172' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram cte-table-name" src="images/syntax/cte-table-name.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>


<p>We refer to the table named by the cte-table-name in a recursive
common table expression as the "recursive table".
In the recursive-cte bubble diagram above, the recursive
table must appear exactly once in the FROM clause of the recursive-select

and must not appear anywhere else in either the initial-select or the
recursive-select, including subqueries.  The initial-select may be



a <a href="lang_select.html#compound">compound select</a>, but it may not include an ORDER BY, LIMIT, or OFFSET.
The recursive-select must be a simple select, not a compound.  The
recursive-select is allowed to include an ORDER BY, LIMIT, and/or OFFSET.

<p>The basic algorithm for computing the content of the recursive table
is as follows:

<ol>
<li> Run the initial-select and add the results to a queue.
<li> While the queue is not empty:
<ol type="a">
<li> Extract a single row from the queue.
<li> Insert that single row into the recursive table
<li> Pretend that the single row just extracted is the only
     row in the recursive table and run the recursive-select,
     adding all results to the queue.
................................................................................
</ol>
</ol>

<p>The basic procedure above may modified by the following additional rules:

<ul>
<li><p>
  If a UNION operator connects the initial-select with the
  recursive-select, then only add rows to the queue if no identical row has

  been previously added to the queue.  Repeated rows are discarded before being
  added to the queue even if the repeated rows have already been extracted
  from the queue by the recursion step.  If the operator is UNION ALL,
  then all rows generated by both the initial-select and the
  recursive-select are always added to the queue even if they are repeats.

  When determining if a row is repeated, NULL values compare
  equal to one another and not equal to any other value.
<li><p>
  The LIMIT clause, if present, determines the maximum number of rows that
  will ever be added to the recursive table in step 2b.
  Once the limit is reached, the recursion stops.
  A limit of zero means that no rows are ever added to the
  recursive table, and a negative limit means an unlimited number of rows
  may be added to the recursive table.
<li><p>
  The OFFSET clause, if it is present and has a positive value N, prevents the
  first N rows from being added to the recursive table.
  The first N rows are still processed by the recursive-select; they

  just are not added to the recursive table.  Rows are not counted toward
  fulfilling the LIMIT until all OFFSET rows have been skipped.
<li><p>
  If an ORDER BY clause is present, it determines the order in which rows
  are extracted from the queue in step 2a.  If there is no ORDER BY clause,
  then the order in which rows are extracted is undefined.  (In the current
  implementation, the queue becomes a FIFO if the ORDER BY clause is omitted,







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.fancy li p { margin: 1em 0 }
/* End of "fancyformat" specific rules. */

.yyterm {
  background: #fff;
  border: 1px solid #000;
  border-radius: 11px;
  padding-left: 4px;
  padding-right: 4px;
}
</style>
  
</head>
<body>
<div><!-- container div to satisfy validator -->

<a href="index.html">
................................................................................
    </form>
    </div>
  </table>

<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>WITH clause</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/with-clause.html">with-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1139' onclick='hideorshow("x1139","x1140")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1140'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram with-clause" src="images/syntax/with-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/cte-table-name.html">cte-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1141' onclick='hideorshow("x1141","x1142")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1142' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram cte-table-name" src="images/syntax/cte-table-name.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1143' onclick='hideorshow("x1143","x1144")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1144' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1145' onclick='hideorshow("x1145","x1146")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1146' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1147' onclick='hideorshow("x1147","x1148")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1148' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1149' onclick='hideorshow("x1149","x1150")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1150' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1151' onclick='hideorshow("x1151","x1152")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1152' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x1153' onclick='hideorshow("x1153","x1154")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1154' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1155' onclick='hideorshow("x1155","x1156")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1156' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1157' onclick='hideorshow("x1157","x1158")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1158' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1159' onclick='hideorshow("x1159","x1160")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1160' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1161' onclick='hideorshow("x1161","x1162")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1162' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1163' onclick='hideorshow("x1163","x1164")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1164' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1165' onclick='hideorshow("x1165","x1166")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1166' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1167' onclick='hideorshow("x1167","x1168")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1168' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1169' onclick='hideorshow("x1169","x1170")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1170' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>


<p>Common Table Expressions or CTEs act like temporary <a href="lang_createview.html">views</a> that exist
................................................................................
     of the compound select, and nowhere else.
</ol>

<p>To put it another way, a recursive common table expression must
look like the following:

<p><b><a href="syntax/recursive-cte.html">recursive-cte:</a></b>
<button id='x1171' onclick='hideorshow("x1171","x1172")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1172'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram recursive-cte" src="images/syntax/recursive-cte.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/cte-table-name.html">cte-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1173' onclick='hideorshow("x1173","x1174")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1174' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram cte-table-name" src="images/syntax/cte-table-name.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>


<p>Call the table named by the <a href="syntax/cte-table-name.html">cte-table-name</a> in a recursive
common table expression the "recursive table".
In the <a href="syntax/recursive-cte.html">recursive-cte</a> bubble diagram above, the recursive
table must appear exactly once in the FROM clause of the 
<span class='yyterm'>recursive-select</span>
and must not appear anywhere else in either the

<span class='yyterm'>initial-select</span> or the
<span class='yyterm'>recursive-select</span>, including subqueries.
The <span class='yyterm'>initial-select</span> may be
a <a href="lang_select.html#compound">compound select</a>, but it may not include an ORDER BY, LIMIT, or OFFSET.
The recursive-select must be a simple select, not a compound.  The
recursive-select is allowed to include an ORDER BY, LIMIT, and/or OFFSET.

<p>The basic algorithm for computing the content of the recursive table
is as follows:

<ol>
<li> Run the <span class='yyterm'>initial-select</span> and add the results to a queue.
<li> While the queue is not empty:
<ol type="a">
<li> Extract a single row from the queue.
<li> Insert that single row into the recursive table
<li> Pretend that the single row just extracted is the only
     row in the recursive table and run the recursive-select,
     adding all results to the queue.
................................................................................
</ol>
</ol>

<p>The basic procedure above may modified by the following additional rules:

<ul>
<li><p>
  If a UNION operator connects the <span class='yyterm'>initial-select</span> with the
  <span class='yyterm'>recursive-select</span>, then only add rows to the queue if 
  no identical row has
  been previously added to the queue.  Repeated rows are discarded before being
  added to the queue even if the repeated rows have already been extracted
  from the queue by the recursion step.  If the operator is UNION ALL,
  then all rows generated by both the <span class='yyterm'>initial-select</span> and the
  <span class='yyterm'>recursive-select</span> are always added to the queue even if
  they are repeats.
  When determining if a row is repeated, NULL values compare
  equal to one another and not equal to any other value.
<li><p>
  The LIMIT clause, if present, determines the maximum number of rows that
  will ever be added to the recursive table in step 2b.
  Once the limit is reached, the recursion stops.
  A limit of zero means that no rows are ever added to the
  recursive table, and a negative limit means an unlimited number of rows
  may be added to the recursive table.
<li><p>
  The OFFSET clause, if it is present and has a positive value N, prevents the
  first N rows from being added to the recursive table.
  The first N rows are still processed
  by the <span class='yyterm'>recursive-select</span> &mdash; they
  just are not added to the recursive table.  Rows are not counted toward
  fulfilling the LIMIT until all OFFSET rows have been skipped.
<li><p>
  If an ORDER BY clause is present, it determines the order in which rows
  are extracted from the queue in step 2a.  If there is no ORDER BY clause,
  then the order in which rows are extracted is undefined.  (In the current
  implementation, the queue becomes a FIFO if the ORDER BY clause is omitted,

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</style>
  
</head>
<body>
<div><!-- container div to satisfy validator -->

<a href="index.html">
................................................................................
opportunity to add new PRAGMA statements or to override the meaning of
built-in PRAGMA statements.</p>


<hr /><a name="syntax"></a>
<h2>PRAGMA command syntax</h2>
<p><b><a href="syntax/pragma-stmt.html">pragma-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1467' onclick='hideorshow("x1467","x1468")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1468'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram pragma-stmt" src="images/syntax/pragma-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/pragma-value.html">pragma-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1469' onclick='hideorshow("x1469","x1470")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1470'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram pragma-value" src="images/syntax/pragma-value.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1471' onclick='hideorshow("x1471","x1472")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1472' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>


<p>
................................................................................
(Example:  <tt>'yes' &#91;FALSE&#93;</tt>.) Some pragmas
takes a string literal as their argument.  When pragma takes a keyword
argument, it will usually also take a numeric equivalent as well.
For example, "0" and "no" mean the same thing, as does "1" and "yes".
When querying the value of a setting, many pragmas return the number
rather than the keyword.</p>


<p>A pragma may have an optional database name before the pragma name.
The database name is the name of an <a href="lang_attach.html">ATTACH</a>-ed database or it can be
"main" or "temp" for the main and the TEMP databases.  If the optional
database name is omitted, "main" is assumed.  In some pragmas, the database
name is meaningless and is simply ignored.  In the documentation below,
pragmas for which the database name is meaningful are shown with a
"<i>database.</i>" prefix.</p>




<hr /><a name="toc"></a>
<h2>List Of PRAGMAs</h2>

................................................................................
from existing applications at your earliest opportunity.</blockquote>
<li>These pragmas are used for debugging SQLite and
are only available when SQLite is compiled using <a href="compile.html#debug">SQLITE_DEBUG</a>.
<li>These pragmas are used for testing SQLite and are not recommended
for use in application programs.</ol></p>
<a name="pragma_application_id"></a>
<hr>
    <p><b>PRAGMA </b><i>database.</i><b>application_id;
     <br>PRAGMA </b><i>database.</i><b>application_id = </b><i>integer </i><b>;</b>
  
<p>    The application_id PRAGMA is used to query or set the 32-bit
       unsigned big-endian "Application ID" integer located at offset
       68 into the <a href="fileformat2.html#database_header">database header</a>.  Applications that use SQLite as their
       <a href="appfileformat.html">application file-format</a> should set the Application ID integer to
       a unique integer so that utilities such as 
       <a href="http://www.darwinsys.com/file/">file(1)</a> can determine the specific
       file type rather than just reporting "SQLite3 Database".  A list of
       assigned application IDs can be seen by consulting the
       <a href="http://www.sqlite.org/src/artifact?ci=trunk&filename=magic.txt">magic.txt</a> file in the SQLite source repository.
<a name="pragma_auto_vacuum"></a>
<hr>
    <p><b>PRAGMA </b><i>database.</i><b>auto_vacuum;<br>
          PRAGMA </b><i>database.</i><b>auto_vacuum = </b>
           <i>0 | NONE | 1 | FULL | 2 | INCREMENTAL</i><b>;</b></p>

    <p>Query or set the auto-vacuum status in the database.</p>

    <p>The default setting for auto-vacuum is 0 or "none",
    unless the <a href="compile.html#default_autovacuum">SQLITE_DEFAULT_AUTOVACUUM</a> compile-time option is used.
    The "none" setting means that auto-vacuum is disabled.
................................................................................
    bindings that do not provide direct access to <a href="c3ref/busy_timeout.html">sqlite3_busy_timeout()</a>.

    <p>Each database connection can only have a single
    <a href="c3ref/busy_handler.html">busy handler</a>.  This PRAGMA sets the busy handler
    for the process, possibly overwriting any previously set busy handler.
<a name="pragma_cache_size"></a>
<hr>
    <p><b>PRAGMA </b><i>database.</i><b>cache_size;
       <br>PRAGMA </b><i>database.</i><b>cache_size = </b><i>pages</i><b>;
       <br>PRAGMA </b><i>database.</i><b>cache_size = -</b><i>kibibytes</i><b>;</b></p>
    <p>Query or change the suggested maximum number of database disk pages
    that SQLite will hold in memory at once per open database file.  Whether
    or not this suggestion is honored is at the discretion of the
    <a href="c3ref/pcache_methods2.html">Application Defined Page Cache</a>.
    The default page cache that is built into SQLite honors the request,
    however alternative application-defined page cache implementations
    may choose to interpret the suggested cache size in different ways
................................................................................
    should avoid using this pragma.  Older applications should discontinue
    use of this pragma at the earliest opportunity.  This pragma may be omitted
    from the build when SQLite is compiled using <a href="compile.html#omit_deprecated">SQLITE_OMIT_DEPRECATED</a>.
    </p>
  
<a name="pragma_data_version"></a>
<hr>
    <p><b>PRAGMA </b><i>database.</i><b>data_version;</b></p>
    <p>The "PRAGMA data_version" command provides an indication that the
    database file has been modified.
    Interactive programs that hold database content in memory or that
    display database content on-screen can use the PRAGMA data_version
    command to determine if they need to flush and reload their memory
    or update the screen display.</p>

................................................................................
    The second column is the "main" for the main database file, "temp"
    for the database file used to store TEMP objects, or the name of the
    ATTACHed database for other database files.
    The third column is the name of the database file itself, or an empty
    string if the database is not associated with a file.</p>
<a name="pragma_default_cache_size"></a>
<hr>
    <b>PRAGMA </b><i>database.</i><b>default_cache_size;
       <br>PRAGMA </b><i>database.</i><b>default_cache_size
            = </b><i>Number-of-pages</i><b>;</b></p>

    <p>This pragma queries or sets the suggested maximum number of pages
    of disk cache that will be allocated per open database file.
    The difference between this pragma and <a href="pragma.html#pragma_cache_size">cache_size</a> is that the
    value set here persists across database connections.
    The value of the default cache size is stored in the 4-byte
................................................................................
    <p>Once an encoding has been set for a database, it cannot be changed.</p>

    <p>Databases created by the <a href="lang_attach.html">ATTACH</a> command always use the same encoding
    as the main database.  An attempt to <a href="lang_attach.html">ATTACH</a> a database with a different
    text encoding from the "main" database will fail.</p>
<a name="pragma_foreign_key_check"></a>
<hr>
    <p><b>PRAGMA </b><i>database.</i><b>foreign_key_check;
        <br>PRAGMA </b><i>database.</i><b>foreign_key_check(</b><i>table-name</i><b>);</b></b></p>

    <p>The foreign_key_check pragma checks the database, or the table
    called "<i>table-name</i>", for 
    <a href="foreignkeys.html">foreign key constraints</a> that are violated and returns one row of
    output for each violation.  There are four columns in each result row.
    The first column is the name of the table that contains the REFERENCES
    clause.  The second column is the <a href="lang_createtable.html#rowid">rowid</a> of the row that
................................................................................
       release of SQLite.  The default setting for foreign key enforcement
       can be specified at compile-time using the <a href="compile.html#default_foreign_keys">SQLITE_DEFAULT_FOREIGN_KEYS</a>
       preprocessor macro.  To minimize future problems, applications should
       set the foreign key enforcement flag as required by the application
       and not depend on the default setting.
<a name="pragma_freelist_count"></a>
<hr>
    <p><b>PRAGMA </b><i>database.</i><b>freelist_count;</b></p>
    <p>Return the number of unused pages in the database file.</p>
<a name="pragma_full_column_names"></a>
<hr>
    <p><b>PRAGMA full_column_names;
       <br>PRAGMA full_column_names = </b><i>boolean</i><b>;</b></p>

    <p>Query or change the full_column_names flag. This flag together 
................................................................................
    <p><b>PRAGMA ignore_check_constraints  = </b><i>boolean</i><b>;</b></p>

    <p>This pragma enables or disables the enforcement of CHECK constraints.
    The default setting is off, meaning that CHECK constraints are
    enforced by default.</p>
<a name="pragma_incremental_vacuum"></a>
<hr>
    <p><b>PRAGMA </b><i>database.</i><b>incremental_vacuum</b><i>(N)</i><b>;</b></p>
    <p>The incremental_vacuum pragma causes up to <i>N</i> pages to
    be removed from the <a href="fileformat2.html#freelist">freelist</a>.  The database file is truncated by
    the same amount.  The incremental_vacuum pragma has no effect if
    the database is not in
    <a href="#pragma_auto_vacuum">auto_vacuum=incremental</a> mode
    or if there are no pages on the freelist.  If there are fewer than
    <i>N</i> pages on the freelist, or if <i>N</i> is less than 1, or
    if <i>N</i> is omitted entirely, then the entire freelist is cleared.</p>
<a name="pragma_index_info"></a>
<hr>
    <p><b>PRAGMA </b><i>database.</i><b>index_info(</b><i>index-name</i><b>);</b></p>
    <p>This pragma returns one row for each key column in the named index.
    A key column is a column that is actually named in the <a href="lang_createindex.html">CREATE INDEX</a>
    index statement or <a href="lang_createtable.html#uniqueconst">UNIQUE constraint</a> or <a href="lang_createtable.html#primkeyconst">PRIMARY KEY constraint</a> that
    created the index.  Index entries also usually contain auxiliary
    columns that point back to the table row being indexed.  The auxiliary
    index-columns are not shown by the index_info pragma, but they are
    listed by the <a href="pragma.html#pragma_index_xinfo">index_xinfo pragma</a>.</p>
................................................................................
    <ol>
    <li>The rank of the column within the index.  (0 means left-most.)
    <li>The rank of the column within the table being indexed.
    <li>The name of the column being indexed.
    </ol>
<a name="pragma_index_list"></a>
<hr>
    <p><b>PRAGMA </b><i>database.</i><b>index_list(</b><i>table-name</i><b>);</b></p>
    <p>This pragma returns one row for each index associated with the
    given table.
    <p>Output columns from the index_list pragma are as follows:
    <ol>
    <li>A sequence number assigned to each index for internal tracking
          purposes.
    <li>The name of the index.
................................................................................
          "u" if the index was created by a <a href="lang_createtable.html#uniqueconst">UNIQUE constraint</a>, or
          "pk" if the index was created by a <a href="lang_createtable.html#primkeyconst">PRIMARY KEY constraint</a>.
    <li>"1" if the index is a <a href="partialindex.html">partial index</a> and "0" if not.
    </ol>
    </p>
<a name="pragma_index_xinfo"></a>
<hr>
    <p><b>PRAGMA </b><i>database.</i><b>index_xinfo(</b><i>index-name</i><b>);</b></p>
    <p>This pragma returns information about every column in an index.
    Unlike this <a href="pragma.html#pragma_index_info">index_info pragma</a>, this pragma returns information about
    every column in the index, not just the key columns.
    (A key column is a column that is actually named in the <a href="lang_createindex.html">CREATE INDEX</a>
    index statement or <a href="lang_createtable.html#uniqueconst">UNIQUE constraint</a> or <a href="lang_createtable.html#primkeyconst">PRIMARY KEY constraint</a> that
    created the index.  Auxiliary columns are additional columns needed to
    locate the table entry that corresponds to each index entry.)
................................................................................
    <li>The name for the <a href="datatype3.html#collation">collating sequence</a>
         used to compare values in the index-column.
    <li>1 if the index-column is a key column and 0 if the index-column
         is an auxiliary column.
    </ol>
<a name="pragma_integrity_check"></a>
<hr>
    <p><b>PRAGMA </b><i>database.</i><b>integrity_check;
      <br>PRAGMA </b><i>database.</i><b>integrity_check(</b><i>N</i><b>)</b></p>
    <p>This pragma does an integrity check of the entire database.  The
    integrity_check pragma
    looks for out-of-order records, missing pages, malformed records, missing
    index entries, and UNIQUE and NOT NULL constraint errors.
    If the integrity_check pragma finds problems, strings are returned
    (as multiple rows with a single column per row) which describe
    the problems.  Pragma integrity_check will return at most <i>N</i>
................................................................................
    Use the <a href="pragma.html#pragma_foreign_key_check">PRAGMA foreign_key_check</a> command for to find errors in
    FOREIGN KEY constraints.</p>

    <p>See also the <a href="pragma.html#pragma_quick_check">PRAGMA quick_check</a> command which does most of the
    checking of PRAGMA integrity_check but runs much faster.</p>
<a name="pragma_journal_mode"></a>
<hr>
    <p><b>PRAGMA </b><i>database.</i><b>journal_mode;
        <br>PRAGMA </b><i>database.</i><b>journal_mode
              = <i>DELETE | TRUNCATE | PERSIST | MEMORY | WAL | OFF</i></b></p>

    <p>This pragma queries or sets the journal mode for databases
    associated with the current <a href="c3ref/sqlite3.html">database connection</a>.</p>

    <p>The first form of this pragma queries the current journaling
    mode for <i>database</i>.  When <i>database</i> is omitted, the
................................................................................
    is either MEMORY or OFF and can not be changed to a different value.
    An attempt to change the journal_mode of an <a href="inmemorydb.html">in-memory database</a> to
    any setting other than MEMORY or OFF is ignored.  Note also that
    the journal_mode cannot be changed while a transaction is active.</p>
<a name="pragma_journal_size_limit"></a>
<hr>
    <p><b>
    PRAGMA </b><i>database.</i><b>journal_size_limit<br>
    PRAGMA </b><i>database.</i><b>journal_size_limit = </b><i>N</i> <b>;</b>

  <p>If a database connection is operating in
  <a href="pragma.html#pragma_locking_mode">exclusive locking mode</a> or in
  <a href="pragma.html#pragma_journal_mode">persistent journal mode</a> 
  (PRAGMA journal_mode=persist) then
  after committing a transaction the <a href="lockingv3.html#rollback">rollback journal</a> file may remain in
  the file-system. This increases performance for subsequent transactions
................................................................................
    <p>The legacy_file_format pragma is initialized to OFF when an existing
    database in the newer file format is first opened.</p>

    <p>The default file format is set by the
    <a href="compile.html#default_file_format">SQLITE_DEFAULT_FILE_FORMAT</a> compile-time option.</p>
<a name="pragma_locking_mode"></a>
<hr>
    <p><b>PRAGMA </b><i>database.</i><b>locking_mode;
    <br>PRAGMA </b><i>database.</i><b>locking_mode
                = <i>NORMAL | EXCLUSIVE</i></b></p>
    <p>This pragma sets or queries the database connection locking-mode. 
    The locking-mode is either NORMAL or EXCLUSIVE.

    <p>In NORMAL locking-mode (the default unless overridden at compile-time
    using <a href="compile.html#default_locking_mode">SQLITE_DEFAULT_LOCKING_MODE</a>), a database connection
    unlocks the database file at the conclusion of each read or
................................................................................
   NORMAL until after exiting WAL journal mode. 
   If the locking mode is NORMAL when first entering WAL
   journal mode, then the locking mode can be changed between NORMAL and
   EXCLUSIVE and back again at any time and without needing to exit
   WAL journal mode.</p>
<a name="pragma_max_page_count"></a>
<hr>
    <p><b>PRAGMA </b><i>database.</i><b>max_page_count;
        <br>PRAGMA </b><i>database.</i><b>max_page_count = </b><i>N</i><b>;</b></p>
    <p>Query or set the maximum number of pages in the database file.
    Both forms of the pragma return the maximum page count.  The second
    form attempts to modify the maximum page count.  The maximum page
    count cannot be reduced below the current database size.
    </p>
<a name="pragma_mmap_size"></a>
<hr>
    <p><br><b>PRAGMA </b><i>database.</i><b>mmap_size;
         <br>PRAGMA </b><i>database.</i><b>mmap_size=</b><i>N</i></p>

    <p>Query or change the maximum number of bytes that are set
       aside for memory-mapped I/O on a single database.  The first form
       (without an argument) queries the current limit.  The second
       form (with a numeric argument) sets the limit for the specified
       database, or for all databases if the optional database name is
       omitted.  In the second form, if the database name is omitted, the
................................................................................
       the memory-mapped I/O region is in active use, to avoid unmapping
       memory out from under running SQL statements.  For this reason,
       the mmap_size pragma may be a no-op if the prior mmap_size is non-zero
       and there are other SQL statements running concurrently on the same
       <a href="c3ref/sqlite3.html">database connection</a>.</p>
<a name="pragma_page_count"></a>
<hr>
    <p><b>PRAGMA </b><i>database.</i><b>page_count;</b></p>
    <p>Return the total number of pages in the database file.</p>
<a name="pragma_page_size"></a>
<hr>
   <p><b>PRAGMA </b><i>database.</i><b>page_size;
       <br>PRAGMA </b><i>database.</i><b>page_size = </b><i>bytes</i><b>;</b></p>
    <p>Query or set the page size of the database. The page
    size must be a power of two between 512 and 65536 inclusive.
    </p>

    <p>When a new database is created, SQLite assigned a default page size
    based on information received from the xSectorSize and 
    xDeviceCharacteristics methods of the <a href="c3ref/io_methods.html">sqlite3_io_methods</a> object
................................................................................
    <p><b>PRAGMA query_only;
      <br>PRAGMA query_only = </b><i>boolean</i><b>;</b></p>

    <p>The query_only pragma prevents all changes to database files when
    enabled.</p>
<a name="pragma_quick_check"></a>
<hr>
    <p><b>PRAGMA </b><i>database.</i><b>quick_check;
      <br>PRAGMA </b><i>database.</i><b>quick_check(</b><i>N</i><b>)</b></p>
    <p>The pragma is like <a href="pragma.html#pragma_integrity_check">integrity_check</a> except that it does not verify
    UNIQUE and NOT NULL constraints and does not verify
    that index content matches table content.  By skipping UNIQUE and NOT NULL
    and index consistency checks, quick_check is able to run much faster than
    integrity_check.  Otherwise the two pragmas are the same.
    </p>
<a name="pragma_read_uncommitted"></a>
................................................................................
    times with this pragma both disabled and enabled, cases where the
    application makes faulty assumptions about output order can be
    identified and fixed early, reducing problems
    that might be caused by linking against a different version of SQLite.
    </p>
<a name="pragma_schema_version"></a>
<hr>
    <p><b>PRAGMA </b><i>database.</i><b>schema_version; 
      <br>PRAGMA </b><i>database.</i><b>schema_version = </b><i>integer </i><b>;
      <br>PRAGMA </b><i>database.</i><b>user_version;
      <br>PRAGMA </b><i>database.</i><b>user_version = </b><i>integer </i><b>;</b>

  
<p>    The pragmas schema_version and user_version are used to set or get
       the value of the schema-version and user-version, respectively. The
       schema-version and the user-version are big-endian 32-bit signed
       integers stored in the database header at offsets 40 and 60,
       respectively.</p>
................................................................................
       to modify the schema-version is potentially dangerous and may lead 
       to program crashes or database corruption. Use with caution!</p>
  
<p>    The user-version is not used internally by SQLite. It may be used by
       applications for any purpose.</p>
<a name="pragma_secure_delete"></a>
<hr>
    <p>PRAGMA </b><i>database.</i><b>secure_delete;
     <br>PRAGMA </b><i>database.</i><b>secure_delete = </b><i>boolean</i></p>
    <p>Query or change the secure-delete setting. When secure-delete
    on, SQLite overwrites deleted content with zeros.  The default
    setting is determined by the <a href="compile.html#secure_delete">SQLITE_SECURE_DELETE</a>
    compile-time option.

    <p>
    When there are <a href="lang_attach.html">attached databases</a> and no database
................................................................................
    <p style='background-color: #f0e0ff;'>
    The intended use of this pragma is only for testing and validation of
    SQLite.  This pragma is subject to change without notice and is not
    recommended for use by application programs.</p>
  
<a name="pragma_synchronous"></a>
<hr>
    <p><b>PRAGMA </b><i>database.</i><b>synchronous;
        <br>PRAGMA </b><i>database.</i><b>synchronous = </b>
          <i>0 | OFF | 1 | NORMAL | 2 | FULL</i><b>;</b></p>

    <p>Query or change the setting of the "synchronous" flag.
    The first (query) form will return the synchronous setting as an 
    integer.  When synchronous is FULL (2), the SQLite database engine will
    use the xSync method of the <a href="vfs.html">VFS</a> to ensure that all content is safely
    written to the disk surface prior to continuing.
................................................................................
    all one needs in WAL mode.</p>

    <p>The default setting is synchronous=FULL.</p>

    <p>See also the <a href="pragma.html#pragma_fullfsync">fullfsync</a> and <a href="pragma.html#pragma_checkpoint_fullfsync">checkpoint_fullfsync</a> pragmas.</p>
<a name="pragma_table_info"></a>
<hr>
    <p><b>PRAGMA </b><i>database.</i><b>table_info(</b><i>table-name</i><b>);</b></p>
    <p>This pragma returns one row for each column in the named table.
    Columns in the result set include the column name,
    data type, whether or not the column can be NULL, and the default
    value for the column.  The "pk" column in the result set is zero
    for columns that are not part of the primary key, and is the index of
    the column in the primary key for columns that are part of the primary
    key.</p>
................................................................................
    All automatic checkpoints are <a href="c3ref/wal_checkpoint_v2.html">PASSIVE</a>.</p>

    <p>Autocheckpointing is enabled by default with an interval
    of 1000 or <a href="compile.html#default_wal_autocheckpoint">SQLITE_DEFAULT_WAL_AUTOCHECKPOINT</a>.</p>

<a name="pragma_wal_checkpoint"></a>
<hr>
    <p><b>PRAGMA </b><i>database.</i><b>wal_checkpoint;</b><br>
       <b>PRAGMA </b><i>database.</i><b>wal_checkpoint(PASSIVE);</b><br>
       <b>PRAGMA </b><i>database.</i><b>wal_checkpoint(FULL);</b><br>
       <b>PRAGMA </b><i>database.</i><b>wal_checkpoint(RESTART);</b><br>
       <b>PRAGMA </b><i>database.</i><b>wal_checkpoint(TRUNCATE);</b>
   </p>

    <p>If the <a href="wal.html">write-ahead log</a> is enabled (via the <a href="pragma.html#pragma_journal_mode">journal_mode pragma</a>),
    this pragma causes a <a href="wal.html#ckpt">checkpoint</a> operation to run on database
    <i>database</i>, or on all attached databases if <i>database</i>
    is omitted.  If <a href="wal.html">write-ahead log</a> mode is disabled, this pragma is a
    harmless no-op.</p>







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.fancy p.todo        { border: solid #AA3333 1px; padding: 1ex }
.fancy img { display:block; }
.fancy :link:hover, .fancy :visited:hover { background: wheat }
.fancy p,.fancy ul,.fancy ol,.fancy dl { margin: 1em 5ex }
.fancy li p { margin: 1em 0 }
/* End of "fancyformat" specific rules. */

.yyterm {
  background: #fff;
  border: 1px solid #000;
  border-radius: 11px;
  padding-left: 4px;
  padding-right: 4px;
}
</style>
  
</head>
<body>
<div><!-- container div to satisfy validator -->

<a href="index.html">
................................................................................
opportunity to add new PRAGMA statements or to override the meaning of
built-in PRAGMA statements.</p>


<hr /><a name="syntax"></a>
<h2>PRAGMA command syntax</h2>
<p><b><a href="syntax/pragma-stmt.html">pragma-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1469' onclick='hideorshow("x1469","x1470")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1470'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram pragma-stmt" src="images/syntax/pragma-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/pragma-value.html">pragma-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1471' onclick='hideorshow("x1471","x1472")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1472'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram pragma-value" src="images/syntax/pragma-value.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1473' onclick='hideorshow("x1473","x1474")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1474' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>


<p>
................................................................................
(Example:  <tt>'yes' &#91;FALSE&#93;</tt>.) Some pragmas
takes a string literal as their argument.  When pragma takes a keyword
argument, it will usually also take a numeric equivalent as well.
For example, "0" and "no" mean the same thing, as does "1" and "yes".
When querying the value of a setting, many pragmas return the number
rather than the keyword.</p>

<p>A pragma may have an optional <span class='yyterm'>schema-name</span>
before the pragma name.
The <span class='yyterm'>schema-name</span> is the name of an <a href="lang_attach.html">ATTACH</a>-ed database 
or "main" or "temp" for the main and the TEMP databases.  If the optional
schema name is omitted, "main" is assumed.  In some pragmas, the schema
name is meaningless and is simply ignored.  In the documentation below,
pragmas for which the schema name is meaningful are shown with a
"<i>schema.</i>" prefix.</p>




<hr /><a name="toc"></a>
<h2>List Of PRAGMAs</h2>

................................................................................
from existing applications at your earliest opportunity.</blockquote>
<li>These pragmas are used for debugging SQLite and
are only available when SQLite is compiled using <a href="compile.html#debug">SQLITE_DEBUG</a>.
<li>These pragmas are used for testing SQLite and are not recommended
for use in application programs.</ol></p>
<a name="pragma_application_id"></a>
<hr>
    <p><b>PRAGMA </b><i>schema.</i><b>application_id;
     <br>PRAGMA </b><i>schema.</i><b>application_id = </b><i>integer </i><b>;</b>
  
<p>    The application_id PRAGMA is used to query or set the 32-bit
       unsigned big-endian "Application ID" integer located at offset
       68 into the <a href="fileformat2.html#database_header">database header</a>.  Applications that use SQLite as their
       <a href="appfileformat.html">application file-format</a> should set the Application ID integer to
       a unique integer so that utilities such as 
       <a href="http://www.darwinsys.com/file/">file(1)</a> can determine the specific
       file type rather than just reporting "SQLite3 Database".  A list of
       assigned application IDs can be seen by consulting the
       <a href="http://www.sqlite.org/src/artifact?ci=trunk&filename=magic.txt">magic.txt</a> file in the SQLite source repository.
<a name="pragma_auto_vacuum"></a>
<hr>
    <p><b>PRAGMA </b><i>schema.</i><b>auto_vacuum;<br>
          PRAGMA </b><i>schema.</i><b>auto_vacuum = </b>
           <i>0 | NONE | 1 | FULL | 2 | INCREMENTAL</i><b>;</b></p>

    <p>Query or set the auto-vacuum status in the database.</p>

    <p>The default setting for auto-vacuum is 0 or "none",
    unless the <a href="compile.html#default_autovacuum">SQLITE_DEFAULT_AUTOVACUUM</a> compile-time option is used.
    The "none" setting means that auto-vacuum is disabled.
................................................................................
    bindings that do not provide direct access to <a href="c3ref/busy_timeout.html">sqlite3_busy_timeout()</a>.

    <p>Each database connection can only have a single
    <a href="c3ref/busy_handler.html">busy handler</a>.  This PRAGMA sets the busy handler
    for the process, possibly overwriting any previously set busy handler.
<a name="pragma_cache_size"></a>
<hr>
    <p><b>PRAGMA </b><i>schema.</i><b>cache_size;
       <br>PRAGMA </b><i>schema.</i><b>cache_size = </b><i>pages</i><b>;
       <br>PRAGMA </b><i>schema.</i><b>cache_size = -</b><i>kibibytes</i><b>;</b></p>
    <p>Query or change the suggested maximum number of database disk pages
    that SQLite will hold in memory at once per open database file.  Whether
    or not this suggestion is honored is at the discretion of the
    <a href="c3ref/pcache_methods2.html">Application Defined Page Cache</a>.
    The default page cache that is built into SQLite honors the request,
    however alternative application-defined page cache implementations
    may choose to interpret the suggested cache size in different ways
................................................................................
    should avoid using this pragma.  Older applications should discontinue
    use of this pragma at the earliest opportunity.  This pragma may be omitted
    from the build when SQLite is compiled using <a href="compile.html#omit_deprecated">SQLITE_OMIT_DEPRECATED</a>.
    </p>
  
<a name="pragma_data_version"></a>
<hr>
    <p><b>PRAGMA </b><i>schema.</i><b>data_version;</b></p>
    <p>The "PRAGMA data_version" command provides an indication that the
    database file has been modified.
    Interactive programs that hold database content in memory or that
    display database content on-screen can use the PRAGMA data_version
    command to determine if they need to flush and reload their memory
    or update the screen display.</p>

................................................................................
    The second column is the "main" for the main database file, "temp"
    for the database file used to store TEMP objects, or the name of the
    ATTACHed database for other database files.
    The third column is the name of the database file itself, or an empty
    string if the database is not associated with a file.</p>
<a name="pragma_default_cache_size"></a>
<hr>
    <b>PRAGMA </b><i>schema.</i><b>default_cache_size;
       <br>PRAGMA </b><i>schema.</i><b>default_cache_size
            = </b><i>Number-of-pages</i><b>;</b></p>

    <p>This pragma queries or sets the suggested maximum number of pages
    of disk cache that will be allocated per open database file.
    The difference between this pragma and <a href="pragma.html#pragma_cache_size">cache_size</a> is that the
    value set here persists across database connections.
    The value of the default cache size is stored in the 4-byte
................................................................................
    <p>Once an encoding has been set for a database, it cannot be changed.</p>

    <p>Databases created by the <a href="lang_attach.html">ATTACH</a> command always use the same encoding
    as the main database.  An attempt to <a href="lang_attach.html">ATTACH</a> a database with a different
    text encoding from the "main" database will fail.</p>
<a name="pragma_foreign_key_check"></a>
<hr>
    <p><b>PRAGMA </b><i>schema.</i><b>foreign_key_check;
        <br>PRAGMA </b><i>schema.</i><b>foreign_key_check(</b><i>table-name</i><b>);</b></b></p>

    <p>The foreign_key_check pragma checks the database, or the table
    called "<i>table-name</i>", for 
    <a href="foreignkeys.html">foreign key constraints</a> that are violated and returns one row of
    output for each violation.  There are four columns in each result row.
    The first column is the name of the table that contains the REFERENCES
    clause.  The second column is the <a href="lang_createtable.html#rowid">rowid</a> of the row that
................................................................................
       release of SQLite.  The default setting for foreign key enforcement
       can be specified at compile-time using the <a href="compile.html#default_foreign_keys">SQLITE_DEFAULT_FOREIGN_KEYS</a>
       preprocessor macro.  To minimize future problems, applications should
       set the foreign key enforcement flag as required by the application
       and not depend on the default setting.
<a name="pragma_freelist_count"></a>
<hr>
    <p><b>PRAGMA </b><i>schema.</i><b>freelist_count;</b></p>
    <p>Return the number of unused pages in the database file.</p>
<a name="pragma_full_column_names"></a>
<hr>
    <p><b>PRAGMA full_column_names;
       <br>PRAGMA full_column_names = </b><i>boolean</i><b>;</b></p>

    <p>Query or change the full_column_names flag. This flag together 
................................................................................
    <p><b>PRAGMA ignore_check_constraints  = </b><i>boolean</i><b>;</b></p>

    <p>This pragma enables or disables the enforcement of CHECK constraints.
    The default setting is off, meaning that CHECK constraints are
    enforced by default.</p>
<a name="pragma_incremental_vacuum"></a>
<hr>
    <p><b>PRAGMA </b><i>schema.</i><b>incremental_vacuum</b><i>(N)</i><b>;</b></p>
    <p>The incremental_vacuum pragma causes up to <i>N</i> pages to
    be removed from the <a href="fileformat2.html#freelist">freelist</a>.  The database file is truncated by
    the same amount.  The incremental_vacuum pragma has no effect if
    the database is not in
    <a href="#pragma_auto_vacuum">auto_vacuum=incremental</a> mode
    or if there are no pages on the freelist.  If there are fewer than
    <i>N</i> pages on the freelist, or if <i>N</i> is less than 1, or
    if <i>N</i> is omitted entirely, then the entire freelist is cleared.</p>
<a name="pragma_index_info"></a>
<hr>
    <p><b>PRAGMA </b><i>schema.</i><b>index_info(</b><i>index-name</i><b>);</b></p>
    <p>This pragma returns one row for each key column in the named index.
    A key column is a column that is actually named in the <a href="lang_createindex.html">CREATE INDEX</a>
    index statement or <a href="lang_createtable.html#uniqueconst">UNIQUE constraint</a> or <a href="lang_createtable.html#primkeyconst">PRIMARY KEY constraint</a> that
    created the index.  Index entries also usually contain auxiliary
    columns that point back to the table row being indexed.  The auxiliary
    index-columns are not shown by the index_info pragma, but they are
    listed by the <a href="pragma.html#pragma_index_xinfo">index_xinfo pragma</a>.</p>
................................................................................
    <ol>
    <li>The rank of the column within the index.  (0 means left-most.)
    <li>The rank of the column within the table being indexed.
    <li>The name of the column being indexed.
    </ol>
<a name="pragma_index_list"></a>
<hr>
    <p><b>PRAGMA </b><i>schema.</i><b>index_list(</b><i>table-name</i><b>);</b></p>
    <p>This pragma returns one row for each index associated with the
    given table.
    <p>Output columns from the index_list pragma are as follows:
    <ol>
    <li>A sequence number assigned to each index for internal tracking
          purposes.
    <li>The name of the index.
................................................................................
          "u" if the index was created by a <a href="lang_createtable.html#uniqueconst">UNIQUE constraint</a>, or
          "pk" if the index was created by a <a href="lang_createtable.html#primkeyconst">PRIMARY KEY constraint</a>.
    <li>"1" if the index is a <a href="partialindex.html">partial index</a> and "0" if not.
    </ol>
    </p>
<a name="pragma_index_xinfo"></a>
<hr>
    <p><b>PRAGMA </b><i>schema.</i><b>index_xinfo(</b><i>index-name</i><b>);</b></p>
    <p>This pragma returns information about every column in an index.
    Unlike this <a href="pragma.html#pragma_index_info">index_info pragma</a>, this pragma returns information about
    every column in the index, not just the key columns.
    (A key column is a column that is actually named in the <a href="lang_createindex.html">CREATE INDEX</a>
    index statement or <a href="lang_createtable.html#uniqueconst">UNIQUE constraint</a> or <a href="lang_createtable.html#primkeyconst">PRIMARY KEY constraint</a> that
    created the index.  Auxiliary columns are additional columns needed to
    locate the table entry that corresponds to each index entry.)
................................................................................
    <li>The name for the <a href="datatype3.html#collation">collating sequence</a>
         used to compare values in the index-column.
    <li>1 if the index-column is a key column and 0 if the index-column
         is an auxiliary column.
    </ol>
<a name="pragma_integrity_check"></a>
<hr>
    <p><b>PRAGMA </b><i>schema.</i><b>integrity_check;
      <br>PRAGMA </b><i>schema.</i><b>integrity_check(</b><i>N</i><b>)</b></p>
    <p>This pragma does an integrity check of the entire database.  The
    integrity_check pragma
    looks for out-of-order records, missing pages, malformed records, missing
    index entries, and UNIQUE and NOT NULL constraint errors.
    If the integrity_check pragma finds problems, strings are returned
    (as multiple rows with a single column per row) which describe
    the problems.  Pragma integrity_check will return at most <i>N</i>
................................................................................
    Use the <a href="pragma.html#pragma_foreign_key_check">PRAGMA foreign_key_check</a> command for to find errors in
    FOREIGN KEY constraints.</p>

    <p>See also the <a href="pragma.html#pragma_quick_check">PRAGMA quick_check</a> command which does most of the
    checking of PRAGMA integrity_check but runs much faster.</p>
<a name="pragma_journal_mode"></a>
<hr>
    <p><b>PRAGMA </b><i>schema.</i><b>journal_mode;
        <br>PRAGMA </b><i>schema.</i><b>journal_mode
              = <i>DELETE | TRUNCATE | PERSIST | MEMORY | WAL | OFF</i></b></p>

    <p>This pragma queries or sets the journal mode for databases
    associated with the current <a href="c3ref/sqlite3.html">database connection</a>.</p>

    <p>The first form of this pragma queries the current journaling
    mode for <i>database</i>.  When <i>database</i> is omitted, the
................................................................................
    is either MEMORY or OFF and can not be changed to a different value.
    An attempt to change the journal_mode of an <a href="inmemorydb.html">in-memory database</a> to
    any setting other than MEMORY or OFF is ignored.  Note also that
    the journal_mode cannot be changed while a transaction is active.</p>
<a name="pragma_journal_size_limit"></a>
<hr>
    <p><b>
    PRAGMA </b><i>schema.</i><b>journal_size_limit<br>
    PRAGMA </b><i>schema.</i><b>journal_size_limit = </b><i>N</i> <b>;</b>

  <p>If a database connection is operating in
  <a href="pragma.html#pragma_locking_mode">exclusive locking mode</a> or in
  <a href="pragma.html#pragma_journal_mode">persistent journal mode</a> 
  (PRAGMA journal_mode=persist) then
  after committing a transaction the <a href="lockingv3.html#rollback">rollback journal</a> file may remain in
  the file-system. This increases performance for subsequent transactions
................................................................................
    <p>The legacy_file_format pragma is initialized to OFF when an existing
    database in the newer file format is first opened.</p>

    <p>The default file format is set by the
    <a href="compile.html#default_file_format">SQLITE_DEFAULT_FILE_FORMAT</a> compile-time option.</p>
<a name="pragma_locking_mode"></a>
<hr>
    <p><b>PRAGMA </b><i>schema.</i><b>locking_mode;
    <br>PRAGMA </b><i>schema.</i><b>locking_mode
                = <i>NORMAL | EXCLUSIVE</i></b></p>
    <p>This pragma sets or queries the database connection locking-mode. 
    The locking-mode is either NORMAL or EXCLUSIVE.

    <p>In NORMAL locking-mode (the default unless overridden at compile-time
    using <a href="compile.html#default_locking_mode">SQLITE_DEFAULT_LOCKING_MODE</a>), a database connection
    unlocks the database file at the conclusion of each read or
................................................................................
   NORMAL until after exiting WAL journal mode. 
   If the locking mode is NORMAL when first entering WAL
   journal mode, then the locking mode can be changed between NORMAL and
   EXCLUSIVE and back again at any time and without needing to exit
   WAL journal mode.</p>
<a name="pragma_max_page_count"></a>
<hr>
    <p><b>PRAGMA </b><i>schema.</i><b>max_page_count;
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    <p>Query or set the maximum number of pages in the database file.
    Both forms of the pragma return the maximum page count.  The second
    form attempts to modify the maximum page count.  The maximum page
    count cannot be reduced below the current database size.
    </p>
<a name="pragma_mmap_size"></a>
<hr>
    <p><br><b>PRAGMA </b><i>schema.</i><b>mmap_size;
         <br>PRAGMA </b><i>schema.</i><b>mmap_size=</b><i>N</i></p>

    <p>Query or change the maximum number of bytes that are set
       aside for memory-mapped I/O on a single database.  The first form
       (without an argument) queries the current limit.  The second
       form (with a numeric argument) sets the limit for the specified
       database, or for all databases if the optional database name is
       omitted.  In the second form, if the database name is omitted, the
................................................................................
       the memory-mapped I/O region is in active use, to avoid unmapping
       memory out from under running SQL statements.  For this reason,
       the mmap_size pragma may be a no-op if the prior mmap_size is non-zero
       and there are other SQL statements running concurrently on the same
       <a href="c3ref/sqlite3.html">database connection</a>.</p>
<a name="pragma_page_count"></a>
<hr>
    <p><b>PRAGMA </b><i>schema.</i><b>page_count;</b></p>
    <p>Return the total number of pages in the database file.</p>
<a name="pragma_page_size"></a>
<hr>
   <p><b>PRAGMA </b><i>schema.</i><b>page_size;
       <br>PRAGMA </b><i>schema.</i><b>page_size = </b><i>bytes</i><b>;</b></p>
    <p>Query or set the page size of the database. The page
    size must be a power of two between 512 and 65536 inclusive.
    </p>

    <p>When a new database is created, SQLite assigned a default page size
    based on information received from the xSectorSize and 
    xDeviceCharacteristics methods of the <a href="c3ref/io_methods.html">sqlite3_io_methods</a> object
................................................................................
    <p><b>PRAGMA query_only;
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    <p>The query_only pragma prevents all changes to database files when
    enabled.</p>
<a name="pragma_quick_check"></a>
<hr>
    <p><b>PRAGMA </b><i>schema.</i><b>quick_check;
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    <p>The pragma is like <a href="pragma.html#pragma_integrity_check">integrity_check</a> except that it does not verify
    UNIQUE and NOT NULL constraints and does not verify
    that index content matches table content.  By skipping UNIQUE and NOT NULL
    and index consistency checks, quick_check is able to run much faster than
    integrity_check.  Otherwise the two pragmas are the same.
    </p>
<a name="pragma_read_uncommitted"></a>
................................................................................
    times with this pragma both disabled and enabled, cases where the
    application makes faulty assumptions about output order can be
    identified and fixed early, reducing problems
    that might be caused by linking against a different version of SQLite.
    </p>
<a name="pragma_schema_version"></a>
<hr>
    <p><b>PRAGMA </b><i>schema.</i><b>schema_version; 
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      <br>PRAGMA </b><i>schema.</i><b>user_version;
      <br>PRAGMA </b><i>schema.</i><b>user_version = </b><i>integer </i><b>;</b>

  
<p>    The pragmas schema_version and user_version are used to set or get
       the value of the schema-version and user-version, respectively. The
       schema-version and the user-version are big-endian 32-bit signed
       integers stored in the database header at offsets 40 and 60,
       respectively.</p>
................................................................................
       to modify the schema-version is potentially dangerous and may lead 
       to program crashes or database corruption. Use with caution!</p>
  
<p>    The user-version is not used internally by SQLite. It may be used by
       applications for any purpose.</p>
<a name="pragma_secure_delete"></a>
<hr>
    <p>PRAGMA </b><i>schema.</i><b>secure_delete;
     <br>PRAGMA </b><i>schema.</i><b>secure_delete = </b><i>boolean</i></p>
    <p>Query or change the secure-delete setting. When secure-delete
    on, SQLite overwrites deleted content with zeros.  The default
    setting is determined by the <a href="compile.html#secure_delete">SQLITE_SECURE_DELETE</a>
    compile-time option.

    <p>
    When there are <a href="lang_attach.html">attached databases</a> and no database
................................................................................
    <p style='background-color: #f0e0ff;'>
    The intended use of this pragma is only for testing and validation of
    SQLite.  This pragma is subject to change without notice and is not
    recommended for use by application programs.</p>
  
<a name="pragma_synchronous"></a>
<hr>
    <p><b>PRAGMA </b><i>schema.</i><b>synchronous;
        <br>PRAGMA </b><i>schema.</i><b>synchronous = </b>
          <i>0 | OFF | 1 | NORMAL | 2 | FULL</i><b>;</b></p>

    <p>Query or change the setting of the "synchronous" flag.
    The first (query) form will return the synchronous setting as an 
    integer.  When synchronous is FULL (2), the SQLite database engine will
    use the xSync method of the <a href="vfs.html">VFS</a> to ensure that all content is safely
    written to the disk surface prior to continuing.
................................................................................
    all one needs in WAL mode.</p>

    <p>The default setting is synchronous=FULL.</p>

    <p>See also the <a href="pragma.html#pragma_fullfsync">fullfsync</a> and <a href="pragma.html#pragma_checkpoint_fullfsync">checkpoint_fullfsync</a> pragmas.</p>
<a name="pragma_table_info"></a>
<hr>
    <p><b>PRAGMA </b><i>schema.</i><b>table_info(</b><i>table-name</i><b>);</b></p>
    <p>This pragma returns one row for each column in the named table.
    Columns in the result set include the column name,
    data type, whether or not the column can be NULL, and the default
    value for the column.  The "pk" column in the result set is zero
    for columns that are not part of the primary key, and is the index of
    the column in the primary key for columns that are part of the primary
    key.</p>
................................................................................
    All automatic checkpoints are <a href="c3ref/wal_checkpoint_v2.html">PASSIVE</a>.</p>

    <p>Autocheckpointing is enabled by default with an interval
    of 1000 or <a href="compile.html#default_wal_autocheckpoint">SQLITE_DEFAULT_WAL_AUTOCHECKPOINT</a>.</p>

<a name="pragma_wal_checkpoint"></a>
<hr>
    <p><b>PRAGMA </b><i>schema.</i><b>wal_checkpoint;</b><br>
       <b>PRAGMA </b><i>schema.</i><b>wal_checkpoint(PASSIVE);</b><br>
       <b>PRAGMA </b><i>schema.</i><b>wal_checkpoint(FULL);</b><br>
       <b>PRAGMA </b><i>schema.</i><b>wal_checkpoint(RESTART);</b><br>
       <b>PRAGMA </b><i>schema.</i><b>wal_checkpoint(TRUNCATE);</b>
   </p>

    <p>If the <a href="wal.html">write-ahead log</a> is enabled (via the <a href="pragma.html#pragma_journal_mode">journal_mode pragma</a>),
    this pragma causes a <a href="wal.html#ckpt">checkpoint</a> operation to run on database
    <i>database</i>, or on all attached databases if <i>database</i>
    is omitted.  If <a href="wal.html">write-ahead log</a> mode is disabled, this pragma is a
    harmless no-op.</p>

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<h1 align='center'>expr</h1>
<blockquote>
<img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="../images/syntax/expr.gif"></img><br>

Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./attach-stmt.html'>attach-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./column-constraint.html'>column-constraint</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./compound-select-stmt.html'>compound-select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./create-index-stmt.html'>create-index-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./create-trigger-stmt.html'>create-trigger-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./delete-stmt.html'>delete-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./delete-stmt-limited.html'>delete-stmt-limited</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./factored-select-stmt.html'>factored-select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./insert-stmt.html'>insert-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./join-constraint.html'>join-constraint</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./ordering-term.html'>ordering-term</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./result-column.html'>result-column</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./select-core.html'>select-core</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./select-stmt.html'>select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./simple-select-stmt.html'>simple-select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./table-constraint.html'>table-constraint</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./update-stmt.html'>update-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./update-stmt-limited.html'>update-stmt-limited</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./literal-value.html'>literal-value</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./raise-function.html'>raise-function</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./select-stmt.html'>select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./type-name.html'>type-name</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_altertable.html'>lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_attach.html'>lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createindex.html'>lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtable.html'>lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtrigger.html'>lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createview.html'>lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_delete.html'>lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_expr.html'>lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_insert.html'>lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_select.html'>lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_update.html'>lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_with.html'>lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../partialindex.html'>partialindex.html</a>
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<h1 align='center'>expr</h1>
<blockquote>
<img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="../images/syntax/expr.gif"></img><br>

Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./attach-stmt.html'>attach-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./column-constraint.html'>column-constraint</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./compound-select-stmt.html'>compound-select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./create-index-stmt.html'>create-index-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./create-trigger-stmt.html'>create-trigger-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./delete-stmt.html'>delete-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./delete-stmt-limited.html'>delete-stmt-limited</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./factored-select-stmt.html'>factored-select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./indexed-column.html'>indexed-column</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./insert-stmt.html'>insert-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./join-constraint.html'>join-constraint</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./ordering-term.html'>ordering-term</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./result-column.html'>result-column</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./select-core.html'>select-core</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./select-stmt.html'>select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./simple-select-stmt.html'>simple-select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./table-constraint.html'>table-constraint</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./table-or-subquery.html'>table-or-subquery</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./update-stmt.html'>update-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./update-stmt-limited.html'>update-stmt-limited</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./literal-value.html'>literal-value</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./raise-function.html'>raise-function</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./select-stmt.html'>select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./type-name.html'>type-name</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_altertable.html'>lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_attach.html'>lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createindex.html'>lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtable.html'>lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtrigger.html'>lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createview.html'>lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_delete.html'>lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_expr.html'>lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_insert.html'>lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_select.html'>lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_update.html'>lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_with.html'>lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../partialindex.html'>partialindex.html</a>
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<h1 align='center'>indexed-column</h1>
<blockquote>
<img alt="syntax diagram indexed-column" src="../images/syntax/indexed-column.gif"></img><br>

Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./create-index-stmt.html'>create-index-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./table-constraint.html'>table-constraint</a><br></br>

See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createindex.html'>lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtable.html'>lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../partialindex.html'>partialindex.html</a>
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<h1 align='center'>indexed-column</h1>
<blockquote>
<img alt="syntax diagram indexed-column" src="../images/syntax/indexed-column.gif"></img><br>

Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./create-index-stmt.html'>create-index-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./table-constraint.html'>table-constraint</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./expr.html'>expr</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createindex.html'>lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtable.html'>lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../partialindex.html'>partialindex.html</a>
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<h1 align='center'>table-or-subquery</h1>
<blockquote>
<img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="../images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif"></img><br>

Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./join-clause.html'>join-clause</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./select-core.html'>select-core</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./select-stmt.html'>select-stmt</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./join-clause.html'>join-clause</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./select-stmt.html'>select-stmt</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_altertable.html'>lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_attach.html'>lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createindex.html'>lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtable.html'>lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtrigger.html'>lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createview.html'>lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_delete.html'>lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_expr.html'>lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_insert.html'>lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_select.html'>lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_update.html'>lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_with.html'>lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../partialindex.html'>partialindex.html</a>
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<h1 align='center'>table-or-subquery</h1>
<blockquote>
<img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="../images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif"></img><br>

Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./join-clause.html'>join-clause</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./select-core.html'>select-core</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./select-stmt.html'>select-stmt</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./expr.html'>expr</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./join-clause.html'>join-clause</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./select-stmt.html'>select-stmt</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_altertable.html'>lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_attach.html'>lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createindex.html'>lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtable.html'>lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtrigger.html'>lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createview.html'>lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_delete.html'>lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_expr.html'>lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_insert.html'>lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_select.html'>lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_update.html'>lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_with.html'>lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../partialindex.html'>partialindex.html</a>
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................................................................................
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#expr">expr</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#indexed-column">indexed-column</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createindex.html">lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="partialindex.html">partialindex.html</a>
</blockquote>

<a name="indexed-column"></a><h4>indexed-column:</h4><blockquote>
<img src="images/syntax/indexed-column.gif"></img><br></br>
Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#create-index-stmt">create-index-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#table-constraint">table-constraint</a><br></br>

See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createindex.html">lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtable.html">lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="partialindex.html">partialindex.html</a>
</blockquote>

<a name="create-table-stmt"></a><h4>create-table-stmt:</h4><blockquote>
<img src="images/syntax/create-table-stmt.gif"></img><br></br>
Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#sql-stmt">sql-stmt</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#column-def">column-def</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#select-stmt">select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#table-constraint">table-constraint</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtable.html">lang_createtable.html</a>
................................................................................
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_altertable.html">lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_attach.html">lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createindex.html">lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtable.html">lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtrigger.html">lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createview.html">lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_delete.html">lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_expr.html">lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_insert.html">lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html">lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#compound">lang_select.html#compound</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#simpleselect">lang_select.html#simpleselect</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_update.html">lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_with.html">lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="partialindex.html">partialindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="pragma.html#syntax">pragma.html#syntax</a>
</blockquote>

<a name="table-constraint"></a><h4>table-constraint:</h4><blockquote>
<img src="images/syntax/table-constraint.gif"></img><br></br>
Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#create-table-stmt">create-table-stmt</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#conflict-clause">conflict-clause</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#expr">expr</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#foreign-key-clause">foreign-key-clause</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#indexed-column">indexed-column</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtable.html">lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtable.html#primkeyconst">lang_createtable.html#primkeyconst</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtable.html#tablecoldef">lang_createtable.html#tablecoldef</a>
</blockquote>

<a name="foreign-key-clause"></a><h4>foreign-key-clause:</h4><blockquote>
<img src="images/syntax/foreign-key-clause.gif"></img><br></br>
Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#column-constraint">column-constraint</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#table-constraint">table-constraint</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_altertable.html">lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtable.html">lang_createtable.html</a>
</blockquote>
................................................................................
<img src="images/syntax/drop-view-stmt.gif"></img><br></br>
Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#sql-stmt">sql-stmt</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_dropview.html">lang_dropview.html</a>
</blockquote>

<a name="expr"></a><h4>expr:</h4><blockquote>
<img src="images/syntax/expr.gif"></img><br></br>
Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#attach-stmt">attach-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#column-constraint">column-constraint</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#compound-select-stmt">compound-select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#create-index-stmt">create-index-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#create-trigger-stmt">create-trigger-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#delete-stmt">delete-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#delete-stmt-limited">delete-stmt-limited</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#factored-select-stmt">factored-select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#insert-stmt">insert-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#join-constraint">join-constraint</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#ordering-term">ordering-term</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#result-column">result-column</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#select-core">select-core</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#select-stmt">select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#simple-select-stmt">simple-select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#table-constraint">table-constraint</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#update-stmt">update-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#update-stmt-limited">update-stmt-limited</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#literal-value">literal-value</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#raise-function">raise-function</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#select-stmt">select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#type-name">type-name</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_altertable.html">lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_attach.html">lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createindex.html">lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtable.html">lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtrigger.html">lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createview.html">lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_delete.html">lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_expr.html">lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_insert.html">lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html">lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#compound">lang_select.html#compound</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#simpleselect">lang_select.html#simpleselect</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_update.html">lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_with.html">lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="partialindex.html">partialindex.html</a>
</blockquote>

<a name="raise-function"></a><h4>raise-function:</h4><blockquote>
<img src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif"></img><br></br>
Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#expr">expr</a><br></br>
................................................................................
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#common-table-expression">common-table-expression</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#expr">expr</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#ordering-term">ordering-term</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#select-core">select-core</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#compound">lang_select.html#compound</a>
</blockquote>

<a name="table-or-subquery"></a><h4>table-or-subquery:</h4><blockquote>
<img src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif"></img><br></br>
Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#join-clause">join-clause</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#select-core">select-core</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#select-stmt">select-stmt</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#join-clause">join-clause</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#select-stmt">select-stmt</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_altertable.html">lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_attach.html">lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createindex.html">lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtable.html">lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtrigger.html">lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createview.html">lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_delete.html">lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_expr.html">lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_insert.html">lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html">lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#compound">lang_select.html#compound</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#simpleselect">lang_select.html#simpleselect</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_update.html">lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_with.html">lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="partialindex.html">partialindex.html</a>
</blockquote>

<a name="result-column"></a><h4>result-column:</h4><blockquote>
<img src="images/syntax/result-column.gif"></img><br></br>
Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#select-core">select-core</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#select-stmt">select-stmt</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#expr">expr</a><br></br>







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.fancy p.todo        { border: solid #AA3333 1px; padding: 1ex }
.fancy img { display:block; }
.fancy :link:hover, .fancy :visited:hover { background: wheat }
.fancy p,.fancy ul,.fancy ol,.fancy dl { margin: 1em 5ex }
.fancy li p { margin: 1em 0 }
/* End of "fancyformat" specific rules. */

.yyterm {
  background: #fff;
  border: 1px solid #000;
  border-radius: 11px;
  padding-left: 4px;
  padding-right: 4px;
}
</style>
  
</head>
<body>
<div><!-- container div to satisfy validator -->

<a href="index.html">
................................................................................
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#expr">expr</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#indexed-column">indexed-column</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createindex.html">lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="partialindex.html">partialindex.html</a>
</blockquote>

<a name="indexed-column"></a><h4>indexed-column:</h4><blockquote>
<img src="images/syntax/indexed-column.gif"></img><br></br>
Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#create-index-stmt">create-index-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#table-constraint">table-constraint</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#expr">expr</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createindex.html">lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtable.html">lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtable.html#primkeyconst">lang_createtable.html#primkeyconst</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtable.html#uniqueconst">lang_createtable.html#uniqueconst</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="partialindex.html">partialindex.html</a>
</blockquote>

<a name="create-table-stmt"></a><h4>create-table-stmt:</h4><blockquote>
<img src="images/syntax/create-table-stmt.gif"></img><br></br>
Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#sql-stmt">sql-stmt</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#column-def">column-def</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#select-stmt">select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#table-constraint">table-constraint</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtable.html">lang_createtable.html</a>
................................................................................
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_altertable.html">lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_attach.html">lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createindex.html">lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtable.html">lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtrigger.html">lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createview.html">lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_delete.html">lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_expr.html">lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_insert.html">lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html">lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#compound">lang_select.html#compound</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#simpleselect">lang_select.html#simpleselect</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_update.html">lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_with.html">lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="partialindex.html">partialindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="pragma.html#syntax">pragma.html#syntax</a>
</blockquote>

<a name="table-constraint"></a><h4>table-constraint:</h4><blockquote>
<img src="images/syntax/table-constraint.gif"></img><br></br>
Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#create-table-stmt">create-table-stmt</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#conflict-clause">conflict-clause</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#expr">expr</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#foreign-key-clause">foreign-key-clause</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#indexed-column">indexed-column</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtable.html">lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtable.html#primkeyconst">lang_createtable.html#primkeyconst</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtable.html#tablecoldef">lang_createtable.html#tablecoldef</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtable.html#uniqueconst">lang_createtable.html#uniqueconst</a>
</blockquote>

<a name="foreign-key-clause"></a><h4>foreign-key-clause:</h4><blockquote>
<img src="images/syntax/foreign-key-clause.gif"></img><br></br>
Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#column-constraint">column-constraint</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#table-constraint">table-constraint</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_altertable.html">lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtable.html">lang_createtable.html</a>
</blockquote>
................................................................................
<img src="images/syntax/drop-view-stmt.gif"></img><br></br>
Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#sql-stmt">sql-stmt</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_dropview.html">lang_dropview.html</a>
</blockquote>

<a name="expr"></a><h4>expr:</h4><blockquote>
<img src="images/syntax/expr.gif"></img><br></br>
Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#attach-stmt">attach-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#column-constraint">column-constraint</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#compound-select-stmt">compound-select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#create-index-stmt">create-index-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#create-trigger-stmt">create-trigger-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#delete-stmt">delete-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#delete-stmt-limited">delete-stmt-limited</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#factored-select-stmt">factored-select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#indexed-column">indexed-column</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#insert-stmt">insert-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#join-constraint">join-constraint</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#ordering-term">ordering-term</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#result-column">result-column</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#select-core">select-core</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#select-stmt">select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#simple-select-stmt">simple-select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#table-constraint">table-constraint</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#table-or-subquery">table-or-subquery</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#update-stmt">update-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#update-stmt-limited">update-stmt-limited</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#literal-value">literal-value</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#raise-function">raise-function</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#select-stmt">select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#type-name">type-name</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_altertable.html">lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_attach.html">lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createindex.html">lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtable.html">lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtrigger.html">lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createview.html">lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_delete.html">lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_expr.html">lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_insert.html">lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html">lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#compound">lang_select.html#compound</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#simpleselect">lang_select.html#simpleselect</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_update.html">lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_with.html">lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="partialindex.html">partialindex.html</a>
</blockquote>

<a name="raise-function"></a><h4>raise-function:</h4><blockquote>
<img src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif"></img><br></br>
Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#expr">expr</a><br></br>
................................................................................
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#common-table-expression">common-table-expression</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#expr">expr</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#ordering-term">ordering-term</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#select-core">select-core</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#compound">lang_select.html#compound</a>
</blockquote>

<a name="table-or-subquery"></a><h4>table-or-subquery:</h4><blockquote>
<img src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif"></img><br></br>
Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#join-clause">join-clause</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#select-core">select-core</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#select-stmt">select-stmt</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#expr">expr</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#join-clause">join-clause</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#select-stmt">select-stmt</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_altertable.html">lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_attach.html">lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createindex.html">lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtable.html">lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtrigger.html">lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createview.html">lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_delete.html">lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_expr.html">lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_insert.html">lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html">lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#compound">lang_select.html#compound</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#simpleselect">lang_select.html#simpleselect</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_update.html">lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_with.html">lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="partialindex.html">partialindex.html</a>
</blockquote>

<a name="result-column"></a><h4>result-column:</h4><blockquote>
<img src="images/syntax/result-column.gif"></img><br></br>
Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#select-core">select-core</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#select-stmt">select-stmt</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#expr">expr</a><br></br>