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Overview
Comment:Update the included core library documentation.
Downloads: Tarball | ZIP archive | SQL archive
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Files: files | file ages | folders
SHA1: 9ade973926e42a853a92c6ad00ba893773f85a0c
User & Date: mistachkin 2014-12-09 19:23:08
Context
2014-12-09
23:13
Update SQLite core library to the 3.8.7.4 release. check-in: 98379cefde user: mistachkin tags: trunk
19:23
Update the included core library documentation. check-in: 9ade973926 user: mistachkin tags: trunk
2014-12-08
22:25
Modify the test suite to support testing with shared-cache enabled. check-in: 9c7aa64aed user: mistachkin tags: trunk
Changes
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Changes to Doc/Extra/Core/lang.html.

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    <form name=f method="GET" action="http://www.sqlite.org/search">
      <input id=q name=q type=text
       onfocus="entersearch()" onblur="leavesearch()" style="width:24ex;padding:1px 1ex; border:solid white 1px; font-size:0.9em ; font-style:italic;color:#044a64;" value="Search SQLite Docs...">
      <input type=submit value="Go" style="border:solid white 1px;background-color:#044a64;color:white;font-size:0.9em;padding:0 1ex">
    </form>
    </div>
  </table>

................................................................................

<p>The routines <a href="c3ref/prepare.html">sqlite3_prepare_v2()</a>, <a href="c3ref/prepare.html">sqlite3_prepare()</a>,
<a href="c3ref/prepare.html">sqlite3_prepare16()</a>, <a href="c3ref/prepare.html">sqlite3_prepare16_v2()</a>, 
<a href="c3ref/exec.html">sqlite3_exec()</a>, and <a href="c3ref/free_table.html">sqlite3_get_table()</a> accept
an SQL statement list (sql-stmt-list) which is a semicolon-separated
list of statements.</p>

<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#sql-stmt-list">sql-stmt-list:</a></b></p><blockquote>
 <img alt="syntax diagram sql-stmt-list" src="images/syntax/sql-stmt-list.gif"></img>
 </blockquote>


<p>Each SQL statement in the statement list is an instance of the
following:</p>

<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#sql-stmt">sql-stmt:</a></b></p><blockquote>
 <img alt="syntax diagram sql-stmt" src="images/syntax/sql-stmt.gif"></img>
 </blockquote>










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<td>
    <div style="padding:0 1em 0px 0;white-space:nowrap">
    <form name=f method="GET" action="https://www.sqlite.org/search">
      <input id=q name=q type=text
       onfocus="entersearch()" onblur="leavesearch()" style="width:24ex;padding:1px 1ex; border:solid white 1px; font-size:0.9em ; font-style:italic;color:#044a64;" value="Search SQLite Docs...">
      <input type=submit value="Go" style="border:solid white 1px;background-color:#044a64;color:white;font-size:0.9em;padding:0 1ex">
    </form>
    </div>
  </table>

................................................................................

<p>The routines <a href="c3ref/prepare.html">sqlite3_prepare_v2()</a>, <a href="c3ref/prepare.html">sqlite3_prepare()</a>,
<a href="c3ref/prepare.html">sqlite3_prepare16()</a>, <a href="c3ref/prepare.html">sqlite3_prepare16_v2()</a>, 
<a href="c3ref/exec.html">sqlite3_exec()</a>, and <a href="c3ref/free_table.html">sqlite3_get_table()</a> accept
an SQL statement list (sql-stmt-list) which is a semicolon-separated
list of statements.</p>

<p><b><a href="syntax/sql-stmt-list.html">sql-stmt-list:</a></b></p><blockquote>
 <img alt="syntax diagram sql-stmt-list" src="images/syntax/sql-stmt-list.gif"></img>
 </blockquote>


<p>Each SQL statement in the statement list is an instance of the
following:</p>

<p><b><a href="syntax/sql-stmt.html">sql-stmt:</a></b></p><blockquote>
 <img alt="syntax diagram sql-stmt" src="images/syntax/sql-stmt.gif"></img>
 </blockquote>



Changes to Doc/Extra/Core/lang_aggfunc.html.

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</script>
<td>
    <div style="padding:0 1em 0px 0;white-space:nowrap">
    <form name=f method="GET" action="http://www.sqlite.org/search">
      <input id=q name=q type=text
       onfocus="entersearch()" onblur="leavesearch()" style="width:24ex;padding:1px 1ex; border:solid white 1px; font-size:0.9em ; font-style:italic;color:#044a64;" value="Search SQLite Docs...">
      <input type=submit value="Go" style="border:solid white 1px;background-color:#044a64;color:white;font-size:0.9em;padding:0 1ex">
    </form>
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<td>
    <div style="padding:0 1em 0px 0;white-space:nowrap">
    <form name=f method="GET" action="https://www.sqlite.org/search">
      <input id=q name=q type=text
       onfocus="entersearch()" onblur="leavesearch()" style="width:24ex;padding:1px 1ex; border:solid white 1px; font-size:0.9em ; font-style:italic;color:#044a64;" value="Search SQLite Docs...">
      <input type=submit value="Go" style="border:solid white 1px;background-color:#044a64;color:white;font-size:0.9em;padding:0 1ex">
    </form>
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  </table>

Changes to Doc/Extra/Core/lang_altertable.html.

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<td>
    <div style="padding:0 1em 0px 0;white-space:nowrap">
    <form name=f method="GET" action="http://www.sqlite.org/search">
      <input id=q name=q type=text
       onfocus="entersearch()" onblur="leavesearch()" style="width:24ex;padding:1px 1ex; border:solid white 1px; font-size:0.9em ; font-style:italic;color:#044a64;" value="Search SQLite Docs...">
      <input type=submit value="Go" style="border:solid white 1px;background-color:#044a64;color:white;font-size:0.9em;padding:0 1ex">
    </form>
    </div>
  </table>

<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>ALTER TABLE</h2><p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#alter-table-stmt">alter-table-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x737' onclick='hideorshow("x737","x738")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x738'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram alter-table-stmt" src="images/syntax/alter-table-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#column-def">column-def:</a></b>
<button id='x739' onclick='hideorshow("x739","x740")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x740' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram column-def" src="images/syntax/column-def.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#column-constraint">column-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x741' onclick='hideorshow("x741","x742")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x742' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram column-constraint" src="images/syntax/column-constraint.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#conflict-clause">conflict-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x743' onclick='hideorshow("x743","x744")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x744' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram conflict-clause" src="images/syntax/conflict-clause.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#expr">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x745' onclick='hideorshow("x745","x746")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x746' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#raise-function">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x747' onclick='hideorshow("x747","x748")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x748' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#select-stmt">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x749' onclick='hideorshow("x749","x750")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x750' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#common-table-expression">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x751' onclick='hideorshow("x751","x752")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x752' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#compound-operator">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x753' onclick='hideorshow("x753","x754")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x754' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#join-clause">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x755' onclick='hideorshow("x755","x756")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x756' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#join-constraint">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x757' onclick='hideorshow("x757","x758")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x758' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#join-operator">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x759' onclick='hideorshow("x759","x760")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x760' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#ordering-term">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x761' onclick='hideorshow("x761","x762")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x762' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#result-column">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x763' onclick='hideorshow("x763","x764")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x764' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#table-or-subquery">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x765' onclick='hideorshow("x765","x766")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x766' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#foreign-key-clause">foreign-key-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x767' onclick='hideorshow("x767","x768")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x768' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram foreign-key-clause" src="images/syntax/foreign-key-clause.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#literal-value">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x769' onclick='hideorshow("x769","x770")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x770' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#signed-number">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x771' onclick='hideorshow("x771","x772")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x772' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#type-name">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x773' onclick='hideorshow("x773","x774")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x774' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#signed-number">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x775' onclick='hideorshow("x775","x776")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x776' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
................................................................................
then those triggers and views must be dropped and recreated separately
by the application.
</td></tr></table>
</blockquote>

<p>If <a href="foreignkeys.html">foreign key constraints</a> are 
<a href="pragma.html#pragma_foreign_keys">enabled</a> when a table is renamed, then any
<a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#foreign-key-clause">REFERENCES clauses</a> in any table (either the
table being renamed or some other table)
that refer to the table being renamed are modified to refer 
to the renamed table by its new name.

<p> The ADD COLUMN syntax
is used to add a new column to an existing table.
The new column is always appended to the end of the list of existing columns.
The <a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#column-def">column-def</a> rule defines the characteristics of the new column.
The new column may take any of the forms permissible in a <a href="lang_createtable.html">CREATE TABLE</a>
statement, with the following restrictions:
<ul>
<li>The column may not have a PRIMARY KEY or UNIQUE constraint.</li>
<li>The column may not have a default value of CURRENT_TIME, CURRENT_DATE, 
    CURRENT_TIMESTAMP, or an expression in parentheses.</li>
<li>If a NOT NULL constraint is specified, then the column must have a
    default value other than NULL.
<li>If <a href="foreignkeys.html">foreign key constraints</a> are <a href="pragma.html#pragma_foreign_keys">enabled</a> and
    a column with a <a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#foreign-key-clause">REFERENCES clause</a>
    is added, the column must have a default value of NULL.
</ul>

<p>Note also that when adding a <a href="lang_createtable.html#ckconst">CHECK constraint</a>, the CHECK constraint
is not tested against preexisting rows of the table.
This can result in a table that contains data that
is in violation of the CHECK constraint.  Future versions of SQLite might







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      b.innerHTML='hide';
    }
    return false;
  }
</script>
<td>
    <div style="padding:0 1em 0px 0;white-space:nowrap">
    <form name=f method="GET" action="https://www.sqlite.org/search">
      <input id=q name=q type=text
       onfocus="entersearch()" onblur="leavesearch()" style="width:24ex;padding:1px 1ex; border:solid white 1px; font-size:0.9em ; font-style:italic;color:#044a64;" value="Search SQLite Docs...">
      <input type=submit value="Go" style="border:solid white 1px;background-color:#044a64;color:white;font-size:0.9em;padding:0 1ex">
    </form>
    </div>
  </table>

<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>ALTER TABLE</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/alter-table-stmt.html">alter-table-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x737' onclick='hideorshow("x737","x738")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x738'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram alter-table-stmt" src="images/syntax/alter-table-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/column-def.html">column-def:</a></b>
<button id='x739' onclick='hideorshow("x739","x740")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x740' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram column-def" src="images/syntax/column-def.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/column-constraint.html">column-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x741' onclick='hideorshow("x741","x742")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x742' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram column-constraint" src="images/syntax/column-constraint.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/conflict-clause.html">conflict-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x743' onclick='hideorshow("x743","x744")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x744' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram conflict-clause" src="images/syntax/conflict-clause.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x745' onclick='hideorshow("x745","x746")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x746' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x747' onclick='hideorshow("x747","x748")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x748' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x749' onclick='hideorshow("x749","x750")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x750' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x751' onclick='hideorshow("x751","x752")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x752' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x753' onclick='hideorshow("x753","x754")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x754' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x755' onclick='hideorshow("x755","x756")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x756' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x757' onclick='hideorshow("x757","x758")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x758' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x759' onclick='hideorshow("x759","x760")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x760' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x761' onclick='hideorshow("x761","x762")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x762' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x763' onclick='hideorshow("x763","x764")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x764' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x765' onclick='hideorshow("x765","x766")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x766' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/foreign-key-clause.html">foreign-key-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x767' onclick='hideorshow("x767","x768")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x768' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram foreign-key-clause" src="images/syntax/foreign-key-clause.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x769' onclick='hideorshow("x769","x770")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x770' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x771' onclick='hideorshow("x771","x772")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x772' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x773' onclick='hideorshow("x773","x774")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x774' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x775' onclick='hideorshow("x775","x776")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x776' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
................................................................................
then those triggers and views must be dropped and recreated separately
by the application.
</td></tr></table>
</blockquote>

<p>If <a href="foreignkeys.html">foreign key constraints</a> are 
<a href="pragma.html#pragma_foreign_keys">enabled</a> when a table is renamed, then any
<a href="syntax/foreign-key-clause.html">REFERENCES clauses</a> in any table (either the
table being renamed or some other table)
that refer to the table being renamed are modified to refer 
to the renamed table by its new name.

<p> The ADD COLUMN syntax
is used to add a new column to an existing table.
The new column is always appended to the end of the list of existing columns.
The <a href="syntax/column-def.html">column-def</a> rule defines the characteristics of the new column.
The new column may take any of the forms permissible in a <a href="lang_createtable.html">CREATE TABLE</a>
statement, with the following restrictions:
<ul>
<li>The column may not have a PRIMARY KEY or UNIQUE constraint.</li>
<li>The column may not have a default value of CURRENT_TIME, CURRENT_DATE, 
    CURRENT_TIMESTAMP, or an expression in parentheses.</li>
<li>If a NOT NULL constraint is specified, then the column must have a
    default value other than NULL.
<li>If <a href="foreignkeys.html">foreign key constraints</a> are <a href="pragma.html#pragma_foreign_keys">enabled</a> and
    a column with a <a href="syntax/foreign-key-clause.html">REFERENCES clause</a>
    is added, the column must have a default value of NULL.
</ul>

<p>Note also that when adding a <a href="lang_createtable.html#ckconst">CHECK constraint</a>, the CHECK constraint
is not tested against preexisting rows of the table.
This can result in a table that contains data that
is in violation of the CHECK constraint.  Future versions of SQLite might

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    }
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    <div style="padding:0 1em 0px 0;white-space:nowrap">
    <form name=f method="GET" action="http://www.sqlite.org/search">
      <input id=q name=q type=text
       onfocus="entersearch()" onblur="leavesearch()" style="width:24ex;padding:1px 1ex; border:solid white 1px; font-size:0.9em ; font-style:italic;color:#044a64;" value="Search SQLite Docs...">
      <input type=submit value="Go" style="border:solid white 1px;background-color:#044a64;color:white;font-size:0.9em;padding:0 1ex">
    </form>
    </div>
  </table>

<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>ANALYZE</h2><p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#analyze-stmt">analyze-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x777' onclick='hideorshow("x777","x778")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x778'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram analyze-stmt" src="images/syntax/analyze-stmt.gif" />
</blockquote>


<p> The ANALYZE command gathers statistics about tables and







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    <div style="padding:0 1em 0px 0;white-space:nowrap">
    <form name=f method="GET" action="https://www.sqlite.org/search">
      <input id=q name=q type=text
       onfocus="entersearch()" onblur="leavesearch()" style="width:24ex;padding:1px 1ex; border:solid white 1px; font-size:0.9em ; font-style:italic;color:#044a64;" value="Search SQLite Docs...">
      <input type=submit value="Go" style="border:solid white 1px;background-color:#044a64;color:white;font-size:0.9em;padding:0 1ex">
    </form>
    </div>
  </table>

<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>ANALYZE</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/analyze-stmt.html">analyze-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x777' onclick='hideorshow("x777","x778")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x778'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram analyze-stmt" src="images/syntax/analyze-stmt.gif" />
</blockquote>


<p> The ANALYZE command gathers statistics about tables and

Changes to Doc/Extra/Core/lang_attach.html.

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    <form name=f method="GET" action="http://www.sqlite.org/search">
      <input id=q name=q type=text
       onfocus="entersearch()" onblur="leavesearch()" style="width:24ex;padding:1px 1ex; border:solid white 1px; font-size:0.9em ; font-style:italic;color:#044a64;" value="Search SQLite Docs...">
      <input type=submit value="Go" style="border:solid white 1px;background-color:#044a64;color:white;font-size:0.9em;padding:0 1ex">
    </form>
    </div>
  </table>

<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>ATTACH DATABASE</h2><p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#attach-stmt">attach-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x779' onclick='hideorshow("x779","x780")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x780'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram attach-stmt" src="images/syntax/attach-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#expr">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x781' onclick='hideorshow("x781","x782")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x782' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#literal-value">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x783' onclick='hideorshow("x783","x784")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x784' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#raise-function">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x785' onclick='hideorshow("x785","x786")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x786' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#select-stmt">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x787' onclick='hideorshow("x787","x788")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x788' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#common-table-expression">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x789' onclick='hideorshow("x789","x790")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x790' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#compound-operator">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x791' onclick='hideorshow("x791","x792")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x792' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#join-clause">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x793' onclick='hideorshow("x793","x794")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x794' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#join-constraint">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x795' onclick='hideorshow("x795","x796")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x796' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#join-operator">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x797' onclick='hideorshow("x797","x798")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x798' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#ordering-term">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x799' onclick='hideorshow("x799","x800")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x800' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#result-column">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x801' onclick='hideorshow("x801","x802")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x802' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#table-or-subquery">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x803' onclick='hideorshow("x803","x804")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x804' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#type-name">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x805' onclick='hideorshow("x805","x806")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x806' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#signed-number">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x807' onclick='hideorshow("x807","x808")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x808' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>







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      b.innerHTML='hide';
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<td>
    <div style="padding:0 1em 0px 0;white-space:nowrap">
    <form name=f method="GET" action="https://www.sqlite.org/search">
      <input id=q name=q type=text
       onfocus="entersearch()" onblur="leavesearch()" style="width:24ex;padding:1px 1ex; border:solid white 1px; font-size:0.9em ; font-style:italic;color:#044a64;" value="Search SQLite Docs...">
      <input type=submit value="Go" style="border:solid white 1px;background-color:#044a64;color:white;font-size:0.9em;padding:0 1ex">
    </form>
    </div>
  </table>

<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>ATTACH DATABASE</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/attach-stmt.html">attach-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x779' onclick='hideorshow("x779","x780")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x780'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram attach-stmt" src="images/syntax/attach-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x781' onclick='hideorshow("x781","x782")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x782' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x783' onclick='hideorshow("x783","x784")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x784' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x785' onclick='hideorshow("x785","x786")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x786' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x787' onclick='hideorshow("x787","x788")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x788' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x789' onclick='hideorshow("x789","x790")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x790' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x791' onclick='hideorshow("x791","x792")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x792' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x793' onclick='hideorshow("x793","x794")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x794' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x795' onclick='hideorshow("x795","x796")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x796' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x797' onclick='hideorshow("x797","x798")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x798' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x799' onclick='hideorshow("x799","x800")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x800' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x801' onclick='hideorshow("x801","x802")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x802' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x803' onclick='hideorshow("x803","x804")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x804' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x805' onclick='hideorshow("x805","x806")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x806' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x807' onclick='hideorshow("x807","x808")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x808' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>

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      <input type=submit value="Go" style="border:solid white 1px;background-color:#044a64;color:white;font-size:0.9em;padding:0 1ex">
    </form>
    </div>
  </table>

<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>comment</h2><p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#comment-syntax">comment-syntax:</a></b>
<button id='x821' onclick='hideorshow("x821","x822")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x822'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram comment-syntax" src="images/syntax/comment-syntax.gif" />
</blockquote>


<p>Comments are not SQL commands, but can occur within the text of







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      <input type=submit value="Go" style="border:solid white 1px;background-color:#044a64;color:white;font-size:0.9em;padding:0 1ex">
    </form>
    </div>
  </table>

<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>comment</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/comment-syntax.html">comment-syntax:</a></b>
<button id='x821' onclick='hideorshow("x821","x822")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x822'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram comment-syntax" src="images/syntax/comment-syntax.gif" />
</blockquote>


<p>Comments are not SQL commands, but can occur within the text of

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    <form name=f method="GET" action="http://www.sqlite.org/search">
      <input id=q name=q type=text
       onfocus="entersearch()" onblur="leavesearch()" style="width:24ex;padding:1px 1ex; border:solid white 1px; font-size:0.9em ; font-style:italic;color:#044a64;" value="Search SQLite Docs...">
      <input type=submit value="Go" style="border:solid white 1px;background-color:#044a64;color:white;font-size:0.9em;padding:0 1ex">
    </form>
    </div>
  </table>

<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>ON CONFLICT clause</h2><p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#conflict-clause">conflict-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1133' onclick='hideorshow("x1133","x1134")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1134'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram conflict-clause" src="images/syntax/conflict-clause.gif" />
</blockquote>


<p>The ON CONFLICT clause is not a separate SQL command.  It is a







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<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>ON CONFLICT clause</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/conflict-clause.html">conflict-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1133' onclick='hideorshow("x1133","x1134")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1134'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram conflict-clause" src="images/syntax/conflict-clause.gif" />
</blockquote>


<p>The ON CONFLICT clause is not a separate SQL command.  It is a

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<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>CREATE INDEX</h2><p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#create-index-stmt">create-index-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x823' onclick='hideorshow("x823","x824")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x824'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram create-index-stmt" src="images/syntax/create-index-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#expr">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x825' onclick='hideorshow("x825","x826")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x826' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#literal-value">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x827' onclick='hideorshow("x827","x828")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x828' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#raise-function">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x829' onclick='hideorshow("x829","x830")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x830' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#select-stmt">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x831' onclick='hideorshow("x831","x832")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x832' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#common-table-expression">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x833' onclick='hideorshow("x833","x834")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x834' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#compound-operator">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x835' onclick='hideorshow("x835","x836")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x836' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#join-clause">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x837' onclick='hideorshow("x837","x838")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x838' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#join-constraint">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x839' onclick='hideorshow("x839","x840")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x840' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#join-operator">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x841' onclick='hideorshow("x841","x842")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x842' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#ordering-term">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x843' onclick='hideorshow("x843","x844")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x844' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#result-column">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x845' onclick='hideorshow("x845","x846")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x846' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#table-or-subquery">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x847' onclick='hideorshow("x847","x848")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x848' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#type-name">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x849' onclick='hideorshow("x849","x850")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x850' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#signed-number">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x851' onclick='hideorshow("x851","x852")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x852' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#indexed-column">indexed-column:</a></b>
<button id='x853' onclick='hideorshow("x853","x854")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x854' style='display:none;'>
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<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>CREATE INDEX</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/create-index-stmt.html">create-index-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x823' onclick='hideorshow("x823","x824")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x824'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram create-index-stmt" src="images/syntax/create-index-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x825' onclick='hideorshow("x825","x826")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x826' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x827' onclick='hideorshow("x827","x828")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x828' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x829' onclick='hideorshow("x829","x830")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x830' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x831' onclick='hideorshow("x831","x832")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x832' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x833' onclick='hideorshow("x833","x834")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x834' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x835' onclick='hideorshow("x835","x836")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x836' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x837' onclick='hideorshow("x837","x838")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x838' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x839' onclick='hideorshow("x839","x840")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x840' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x841' onclick='hideorshow("x841","x842")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x842' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x843' onclick='hideorshow("x843","x844")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x844' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x845' onclick='hideorshow("x845","x846")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x846' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x847' onclick='hideorshow("x847","x848")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x848' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x849' onclick='hideorshow("x849","x850")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x850' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x851' onclick='hideorshow("x851","x852")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x852' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/indexed-column.html">indexed-column:</a></b>
<button id='x853' onclick='hideorshow("x853","x854")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x854' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram indexed-column" src="images/syntax/indexed-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>


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<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>CREATE TABLE</h2><p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#create-table-stmt">create-table-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x855' onclick='hideorshow("x855","x856")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x856'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram create-table-stmt" src="images/syntax/create-table-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#column-def">column-def:</a></b>
<button id='x857' onclick='hideorshow("x857","x858")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x858' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram column-def" src="images/syntax/column-def.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#column-constraint">column-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x859' onclick='hideorshow("x859","x860")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x860' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram column-constraint" src="images/syntax/column-constraint.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#conflict-clause">conflict-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x861' onclick='hideorshow("x861","x862")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x862' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram conflict-clause" src="images/syntax/conflict-clause.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#expr">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x863' onclick='hideorshow("x863","x864")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x864' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#raise-function">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x865' onclick='hideorshow("x865","x866")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x866' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#foreign-key-clause">foreign-key-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x867' onclick='hideorshow("x867","x868")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x868' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram foreign-key-clause" src="images/syntax/foreign-key-clause.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#literal-value">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x869' onclick='hideorshow("x869","x870")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x870' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#signed-number">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x871' onclick='hideorshow("x871","x872")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x872' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#type-name">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x873' onclick='hideorshow("x873","x874")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x874' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#signed-number">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x875' onclick='hideorshow("x875","x876")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x876' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#select-stmt">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x877' onclick='hideorshow("x877","x878")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x878' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#common-table-expression">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x879' onclick='hideorshow("x879","x880")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x880' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#compound-operator">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x881' onclick='hideorshow("x881","x882")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x882' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#expr">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x883' onclick='hideorshow("x883","x884")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x884' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#literal-value">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x885' onclick='hideorshow("x885","x886")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x886' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#raise-function">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x887' onclick='hideorshow("x887","x888")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x888' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#type-name">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x889' onclick='hideorshow("x889","x890")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x890' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#signed-number">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x891' onclick='hideorshow("x891","x892")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x892' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#join-clause">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x893' onclick='hideorshow("x893","x894")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x894' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#join-constraint">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x895' onclick='hideorshow("x895","x896")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x896' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#join-operator">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x897' onclick='hideorshow("x897","x898")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x898' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#ordering-term">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x899' onclick='hideorshow("x899","x900")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x900' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#result-column">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x901' onclick='hideorshow("x901","x902")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x902' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#table-or-subquery">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x903' onclick='hideorshow("x903","x904")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x904' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#table-constraint">table-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x905' onclick='hideorshow("x905","x906")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x906' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-constraint" src="images/syntax/table-constraint.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#conflict-clause">conflict-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x907' onclick='hideorshow("x907","x908")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x908' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram conflict-clause" src="images/syntax/conflict-clause.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#expr">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x909' onclick='hideorshow("x909","x910")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x910' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#literal-value">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x911' onclick='hideorshow("x911","x912")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x912' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#raise-function">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x913' onclick='hideorshow("x913","x914")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x914' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#type-name">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x915' onclick='hideorshow("x915","x916")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x916' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#signed-number">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x917' onclick='hideorshow("x917","x918")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x918' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#foreign-key-clause">foreign-key-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x919' onclick='hideorshow("x919","x920")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x920' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram foreign-key-clause" src="images/syntax/foreign-key-clause.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#indexed-column">indexed-column:</a></b>
<button id='x921' onclick='hideorshow("x921","x922")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x922' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram indexed-column" src="images/syntax/indexed-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>

................................................................................
are returned by the SELECT statement.

<a name="tablecoldef"></a>

<h3>Column Definitions</h3>

<p>Unless it is a CREATE TABLE ... AS SELECT statement, a CREATE TABLE includes
one or more <a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#column-def">column definitions</a>, optionally followed by a list of
<a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#table-constraint">table constraints</a>.  Each column definition consists of the
name of the column, optionally followed by the declared type of the column,
then one or more optional <a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#column-constraint">column constraints</a>. Included in
the definition of "column constraints" for the purposes of the previous
statement are the COLLATE and DEFAULT clauses, even though these are not really
constraints in the sense that they do not restrict the data that the table may
contain. The other constraints - NOT NULL, CHECK, UNIQUE, PRIMARY KEY and
FOREIGN KEY constraints - impose restrictions on the tables data, and are are
described under <a href="lang_createtable.html#constraints">SQL Data Constraints</a> below.

................................................................................
determine the <a href="datatype3.html#affinity">affinity</a> of the column only.

<p>The DEFAULT clause specifies a default value to use for the column if no
value is explicitly provided by the user when doing an <a href="lang_insert.html">INSERT</a>. If there
is no explicit DEFAULT clause attached to a column definition, then the 
default value of the column is NULL. An explicit DEFAULT clause may specify
that the default value is NULL, a string constant, a blob constant, a
signed-number, or any constant expression enclosed in parentheses. An explicit
default value may also be one of the special case-independent keywords
CURRENT_TIME, CURRENT_DATE or CURRENT_TIMESTAMP. For the purposes of the
DEFAULT clause, an expression is considered constant provided that it does
not contain any sub-queries, column or table references, or string literals
enclosed in double-quotes instead of single-quotes.

<p>Each time a row is inserted into the table by an INSERT statement that 
does not provide explicit values for all table columns the values stored in
the new row are determined by their default values, as follows:

<ul>
  <li><p>If the default value of the column is a constant NULL, text, blob or
................................................................................
<h3>SQL Data Constraints</h3>

<a name="primkeyconst"></a>

<p>Each table in SQLite may have at most one <b>PRIMARY KEY</b>. If the
  keywords PRIMARY KEY are added to a column definition, then the primary key
  for the table consists of that single column. Or, if a PRIMARY KEY clause 
  is specified as a <a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#table-constraint">table-constraint</a>, then the primary key of the table
  consists of the list of columns specified as part of the PRIMARY KEY clause.
  An error is raised if more than one PRIMARY KEY clause appears in a
  CREATE TABLE statement.  The PRIMARY KEY is optional for ordinary tables
  but is required for <a href="withoutrowid.html">WITHOUT ROWID</a> tables.

<p>If a table has a single column primary key and the declared type of that
  column is "INTEGER" and the table is not a <a href="withoutrowid.html">WITHOUT ROWID</a> table,
................................................................................
  updating an existing one causes a constraint violation.

<p>Exactly how a constraint violation is dealt with is determined by the
  <a href="lang_conflict.html">constraint conflict resolution algorithm</a>. Each 
  PRIMARY KEY, UNIQUE, NOT NULL and CHECK constraint has a default conflict
  resolution algorithm. PRIMARY KEY, UNIQUE and NOT NULL constraints may be
  explicitly assigned a default conflict resolution algorithm by including
  a <a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#conflict-clause">conflict-clause</a> in their definitions. Or, if a constraint definition
  does not include a <a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#conflict-clause">conflict-clause</a> or it is a CHECK constraint, the default
  conflict resolution algorithm is ABORT. Different constraints within the
  same table may have different default conflict resolution algorithms. See
  the section titled <a href="lang_conflict.html">ON CONFLICT</a> for additional information.

<a name="rowid"></a>

<h3>ROWIDs and the INTEGER PRIMARY KEY</h3>







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      b.innerHTML='hide';
    }
    return false;
  }
</script>
<td>
    <div style="padding:0 1em 0px 0;white-space:nowrap">
    <form name=f method="GET" action="https://www.sqlite.org/search">
      <input id=q name=q type=text
       onfocus="entersearch()" onblur="leavesearch()" style="width:24ex;padding:1px 1ex; border:solid white 1px; font-size:0.9em ; font-style:italic;color:#044a64;" value="Search SQLite Docs...">
      <input type=submit value="Go" style="border:solid white 1px;background-color:#044a64;color:white;font-size:0.9em;padding:0 1ex">
    </form>
    </div>
  </table>

<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>CREATE TABLE</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/create-table-stmt.html">create-table-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x855' onclick='hideorshow("x855","x856")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x856'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram create-table-stmt" src="images/syntax/create-table-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/column-def.html">column-def:</a></b>
<button id='x857' onclick='hideorshow("x857","x858")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x858' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram column-def" src="images/syntax/column-def.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/column-constraint.html">column-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x859' onclick='hideorshow("x859","x860")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x860' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram column-constraint" src="images/syntax/column-constraint.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/conflict-clause.html">conflict-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x861' onclick='hideorshow("x861","x862")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x862' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram conflict-clause" src="images/syntax/conflict-clause.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x863' onclick='hideorshow("x863","x864")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x864' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x865' onclick='hideorshow("x865","x866")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x866' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/foreign-key-clause.html">foreign-key-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x867' onclick='hideorshow("x867","x868")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x868' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram foreign-key-clause" src="images/syntax/foreign-key-clause.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x869' onclick='hideorshow("x869","x870")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x870' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x871' onclick='hideorshow("x871","x872")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x872' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x873' onclick='hideorshow("x873","x874")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x874' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x875' onclick='hideorshow("x875","x876")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x876' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x877' onclick='hideorshow("x877","x878")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x878' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x879' onclick='hideorshow("x879","x880")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x880' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x881' onclick='hideorshow("x881","x882")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x882' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x883' onclick='hideorshow("x883","x884")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x884' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x885' onclick='hideorshow("x885","x886")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x886' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x887' onclick='hideorshow("x887","x888")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x888' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x889' onclick='hideorshow("x889","x890")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x890' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x891' onclick='hideorshow("x891","x892")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x892' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x893' onclick='hideorshow("x893","x894")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x894' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x895' onclick='hideorshow("x895","x896")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x896' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x897' onclick='hideorshow("x897","x898")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x898' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x899' onclick='hideorshow("x899","x900")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x900' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x901' onclick='hideorshow("x901","x902")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x902' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x903' onclick='hideorshow("x903","x904")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x904' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-constraint.html">table-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x905' onclick='hideorshow("x905","x906")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x906' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-constraint" src="images/syntax/table-constraint.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/conflict-clause.html">conflict-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x907' onclick='hideorshow("x907","x908")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x908' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram conflict-clause" src="images/syntax/conflict-clause.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x909' onclick='hideorshow("x909","x910")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x910' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x911' onclick='hideorshow("x911","x912")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x912' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x913' onclick='hideorshow("x913","x914")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x914' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x915' onclick='hideorshow("x915","x916")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x916' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x917' onclick='hideorshow("x917","x918")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x918' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/foreign-key-clause.html">foreign-key-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x919' onclick='hideorshow("x919","x920")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x920' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram foreign-key-clause" src="images/syntax/foreign-key-clause.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/indexed-column.html">indexed-column:</a></b>
<button id='x921' onclick='hideorshow("x921","x922")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x922' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram indexed-column" src="images/syntax/indexed-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>

................................................................................
are returned by the SELECT statement.

<a name="tablecoldef"></a>

<h3>Column Definitions</h3>

<p>Unless it is a CREATE TABLE ... AS SELECT statement, a CREATE TABLE includes
one or more <a href="syntax/column-def.html">column definitions</a>, optionally followed by a list of
<a href="syntax/table-constraint.html">table constraints</a>.  Each column definition consists of the
name of the column, optionally followed by the declared type of the column,
then one or more optional <a href="syntax/column-constraint.html">column constraints</a>. Included in
the definition of "column constraints" for the purposes of the previous
statement are the COLLATE and DEFAULT clauses, even though these are not really
constraints in the sense that they do not restrict the data that the table may
contain. The other constraints - NOT NULL, CHECK, UNIQUE, PRIMARY KEY and
FOREIGN KEY constraints - impose restrictions on the tables data, and are are
described under <a href="lang_createtable.html#constraints">SQL Data Constraints</a> below.

................................................................................
determine the <a href="datatype3.html#affinity">affinity</a> of the column only.

<p>The DEFAULT clause specifies a default value to use for the column if no
value is explicitly provided by the user when doing an <a href="lang_insert.html">INSERT</a>. If there
is no explicit DEFAULT clause attached to a column definition, then the 
default value of the column is NULL. An explicit DEFAULT clause may specify
that the default value is NULL, a string constant, a blob constant, a
signed-number, or any constant expression enclosed in parentheses. A
default value may also be one of the special case-independent keywords
CURRENT_TIME, CURRENT_DATE or CURRENT_TIMESTAMP. For the purposes of the
DEFAULT clause, an expression is considered constant if it does
contains no sub-queries, column or table references, <a href="lang_expr.html#varparam">bound parameters</a>,
or string literals enclosed in double-quotes instead of single-quotes.

<p>Each time a row is inserted into the table by an INSERT statement that 
does not provide explicit values for all table columns the values stored in
the new row are determined by their default values, as follows:

<ul>
  <li><p>If the default value of the column is a constant NULL, text, blob or
................................................................................
<h3>SQL Data Constraints</h3>

<a name="primkeyconst"></a>

<p>Each table in SQLite may have at most one <b>PRIMARY KEY</b>. If the
  keywords PRIMARY KEY are added to a column definition, then the primary key
  for the table consists of that single column. Or, if a PRIMARY KEY clause 
  is specified as a <a href="syntax/table-constraint.html">table-constraint</a>, then the primary key of the table
  consists of the list of columns specified as part of the PRIMARY KEY clause.
  An error is raised if more than one PRIMARY KEY clause appears in a
  CREATE TABLE statement.  The PRIMARY KEY is optional for ordinary tables
  but is required for <a href="withoutrowid.html">WITHOUT ROWID</a> tables.

<p>If a table has a single column primary key and the declared type of that
  column is "INTEGER" and the table is not a <a href="withoutrowid.html">WITHOUT ROWID</a> table,
................................................................................
  updating an existing one causes a constraint violation.

<p>Exactly how a constraint violation is dealt with is determined by the
  <a href="lang_conflict.html">constraint conflict resolution algorithm</a>. Each 
  PRIMARY KEY, UNIQUE, NOT NULL and CHECK constraint has a default conflict
  resolution algorithm. PRIMARY KEY, UNIQUE and NOT NULL constraints may be
  explicitly assigned a default conflict resolution algorithm by including
  a <a href="syntax/conflict-clause.html">conflict-clause</a> in their definitions. Or, if a constraint definition
  does not include a <a href="syntax/conflict-clause.html">conflict-clause</a> or it is a CHECK constraint, the default
  conflict resolution algorithm is ABORT. Different constraints within the
  same table may have different default conflict resolution algorithms. See
  the section titled <a href="lang_conflict.html">ON CONFLICT</a> for additional information.

<a name="rowid"></a>

<h3>ROWIDs and the INTEGER PRIMARY KEY</h3>

Changes to Doc/Extra/Core/lang_createtrigger.html.

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       onfocus="entersearch()" onblur="leavesearch()" style="width:24ex;padding:1px 1ex; border:solid white 1px; font-size:0.9em ; font-style:italic;color:#044a64;" value="Search SQLite Docs...">
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<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>CREATE TRIGGER</h2><p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#create-trigger-stmt">create-trigger-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x923' onclick='hideorshow("x923","x924")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x924'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram create-trigger-stmt" src="images/syntax/create-trigger-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#delete-stmt">delete-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x925' onclick='hideorshow("x925","x926")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x926' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram delete-stmt" src="images/syntax/delete-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#qualified-table-name">qualified-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x927' onclick='hideorshow("x927","x928")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x928' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram qualified-table-name" src="images/syntax/qualified-table-name.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#with-clause">with-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x929' onclick='hideorshow("x929","x930")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x930' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram with-clause" src="images/syntax/with-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#cte-table-name">cte-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x931' onclick='hideorshow("x931","x932")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x932' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram cte-table-name" src="images/syntax/cte-table-name.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#expr">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x933' onclick='hideorshow("x933","x934")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x934' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#literal-value">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x935' onclick='hideorshow("x935","x936")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x936' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#raise-function">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x937' onclick='hideorshow("x937","x938")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x938' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#type-name">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x939' onclick='hideorshow("x939","x940")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x940' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#signed-number">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x941' onclick='hideorshow("x941","x942")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x942' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#insert-stmt">insert-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x943' onclick='hideorshow("x943","x944")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x944' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram insert-stmt" src="images/syntax/insert-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#with-clause">with-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x945' onclick='hideorshow("x945","x946")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x946' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram with-clause" src="images/syntax/with-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#cte-table-name">cte-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x947' onclick='hideorshow("x947","x948")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x948' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram cte-table-name" src="images/syntax/cte-table-name.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#select-stmt">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x949' onclick='hideorshow("x949","x950")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x950' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#common-table-expression">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x951' onclick='hideorshow("x951","x952")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x952' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#compound-operator">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x953' onclick='hideorshow("x953","x954")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x954' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#join-clause">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x955' onclick='hideorshow("x955","x956")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x956' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#join-constraint">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x957' onclick='hideorshow("x957","x958")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x958' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#join-operator">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x959' onclick='hideorshow("x959","x960")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x960' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#ordering-term">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x961' onclick='hideorshow("x961","x962")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x962' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#result-column">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x963' onclick='hideorshow("x963","x964")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x964' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#table-or-subquery">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x965' onclick='hideorshow("x965","x966")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x966' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#update-stmt">update-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x967' onclick='hideorshow("x967","x968")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x968' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram update-stmt" src="images/syntax/update-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#qualified-table-name">qualified-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x969' onclick='hideorshow("x969","x970")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x970' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram qualified-table-name" src="images/syntax/qualified-table-name.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#with-clause">with-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x971' onclick='hideorshow("x971","x972")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x972' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram with-clause" src="images/syntax/with-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#cte-table-name">cte-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x973' onclick='hideorshow("x973","x974")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x974' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram cte-table-name" src="images/syntax/cte-table-name.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
................................................................................
<a name="raise"></a>

<h3>The RAISE() function</h3>

<p>A special SQL function RAISE() may be used within a trigger-program,
with the following syntax</p> 

<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#raise-function">raise-function:</a></b></p><blockquote>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif"></img>
 </blockquote>


<p>When one of RAISE(ROLLBACK,...), RAISE(ABORT,...) or RAISE(FAIL,...)
is called during trigger-program
execution, the specified <a href="lang_conflict.html">ON CONFLICT</a> processing is performed







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    <div style="padding:0 1em 0px 0;white-space:nowrap">
    <form name=f method="GET" action="https://www.sqlite.org/search">
      <input id=q name=q type=text
       onfocus="entersearch()" onblur="leavesearch()" style="width:24ex;padding:1px 1ex; border:solid white 1px; font-size:0.9em ; font-style:italic;color:#044a64;" value="Search SQLite Docs...">
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<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>CREATE TRIGGER</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/create-trigger-stmt.html">create-trigger-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x923' onclick='hideorshow("x923","x924")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x924'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram create-trigger-stmt" src="images/syntax/create-trigger-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/delete-stmt.html">delete-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x925' onclick='hideorshow("x925","x926")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x926' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram delete-stmt" src="images/syntax/delete-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/qualified-table-name.html">qualified-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x927' onclick='hideorshow("x927","x928")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x928' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram qualified-table-name" src="images/syntax/qualified-table-name.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/with-clause.html">with-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x929' onclick='hideorshow("x929","x930")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x930' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram with-clause" src="images/syntax/with-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/cte-table-name.html">cte-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x931' onclick='hideorshow("x931","x932")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x932' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram cte-table-name" src="images/syntax/cte-table-name.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x933' onclick='hideorshow("x933","x934")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x934' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x935' onclick='hideorshow("x935","x936")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x936' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x937' onclick='hideorshow("x937","x938")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x938' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x939' onclick='hideorshow("x939","x940")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x940' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x941' onclick='hideorshow("x941","x942")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x942' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/insert-stmt.html">insert-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x943' onclick='hideorshow("x943","x944")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x944' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram insert-stmt" src="images/syntax/insert-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/with-clause.html">with-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x945' onclick='hideorshow("x945","x946")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x946' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram with-clause" src="images/syntax/with-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/cte-table-name.html">cte-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x947' onclick='hideorshow("x947","x948")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x948' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram cte-table-name" src="images/syntax/cte-table-name.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x949' onclick='hideorshow("x949","x950")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x950' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x951' onclick='hideorshow("x951","x952")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x952' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x953' onclick='hideorshow("x953","x954")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x954' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x955' onclick='hideorshow("x955","x956")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x956' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x957' onclick='hideorshow("x957","x958")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x958' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x959' onclick='hideorshow("x959","x960")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x960' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x961' onclick='hideorshow("x961","x962")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x962' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x963' onclick='hideorshow("x963","x964")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x964' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x965' onclick='hideorshow("x965","x966")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x966' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/update-stmt.html">update-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x967' onclick='hideorshow("x967","x968")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x968' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram update-stmt" src="images/syntax/update-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/qualified-table-name.html">qualified-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x969' onclick='hideorshow("x969","x970")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x970' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram qualified-table-name" src="images/syntax/qualified-table-name.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/with-clause.html">with-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x971' onclick='hideorshow("x971","x972")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x972' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram with-clause" src="images/syntax/with-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/cte-table-name.html">cte-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x973' onclick='hideorshow("x973","x974")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x974' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram cte-table-name" src="images/syntax/cte-table-name.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
................................................................................
<a name="raise"></a>

<h3>The RAISE() function</h3>

<p>A special SQL function RAISE() may be used within a trigger-program,
with the following syntax</p> 

<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b></p><blockquote>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif"></img>
 </blockquote>


<p>When one of RAISE(ROLLBACK,...), RAISE(ABORT,...) or RAISE(FAIL,...)
is called during trigger-program
execution, the specified <a href="lang_conflict.html">ON CONFLICT</a> processing is performed

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<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>CREATE VIEW</h2><p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#create-view-stmt">create-view-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x975' onclick='hideorshow("x975","x976")'>hide</button></p>
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<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#select-stmt">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x977' onclick='hideorshow("x977","x978")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x978' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#common-table-expression">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x979' onclick='hideorshow("x979","x980")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x980' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#compound-operator">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x981' onclick='hideorshow("x981","x982")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x982' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#expr">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x983' onclick='hideorshow("x983","x984")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x984' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#literal-value">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x985' onclick='hideorshow("x985","x986")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x986' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#raise-function">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x987' onclick='hideorshow("x987","x988")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x988' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#type-name">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x989' onclick='hideorshow("x989","x990")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x990' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#signed-number">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x991' onclick='hideorshow("x991","x992")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x992' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#join-clause">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x993' onclick='hideorshow("x993","x994")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x994' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#join-constraint">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x995' onclick='hideorshow("x995","x996")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x996' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#join-operator">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x997' onclick='hideorshow("x997","x998")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x998' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#ordering-term">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x999' onclick='hideorshow("x999","x1000")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1000' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#result-column">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1001' onclick='hideorshow("x1001","x1002")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1002' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#table-or-subquery">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1003' onclick='hideorshow("x1003","x1004")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1004' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
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<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>CREATE VIEW</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/create-view-stmt.html">create-view-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x975' onclick='hideorshow("x975","x976")'>hide</button></p>
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<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x977' onclick='hideorshow("x977","x978")'>show</button></p>
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<button id='x979' onclick='hideorshow("x979","x980")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x980' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x981' onclick='hideorshow("x981","x982")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x982' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x983' onclick='hideorshow("x983","x984")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x984' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x985' onclick='hideorshow("x985","x986")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x986' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x987' onclick='hideorshow("x987","x988")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x988' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x989' onclick='hideorshow("x989","x990")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x990' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x991' onclick='hideorshow("x991","x992")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x992' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x993' onclick='hideorshow("x993","x994")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x994' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x995' onclick='hideorshow("x995","x996")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x996' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x997' onclick='hideorshow("x997","x998")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x998' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x999' onclick='hideorshow("x999","x1000")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1000' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1001' onclick='hideorshow("x1001","x1002")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1002' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1003' onclick='hideorshow("x1003","x1004")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1004' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>

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<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>CREATE VIRTUAL TABLE</h2><p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#create-virtual-table-stmt">create-virtual-table-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1005' onclick='hideorshow("x1005","x1006")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1006'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram create-virtual-table-stmt" src="images/syntax/create-virtual-table-stmt.gif" />
</blockquote>


<p>A <a href="vtab.html">virtual table</a> is an interface to an external storage or computation







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<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>CREATE VIRTUAL TABLE</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/create-virtual-table-stmt.html">create-virtual-table-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1005' onclick='hideorshow("x1005","x1006")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1006'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram create-virtual-table-stmt" src="images/syntax/create-virtual-table-stmt.gif" />
</blockquote>


<p>A <a href="vtab.html">virtual table</a> is an interface to an external storage or computation

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<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>DELETE</h2><p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#delete-stmt">delete-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1007' onclick='hideorshow("x1007","x1008")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1008'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram delete-stmt" src="images/syntax/delete-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#expr">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1009' onclick='hideorshow("x1009","x1010")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1010' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#literal-value">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1011' onclick='hideorshow("x1011","x1012")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1012' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#raise-function">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x1013' onclick='hideorshow("x1013","x1014")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1014' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#select-stmt">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1015' onclick='hideorshow("x1015","x1016")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1016' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#common-table-expression">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1017' onclick='hideorshow("x1017","x1018")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1018' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#compound-operator">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1019' onclick='hideorshow("x1019","x1020")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1020' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#join-clause">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1021' onclick='hideorshow("x1021","x1022")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1022' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#join-constraint">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1023' onclick='hideorshow("x1023","x1024")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1024' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#join-operator">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1025' onclick='hideorshow("x1025","x1026")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1026' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#ordering-term">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1027' onclick='hideorshow("x1027","x1028")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1028' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#result-column">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1029' onclick='hideorshow("x1029","x1030")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1030' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#table-or-subquery">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1031' onclick='hideorshow("x1031","x1032")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1032' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#type-name">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1033' onclick='hideorshow("x1033","x1034")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1034' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#signed-number">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1035' onclick='hideorshow("x1035","x1036")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1036' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#qualified-table-name">qualified-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1037' onclick='hideorshow("x1037","x1038")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1038' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram qualified-table-name" src="images/syntax/qualified-table-name.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#with-clause">with-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1039' onclick='hideorshow("x1039","x1040")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1040' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram with-clause" src="images/syntax/with-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#cte-table-name">cte-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1041' onclick='hideorshow("x1041","x1042")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1042' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram cte-table-name" src="images/syntax/cte-table-name.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#select-stmt">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1043' onclick='hideorshow("x1043","x1044")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1044' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#common-table-expression">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1045' onclick='hideorshow("x1045","x1046")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1046' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#compound-operator">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1047' onclick='hideorshow("x1047","x1048")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1048' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#join-clause">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1049' onclick='hideorshow("x1049","x1050")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1050' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#join-constraint">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1051' onclick='hideorshow("x1051","x1052")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1052' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#join-operator">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1053' onclick='hideorshow("x1053","x1054")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1054' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#ordering-term">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1055' onclick='hideorshow("x1055","x1056")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1056' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#result-column">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1057' onclick='hideorshow("x1057","x1058")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1058' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#table-or-subquery">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1059' onclick='hideorshow("x1059","x1060")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1060' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
................................................................................

<h3>Optional LIMIT and ORDER BY clauses</h3>

<p>If SQLite is compiled with the <a href="compile.html#enable_update_delete_limit">SQLITE_ENABLE_UPDATE_DELETE_LIMIT</a>
compile-time option, then the syntax of the DELETE statement is
extended by the addition of optional ORDER BY and LIMIT clauses:</p>

<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#delete-stmt-limited">delete-stmt-limited:</a></b></p><blockquote>
 <img alt="syntax diagram delete-stmt-limited" src="images/syntax/delete-stmt-limited.gif"></img>
 </blockquote>


<p>If a DELETE statement has a LIMIT clause, the maximum number of rows that
will be deleted is found by evaluating the accompanying expression and casting
it to an integer value. If the result of the evaluating the LIMIT clause







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      b.innerHTML='hide';
    }
    return false;
  }
</script>
<td>
    <div style="padding:0 1em 0px 0;white-space:nowrap">
    <form name=f method="GET" action="https://www.sqlite.org/search">
      <input id=q name=q type=text
       onfocus="entersearch()" onblur="leavesearch()" style="width:24ex;padding:1px 1ex; border:solid white 1px; font-size:0.9em ; font-style:italic;color:#044a64;" value="Search SQLite Docs...">
      <input type=submit value="Go" style="border:solid white 1px;background-color:#044a64;color:white;font-size:0.9em;padding:0 1ex">
    </form>
    </div>
  </table>

<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>DELETE</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/delete-stmt.html">delete-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1007' onclick='hideorshow("x1007","x1008")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1008'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram delete-stmt" src="images/syntax/delete-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1009' onclick='hideorshow("x1009","x1010")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1010' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1011' onclick='hideorshow("x1011","x1012")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1012' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x1013' onclick='hideorshow("x1013","x1014")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1014' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1015' onclick='hideorshow("x1015","x1016")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1016' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1017' onclick='hideorshow("x1017","x1018")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1018' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1019' onclick='hideorshow("x1019","x1020")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1020' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1021' onclick='hideorshow("x1021","x1022")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1022' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1023' onclick='hideorshow("x1023","x1024")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1024' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1025' onclick='hideorshow("x1025","x1026")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1026' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1027' onclick='hideorshow("x1027","x1028")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1028' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1029' onclick='hideorshow("x1029","x1030")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1030' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1031' onclick='hideorshow("x1031","x1032")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1032' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1033' onclick='hideorshow("x1033","x1034")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1034' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1035' onclick='hideorshow("x1035","x1036")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1036' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/qualified-table-name.html">qualified-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1037' onclick='hideorshow("x1037","x1038")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1038' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram qualified-table-name" src="images/syntax/qualified-table-name.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/with-clause.html">with-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1039' onclick='hideorshow("x1039","x1040")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1040' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram with-clause" src="images/syntax/with-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/cte-table-name.html">cte-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1041' onclick='hideorshow("x1041","x1042")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1042' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram cte-table-name" src="images/syntax/cte-table-name.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1043' onclick='hideorshow("x1043","x1044")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1044' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1045' onclick='hideorshow("x1045","x1046")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1046' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1047' onclick='hideorshow("x1047","x1048")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1048' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1049' onclick='hideorshow("x1049","x1050")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1050' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1051' onclick='hideorshow("x1051","x1052")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1052' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1053' onclick='hideorshow("x1053","x1054")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1054' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1055' onclick='hideorshow("x1055","x1056")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1056' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1057' onclick='hideorshow("x1057","x1058")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1058' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1059' onclick='hideorshow("x1059","x1060")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1060' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
................................................................................

<h3>Optional LIMIT and ORDER BY clauses</h3>

<p>If SQLite is compiled with the <a href="compile.html#enable_update_delete_limit">SQLITE_ENABLE_UPDATE_DELETE_LIMIT</a>
compile-time option, then the syntax of the DELETE statement is
extended by the addition of optional ORDER BY and LIMIT clauses:</p>

<p><b><a href="syntax/delete-stmt-limited.html">delete-stmt-limited:</a></b></p><blockquote>
 <img alt="syntax diagram delete-stmt-limited" src="images/syntax/delete-stmt-limited.gif"></img>
 </blockquote>


<p>If a DELETE statement has a LIMIT clause, the maximum number of rows that
will be deleted is found by evaluating the accompanying expression and casting
it to an integer value. If the result of the evaluating the LIMIT clause

Changes to Doc/Extra/Core/lang_detach.html.

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      b.innerHTML='hide';
    }
    return false;
  }
</script>
<td>
    <div style="padding:0 1em 0px 0;white-space:nowrap">
    <form name=f method="GET" action="http://www.sqlite.org/search">
      <input id=q name=q type=text
       onfocus="entersearch()" onblur="leavesearch()" style="width:24ex;padding:1px 1ex; border:solid white 1px; font-size:0.9em ; font-style:italic;color:#044a64;" value="Search SQLite Docs...">
      <input type=submit value="Go" style="border:solid white 1px;background-color:#044a64;color:white;font-size:0.9em;padding:0 1ex">
    </form>
    </div>
  </table>

<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>DETACH DATABASE</h2><p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#detach-stmt">detach-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1061' onclick='hideorshow("x1061","x1062")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1062'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram detach-stmt" src="images/syntax/detach-stmt.gif" />
</blockquote>


<p>This statement detaches an additional database connection previously 







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      b.innerHTML='hide';
    }
    return false;
  }
</script>
<td>
    <div style="padding:0 1em 0px 0;white-space:nowrap">
    <form name=f method="GET" action="https://www.sqlite.org/search">
      <input id=q name=q type=text
       onfocus="entersearch()" onblur="leavesearch()" style="width:24ex;padding:1px 1ex; border:solid white 1px; font-size:0.9em ; font-style:italic;color:#044a64;" value="Search SQLite Docs...">
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<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>DETACH DATABASE</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/detach-stmt.html">detach-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1061' onclick='hideorshow("x1061","x1062")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1062'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram detach-stmt" src="images/syntax/detach-stmt.gif" />
</blockquote>


<p>This statement detaches an additional database connection previously 

Changes to Doc/Extra/Core/lang_dropindex.html.

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      b.innerHTML='hide';
    }
    return false;
  }
</script>
<td>
    <div style="padding:0 1em 0px 0;white-space:nowrap">
    <form name=f method="GET" action="http://www.sqlite.org/search">
      <input id=q name=q type=text
       onfocus="entersearch()" onblur="leavesearch()" style="width:24ex;padding:1px 1ex; border:solid white 1px; font-size:0.9em ; font-style:italic;color:#044a64;" value="Search SQLite Docs...">
      <input type=submit value="Go" style="border:solid white 1px;background-color:#044a64;color:white;font-size:0.9em;padding:0 1ex">
    </form>
    </div>
  </table>

<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>DROP INDEX</h2><p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#drop-index-stmt">drop-index-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1063' onclick='hideorshow("x1063","x1064")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1064'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram drop-index-stmt" src="images/syntax/drop-index-stmt.gif" />
</blockquote>


<p>The DROP INDEX statement removes an index added
with the <a href="lang_createindex.html">CREATE INDEX</a> statement.  The index is completely removed from
the disk.  The only way to recover the index is to reenter the
appropriate <a href="lang_createindex.html">CREATE INDEX</a> command.</p>









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      b.innerHTML='hide';
    }
    return false;
  }
</script>
<td>
    <div style="padding:0 1em 0px 0;white-space:nowrap">
    <form name=f method="GET" action="https://www.sqlite.org/search">
      <input id=q name=q type=text
       onfocus="entersearch()" onblur="leavesearch()" style="width:24ex;padding:1px 1ex; border:solid white 1px; font-size:0.9em ; font-style:italic;color:#044a64;" value="Search SQLite Docs...">
      <input type=submit value="Go" style="border:solid white 1px;background-color:#044a64;color:white;font-size:0.9em;padding:0 1ex">
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<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>DROP INDEX</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/drop-index-stmt.html">drop-index-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1063' onclick='hideorshow("x1063","x1064")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1064'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram drop-index-stmt" src="images/syntax/drop-index-stmt.gif" />
</blockquote>


<p>The DROP INDEX statement removes an index added
with the <a href="lang_createindex.html">CREATE INDEX</a> statement.  The index is completely removed from
the disk.  The only way to recover the index is to reenter the
appropriate <a href="lang_createindex.html">CREATE INDEX</a> command.</p>


Changes to Doc/Extra/Core/lang_droptable.html.

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<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>DROP TABLE</h2><p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#drop-table-stmt">drop-table-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1065' onclick='hideorshow("x1065","x1066")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1066'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram drop-table-stmt" src="images/syntax/drop-table-stmt.gif" />
</blockquote>


<p>The DROP TABLE statement removes a table added with the







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<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>DROP TABLE</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/drop-table-stmt.html">drop-table-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1065' onclick='hideorshow("x1065","x1066")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1066'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram drop-table-stmt" src="images/syntax/drop-table-stmt.gif" />
</blockquote>


<p>The DROP TABLE statement removes a table added with the

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<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>DROP TRIGGER</h2><p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#drop-trigger-stmt">drop-trigger-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1067' onclick='hideorshow("x1067","x1068")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1068'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram drop-trigger-stmt" src="images/syntax/drop-trigger-stmt.gif" />
</blockquote>


<p>The DROP TRIGGER statement removes a trigger created by the 







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<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>DROP TRIGGER</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/drop-trigger-stmt.html">drop-trigger-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1067' onclick='hideorshow("x1067","x1068")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1068'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram drop-trigger-stmt" src="images/syntax/drop-trigger-stmt.gif" />
</blockquote>


<p>The DROP TRIGGER statement removes a trigger created by the 

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<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>DROP VIEW</h2><p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#drop-view-stmt">drop-view-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1069' onclick='hideorshow("x1069","x1070")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1070'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram drop-view-stmt" src="images/syntax/drop-view-stmt.gif" />
</blockquote>


<p>The DROP VIEW statement removes a view created by the <a href="lang_createview.html">CREATE VIEW</a> 







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<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>DROP VIEW</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/drop-view-stmt.html">drop-view-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1069' onclick='hideorshow("x1069","x1070")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1070'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram drop-view-stmt" src="images/syntax/drop-view-stmt.gif" />
</blockquote>


<p>The DROP VIEW statement removes a view created by the <a href="lang_createview.html">CREATE VIEW</a> 

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<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>EXPLAIN</h2><p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#sql-stmt">sql-stmt:</a></b></p><blockquote>
 <img alt="syntax diagram sql-stmt" src="images/syntax/sql-stmt.gif"></img>
 </blockquote>


<p>An SQL statement can be preceded by the keyword "EXPLAIN" or
by the phrase "EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN".  Either modification causes the
SQL statement to behave as a query and to return information about







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<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>EXPLAIN</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/sql-stmt.html">sql-stmt:</a></b></p><blockquote>
 <img alt="syntax diagram sql-stmt" src="images/syntax/sql-stmt.gif"></img>
 </blockquote>


<p>An SQL statement can be preceded by the keyword "EXPLAIN" or
by the phrase "EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN".  Either modification causes the
SQL statement to behave as a query and to return information about

Changes to Doc/Extra/Core/lang_expr.html.

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       onfocus="entersearch()" onblur="leavesearch()" style="width:24ex;padding:1px 1ex; border:solid white 1px; font-size:0.9em ; font-style:italic;color:#044a64;" value="Search SQLite Docs...">
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<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>expression</h2><p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#expr">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1071' onclick='hideorshow("x1071","x1072")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1072'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#literal-value">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1073' onclick='hideorshow("x1073","x1074")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1074' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#raise-function">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x1075' onclick='hideorshow("x1075","x1076")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1076' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#select-stmt">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1077' onclick='hideorshow("x1077","x1078")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1078' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#common-table-expression">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1079' onclick='hideorshow("x1079","x1080")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1080' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#compound-operator">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1081' onclick='hideorshow("x1081","x1082")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1082' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#join-clause">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1083' onclick='hideorshow("x1083","x1084")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1084' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#join-constraint">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1085' onclick='hideorshow("x1085","x1086")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1086' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#join-operator">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1087' onclick='hideorshow("x1087","x1088")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1088' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#ordering-term">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1089' onclick='hideorshow("x1089","x1090")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1090' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#result-column">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1091' onclick='hideorshow("x1091","x1092")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1092' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#table-or-subquery">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1093' onclick='hideorshow("x1093","x1094")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1094' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#type-name">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1095' onclick='hideorshow("x1095","x1096")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1096' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#signed-number">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1097' onclick='hideorshow("x1097","x1098")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1098' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>

................................................................................
A literal value represents a constant.
Literal values may be integers, floating point numbers, strings,
BLOBs, or NULLs.
<p>
The syntax for integer and floating point literals (collectively
"numeric literals") is shown by the following diagram:</p>

<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#numeric-literal">numeric-literal:</a></b></p><blockquote>
 <img alt="syntax diagram numeric-literal" src="images/syntax/numeric-literal.gif"></img>
 </blockquote>


<p>
If a numeric literal has a decimal point or an exponentiation
clause or if its magnitude is less than -9223372036854775808 or







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<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>expression</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1071' onclick='hideorshow("x1071","x1072")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1072'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1073' onclick='hideorshow("x1073","x1074")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1074' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x1075' onclick='hideorshow("x1075","x1076")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1076' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1077' onclick='hideorshow("x1077","x1078")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1078' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1079' onclick='hideorshow("x1079","x1080")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1080' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1081' onclick='hideorshow("x1081","x1082")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1082' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1083' onclick='hideorshow("x1083","x1084")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1084' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1085' onclick='hideorshow("x1085","x1086")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1086' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1087' onclick='hideorshow("x1087","x1088")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1088' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1089' onclick='hideorshow("x1089","x1090")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1090' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1091' onclick='hideorshow("x1091","x1092")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1092' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1093' onclick='hideorshow("x1093","x1094")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1094' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1095' onclick='hideorshow("x1095","x1096")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1096' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1097' onclick='hideorshow("x1097","x1098")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1098' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>

................................................................................
A literal value represents a constant.
Literal values may be integers, floating point numbers, strings,
BLOBs, or NULLs.
<p>
The syntax for integer and floating point literals (collectively
"numeric literals") is shown by the following diagram:</p>

<p><b><a href="syntax/numeric-literal.html">numeric-literal:</a></b></p><blockquote>
 <img alt="syntax diagram numeric-literal" src="images/syntax/numeric-literal.gif"></img>
 </blockquote>


<p>
If a numeric literal has a decimal point or an exponentiation
clause or if its magnitude is less than -9223372036854775808 or

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<p>The INDEXED BY phrase forces the <a href="optoverview.html">SQLite query planner</a> to use a
particular named index on a <a href="lang_delete.html">DELETE</a>, <a href="lang_select.html">SELECT</a>, or <a href="lang_update.html">UPDATE</a> statement.
The INDEXED BY phrase is an extension that is particular to SQLite and
is not portable to other SQL database engines.
The INDEXED BY phrase can be seen in the following syntax
diagrams:</p>

<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#qualified-table-name">qualified-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1433' onclick='hideorshow("x1433","x1434")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1434'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram qualified-table-name" src="images/syntax/qualified-table-name.gif" />
</blockquote>


<p>The "INDEXED BY index-name" phrase specifies that the named index







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      <input type=submit value="Go" style="border:solid white 1px;background-color:#044a64;color:white;font-size:0.9em;padding:0 1ex">
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    </div>
  </table>

................................................................................
<p>The INDEXED BY phrase forces the <a href="optoverview.html">SQLite query planner</a> to use a
particular named index on a <a href="lang_delete.html">DELETE</a>, <a href="lang_select.html">SELECT</a>, or <a href="lang_update.html">UPDATE</a> statement.
The INDEXED BY phrase is an extension that is particular to SQLite and
is not portable to other SQL database engines.
The INDEXED BY phrase can be seen in the following syntax
diagrams:</p>

<p><b><a href="syntax/qualified-table-name.html">qualified-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1433' onclick='hideorshow("x1433","x1434")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1434'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram qualified-table-name" src="images/syntax/qualified-table-name.gif" />
</blockquote>


<p>The "INDEXED BY index-name" phrase specifies that the named index

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      <input type=submit value="Go" style="border:solid white 1px;background-color:#044a64;color:white;font-size:0.9em;padding:0 1ex">
    </form>
    </div>
  </table>

<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>INSERT</h2><p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#insert-stmt">insert-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1099' onclick='hideorshow("x1099","x1100")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1100'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram insert-stmt" src="images/syntax/insert-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#expr">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1101' onclick='hideorshow("x1101","x1102")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1102' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#literal-value">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1103' onclick='hideorshow("x1103","x1104")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1104' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#raise-function">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x1105' onclick='hideorshow("x1105","x1106")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1106' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#type-name">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1107' onclick='hideorshow("x1107","x1108")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1108' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#signed-number">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1109' onclick='hideorshow("x1109","x1110")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1110' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#select-stmt">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1111' onclick='hideorshow("x1111","x1112")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1112' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#common-table-expression">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1113' onclick='hideorshow("x1113","x1114")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1114' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#compound-operator">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1115' onclick='hideorshow("x1115","x1116")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1116' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#join-clause">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1117' onclick='hideorshow("x1117","x1118")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1118' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#join-constraint">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1119' onclick='hideorshow("x1119","x1120")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1120' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#join-operator">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1121' onclick='hideorshow("x1121","x1122")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1122' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#ordering-term">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1123' onclick='hideorshow("x1123","x1124")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1124' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#result-column">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1125' onclick='hideorshow("x1125","x1126")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1126' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#table-or-subquery">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1127' onclick='hideorshow("x1127","x1128")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1128' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#with-clause">with-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1129' onclick='hideorshow("x1129","x1130")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1130' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram with-clause" src="images/syntax/with-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#cte-table-name">cte-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1131' onclick='hideorshow("x1131","x1132")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1132' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram cte-table-name" src="images/syntax/cte-table-name.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>








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<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>INSERT</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/insert-stmt.html">insert-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1099' onclick='hideorshow("x1099","x1100")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1100'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram insert-stmt" src="images/syntax/insert-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1101' onclick='hideorshow("x1101","x1102")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1102' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1103' onclick='hideorshow("x1103","x1104")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1104' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x1105' onclick='hideorshow("x1105","x1106")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1106' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1107' onclick='hideorshow("x1107","x1108")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1108' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1109' onclick='hideorshow("x1109","x1110")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1110' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1111' onclick='hideorshow("x1111","x1112")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1112' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1113' onclick='hideorshow("x1113","x1114")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1114' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1115' onclick='hideorshow("x1115","x1116")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1116' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1117' onclick='hideorshow("x1117","x1118")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1118' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1119' onclick='hideorshow("x1119","x1120")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1120' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1121' onclick='hideorshow("x1121","x1122")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1122' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1123' onclick='hideorshow("x1123","x1124")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1124' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1125' onclick='hideorshow("x1125","x1126")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1126' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1127' onclick='hideorshow("x1127","x1128")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1128' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/with-clause.html">with-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1129' onclick='hideorshow("x1129","x1130")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1130' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram with-clause" src="images/syntax/with-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/cte-table-name.html">cte-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1131' onclick='hideorshow("x1131","x1132")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1132' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram cte-table-name" src="images/syntax/cte-table-name.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>

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<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>REINDEX</h2><p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#reindex-stmt">reindex-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1135' onclick='hideorshow("x1135","x1136")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1136'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram reindex-stmt" src="images/syntax/reindex-stmt.gif" />
</blockquote>


<p>The REINDEX command is used to delete and recreate indices from scratch.







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      <input type=submit value="Go" style="border:solid white 1px;background-color:#044a64;color:white;font-size:0.9em;padding:0 1ex">
    </form>
    </div>
  </table>

<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>REINDEX</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/reindex-stmt.html">reindex-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1135' onclick='hideorshow("x1135","x1136")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1136'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram reindex-stmt" src="images/syntax/reindex-stmt.gif" />
</blockquote>


<p>The REINDEX command is used to delete and recreate indices from scratch.

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<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>SAVEPOINT</h2><p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#savepoint-stmt">savepoint-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x815' onclick='hideorshow("x815","x816")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x816'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram savepoint-stmt" src="images/syntax/savepoint-stmt.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#release-stmt">release-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x817' onclick='hideorshow("x817","x818")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x818'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram release-stmt" src="images/syntax/release-stmt.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#rollback-stmt">rollback-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x819' onclick='hideorshow("x819","x820")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x820'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram rollback-stmt" src="images/syntax/rollback-stmt.gif" />
</blockquote>


<p> SAVEPOINTs are a method of creating transactions, similar to







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<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>SAVEPOINT</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/savepoint-stmt.html">savepoint-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x815' onclick='hideorshow("x815","x816")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x816'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram savepoint-stmt" src="images/syntax/savepoint-stmt.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/release-stmt.html">release-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x817' onclick='hideorshow("x817","x818")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x818'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram release-stmt" src="images/syntax/release-stmt.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/rollback-stmt.html">rollback-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x819' onclick='hideorshow("x819","x820")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x820'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram rollback-stmt" src="images/syntax/rollback-stmt.gif" />
</blockquote>


<p> SAVEPOINTs are a method of creating transactions, similar to

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<td>
    <div style="padding:0 1em 0px 0;white-space:nowrap">
    <form name=f method="GET" action="http://www.sqlite.org/search">
      <input id=q name=q type=text
       onfocus="entersearch()" onblur="leavesearch()" style="width:24ex;padding:1px 1ex; border:solid white 1px; font-size:0.9em ; font-style:italic;color:#044a64;" value="Search SQLite Docs...">
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<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>SELECT</h2><p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#select-stmt">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1173' onclick='hideorshow("x1173","x1174")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1174'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#common-table-expression">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1175' onclick='hideorshow("x1175","x1176")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1176' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#compound-operator">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1177' onclick='hideorshow("x1177","x1178")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1178' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#expr">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1179' onclick='hideorshow("x1179","x1180")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1180' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#literal-value">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1181' onclick='hideorshow("x1181","x1182")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1182' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#raise-function">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x1183' onclick='hideorshow("x1183","x1184")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1184' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#type-name">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1185' onclick='hideorshow("x1185","x1186")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1186' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#signed-number">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1187' onclick='hideorshow("x1187","x1188")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1188' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#join-clause">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1189' onclick='hideorshow("x1189","x1190")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1190' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#join-constraint">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1191' onclick='hideorshow("x1191","x1192")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1192' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#join-operator">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1193' onclick='hideorshow("x1193","x1194")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1194' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#ordering-term">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1195' onclick='hideorshow("x1195","x1196")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1196' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#result-column">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1197' onclick='hideorshow("x1197","x1198")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1198' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#table-or-subquery">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1199' onclick='hideorshow("x1199","x1200")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1200' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>



<p>The SELECT statement is used to query the database.  The
result of a SELECT is zero or more rows of data where each row
has a fixed number of columns.  A SELECT statement does not make
any changes to the database.

<p>The "<a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#select-stmt">select-stmt</a>" syntax diagram above attempts to show as much of the
SELECT statement syntax as possible in a single diagram, because some readers
find that helpful.  The following "<a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#factored-select-stmt">factored-select-stmt</a>" is an alternative
syntax diagrams that expresses the same syntax but tries to break the syntax 
down into smaller chunks.

<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#factored-select-stmt">factored-select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1201' onclick='hideorshow("x1201","x1202")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1202' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram factored-select-stmt" src="images/syntax/factored-select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#common-table-expression">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1203' onclick='hideorshow("x1203","x1204")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1204' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#select-stmt">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1205' onclick='hideorshow("x1205","x1206")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1206' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#join-clause">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1207' onclick='hideorshow("x1207","x1208")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1208' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#join-constraint">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1209' onclick='hideorshow("x1209","x1210")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1210' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#join-operator">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1211' onclick='hideorshow("x1211","x1212")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1212' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#result-column">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1213' onclick='hideorshow("x1213","x1214")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1214' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#table-or-subquery">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1215' onclick='hideorshow("x1215","x1216")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1216' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#compound-operator">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1217' onclick='hideorshow("x1217","x1218")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1218' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#expr">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1219' onclick='hideorshow("x1219","x1220")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1220' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#literal-value">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1221' onclick='hideorshow("x1221","x1222")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1222' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#raise-function">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x1223' onclick='hideorshow("x1223","x1224")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1224' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#select-stmt">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1225' onclick='hideorshow("x1225","x1226")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1226' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#join-clause">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1227' onclick='hideorshow("x1227","x1228")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1228' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#join-constraint">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1229' onclick='hideorshow("x1229","x1230")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1230' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#join-operator">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1231' onclick='hideorshow("x1231","x1232")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1232' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#result-column">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1233' onclick='hideorshow("x1233","x1234")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1234' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#table-or-subquery">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1235' onclick='hideorshow("x1235","x1236")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1236' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#type-name">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1237' onclick='hideorshow("x1237","x1238")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1238' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#signed-number">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1239' onclick='hideorshow("x1239","x1240")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1240' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#ordering-term">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1241' onclick='hideorshow("x1241","x1242")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1242' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#select-core">select-core:</a></b>
<button id='x1243' onclick='hideorshow("x1243","x1244")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1244' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-core" src="images/syntax/select-core.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#join-clause">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1245' onclick='hideorshow("x1245","x1246")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1246' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#join-constraint">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1247' onclick='hideorshow("x1247","x1248")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1248' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#join-operator">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1249' onclick='hideorshow("x1249","x1250")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1250' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#result-column">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1251' onclick='hideorshow("x1251","x1252")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1252' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#table-or-subquery">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1253' onclick='hideorshow("x1253","x1254")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1254' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#select-stmt">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1255' onclick='hideorshow("x1255","x1256")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1256' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
................................................................................
<p>Note that there are paths through the syntax diagrams that
are not allowed in practice.  Some examples:
<ul>
<li>A <a href="lang_select.html#values">VALUES</a> clause can be the first element in a <a href="lang_select.html#compound">compound SELECT</a>
    that uses a <a href="lang_with.html">WITH</a> clause, but a <a href="lang_select.html#simpleselect">simple SELECT</a> that consists of
    just a <a href="lang_select.html#values">VALUES</a> clause cannot be preceded by a <a href="lang_with.html">WITH</a> clause.
<li>The <a href="lang_with.html">WITH</a> clause must occur on the first SELECT of a <a href="lang_select.html#compound">compound SELECT</a>.
    It cannot follow a <a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#compound-operator">compound-operator</a>.
</ul>
These and other similar syntax restrictions are described in the text.

<p>The SELECT statement is the most complicated command in the SQL language.
To make the description easier to follow, some of the passages below describe
the way the data returned by a SELECT statement is determined as a series of
steps. It is important to keep in mind that this is purely illustrative -
................................................................................
this or any other specific process.

<a name="simpleselect"></a>

<h3>Simple Select Processing</h3>

<p>The core of a SELECT statement is a "simple SELECT" shown by the
<a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#select-core">select-core</a> and <a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#simple-select-stmt">simple-select-stmt</a> syntax diagrams below.  
In practice, most SELECT statements are simple SELECT statements.

<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#simple-select-stmt">simple-select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1257' onclick='hideorshow("x1257","x1258")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1258'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram simple-select-stmt" src="images/syntax/simple-select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#common-table-expression">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1259' onclick='hideorshow("x1259","x1260")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1260' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#select-stmt">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1261' onclick='hideorshow("x1261","x1262")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1262' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#compound-operator">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1263' onclick='hideorshow("x1263","x1264")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1264' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#join-clause">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1265' onclick='hideorshow("x1265","x1266")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1266' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#join-constraint">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1267' onclick='hideorshow("x1267","x1268")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1268' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#join-operator">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1269' onclick='hideorshow("x1269","x1270")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1270' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#result-column">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1271' onclick='hideorshow("x1271","x1272")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1272' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#table-or-subquery">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1273' onclick='hideorshow("x1273","x1274")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1274' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#expr">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1275' onclick='hideorshow("x1275","x1276")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1276' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#literal-value">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1277' onclick='hideorshow("x1277","x1278")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1278' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#raise-function">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x1279' onclick='hideorshow("x1279","x1280")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1280' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#select-stmt">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1281' onclick='hideorshow("x1281","x1282")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1282' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#compound-operator">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1283' onclick='hideorshow("x1283","x1284")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1284' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#join-clause">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1285' onclick='hideorshow("x1285","x1286")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1286' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#join-constraint">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1287' onclick='hideorshow("x1287","x1288")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1288' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#join-operator">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1289' onclick='hideorshow("x1289","x1290")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1290' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#result-column">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1291' onclick='hideorshow("x1291","x1292")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1292' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#table-or-subquery">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1293' onclick='hideorshow("x1293","x1294")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1294' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#type-name">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1295' onclick='hideorshow("x1295","x1296")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1296' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#signed-number">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1297' onclick='hideorshow("x1297","x1298")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1298' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#ordering-term">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1299' onclick='hideorshow("x1299","x1300")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1300' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#select-core">select-core:</a></b>
<button id='x1301' onclick='hideorshow("x1301","x1302")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1302'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-core" src="images/syntax/select-core.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#join-clause">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1303' onclick='hideorshow("x1303","x1304")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1304' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#join-constraint">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1305' onclick='hideorshow("x1305","x1306")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1306' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#join-operator">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1307' onclick='hideorshow("x1307","x1308")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1308' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#result-column">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1309' onclick='hideorshow("x1309","x1310")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1310' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#table-or-subquery">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1311' onclick='hideorshow("x1311","x1312")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1312' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#select-stmt">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1313' onclick='hideorshow("x1313","x1314")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1314' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#compound-operator">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1315' onclick='hideorshow("x1315","x1316")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1316' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
................................................................................
in the subquery statement.

<p>If there is only a single table or subquery in the FROM
clause, then the input data used by the SELECT statement is the contents of the
named table. If there is more than one table or subquery in FROM clause
then the contents of all tables and/or subqueries
are joined into a single dataset for the simple SELECT statement to operate on.
Exactly how the data is combined depends on the specific <a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#join-operator">join-operator</a> and
<a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#join-constraint">join-constraint</a> used to connect the tables or subqueries together.

<p>All joins in SQLite are based on the cartesian product of the left and
right-hand datasets. The columns of the cartesian product dataset are, in 
order, all the columns of the left-hand dataset followed by all the columns
of the right-hand dataset. There is a row in the cartesian product dataset
formed by combining each unique combination of a row from the left-hand 
and right-hand datasets. In other words, if the left-hand dataset consists of
................................................................................

<h3>Compound Select Statements</h3>

<p>Two or more <a href="lang_select.html#simpleselect">simple SELECT</a> statements may be connected together to form
a compound SELECT using the UNION, UNION ALL, INTERSECT or EXCEPT operator,
as shown by the following diagram:

<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#compound-select-stmt">compound-select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1317' onclick='hideorshow("x1317","x1318")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1318'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-select-stmt" src="images/syntax/compound-select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#common-table-expression">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1319' onclick='hideorshow("x1319","x1320")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1320' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#select-stmt">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1321' onclick='hideorshow("x1321","x1322")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1322' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#compound-operator">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1323' onclick='hideorshow("x1323","x1324")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1324' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#join-clause">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1325' onclick='hideorshow("x1325","x1326")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1326' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#join-constraint">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1327' onclick='hideorshow("x1327","x1328")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1328' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#join-operator">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1329' onclick='hideorshow("x1329","x1330")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1330' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#result-column">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1331' onclick='hideorshow("x1331","x1332")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1332' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#table-or-subquery">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1333' onclick='hideorshow("x1333","x1334")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1334' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#expr">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1335' onclick='hideorshow("x1335","x1336")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1336' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#literal-value">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1337' onclick='hideorshow("x1337","x1338")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1338' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#raise-function">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x1339' onclick='hideorshow("x1339","x1340")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1340' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#select-stmt">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1341' onclick='hideorshow("x1341","x1342")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1342' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#compound-operator">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1343' onclick='hideorshow("x1343","x1344")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1344' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#join-clause">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1345' onclick='hideorshow("x1345","x1346")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1346' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#join-constraint">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1347' onclick='hideorshow("x1347","x1348")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1348' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#join-operator">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1349' onclick='hideorshow("x1349","x1350")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1350' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#result-column">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1351' onclick='hideorshow("x1351","x1352")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1352' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#table-or-subquery">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1353' onclick='hideorshow("x1353","x1354")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1354' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#type-name">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1355' onclick='hideorshow("x1355","x1356")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1356' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#signed-number">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1357' onclick='hideorshow("x1357","x1358")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1358' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#ordering-term">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1359' onclick='hideorshow("x1359","x1360")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1360' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#select-core">select-core:</a></b>
<button id='x1361' onclick='hideorshow("x1361","x1362")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1362' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-core" src="images/syntax/select-core.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#join-clause">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1363' onclick='hideorshow("x1363","x1364")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1364' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#join-constraint">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1365' onclick='hideorshow("x1365","x1366")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1366' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#join-operator">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1367' onclick='hideorshow("x1367","x1368")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1368' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#result-column">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1369' onclick='hideorshow("x1369","x1370")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1370' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#table-or-subquery">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1371' onclick='hideorshow("x1371","x1372")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1372' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#select-stmt">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1373' onclick='hideorshow("x1373","x1374")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1374' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#compound-operator">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1375' onclick='hideorshow("x1375","x1376")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1376' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>







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<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>SELECT</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1173' onclick='hideorshow("x1173","x1174")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1174'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1175' onclick='hideorshow("x1175","x1176")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1176' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1177' onclick='hideorshow("x1177","x1178")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1178' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1179' onclick='hideorshow("x1179","x1180")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1180' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1181' onclick='hideorshow("x1181","x1182")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1182' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x1183' onclick='hideorshow("x1183","x1184")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1184' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1185' onclick='hideorshow("x1185","x1186")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1186' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1187' onclick='hideorshow("x1187","x1188")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1188' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1189' onclick='hideorshow("x1189","x1190")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1190' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1191' onclick='hideorshow("x1191","x1192")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1192' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1193' onclick='hideorshow("x1193","x1194")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1194' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1195' onclick='hideorshow("x1195","x1196")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1196' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1197' onclick='hideorshow("x1197","x1198")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1198' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1199' onclick='hideorshow("x1199","x1200")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1200' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>



<p>The SELECT statement is used to query the database.  The
result of a SELECT is zero or more rows of data where each row
has a fixed number of columns.  A SELECT statement does not make
any changes to the database.

<p>The "<a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt</a>" syntax diagram above attempts to show as much of the
SELECT statement syntax as possible in a single diagram, because some readers
find that helpful.  The following "<a href="syntax/factored-select-stmt.html">factored-select-stmt</a>" is an alternative
syntax diagrams that expresses the same syntax but tries to break the syntax 
down into smaller chunks.

<p><b><a href="syntax/factored-select-stmt.html">factored-select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1201' onclick='hideorshow("x1201","x1202")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1202' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram factored-select-stmt" src="images/syntax/factored-select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1203' onclick='hideorshow("x1203","x1204")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1204' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1205' onclick='hideorshow("x1205","x1206")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1206' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1207' onclick='hideorshow("x1207","x1208")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1208' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1209' onclick='hideorshow("x1209","x1210")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1210' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1211' onclick='hideorshow("x1211","x1212")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1212' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1213' onclick='hideorshow("x1213","x1214")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1214' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1215' onclick='hideorshow("x1215","x1216")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1216' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1217' onclick='hideorshow("x1217","x1218")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1218' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1219' onclick='hideorshow("x1219","x1220")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1220' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1221' onclick='hideorshow("x1221","x1222")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1222' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x1223' onclick='hideorshow("x1223","x1224")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1224' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1225' onclick='hideorshow("x1225","x1226")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1226' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1227' onclick='hideorshow("x1227","x1228")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1228' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1229' onclick='hideorshow("x1229","x1230")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1230' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1231' onclick='hideorshow("x1231","x1232")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1232' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1233' onclick='hideorshow("x1233","x1234")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1234' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1235' onclick='hideorshow("x1235","x1236")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1236' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1237' onclick='hideorshow("x1237","x1238")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1238' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1239' onclick='hideorshow("x1239","x1240")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1240' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1241' onclick='hideorshow("x1241","x1242")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1242' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-core.html">select-core:</a></b>
<button id='x1243' onclick='hideorshow("x1243","x1244")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1244' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-core" src="images/syntax/select-core.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1245' onclick='hideorshow("x1245","x1246")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1246' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1247' onclick='hideorshow("x1247","x1248")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1248' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1249' onclick='hideorshow("x1249","x1250")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1250' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1251' onclick='hideorshow("x1251","x1252")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1252' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1253' onclick='hideorshow("x1253","x1254")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1254' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1255' onclick='hideorshow("x1255","x1256")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1256' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
................................................................................
<p>Note that there are paths through the syntax diagrams that
are not allowed in practice.  Some examples:
<ul>
<li>A <a href="lang_select.html#values">VALUES</a> clause can be the first element in a <a href="lang_select.html#compound">compound SELECT</a>
    that uses a <a href="lang_with.html">WITH</a> clause, but a <a href="lang_select.html#simpleselect">simple SELECT</a> that consists of
    just a <a href="lang_select.html#values">VALUES</a> clause cannot be preceded by a <a href="lang_with.html">WITH</a> clause.
<li>The <a href="lang_with.html">WITH</a> clause must occur on the first SELECT of a <a href="lang_select.html#compound">compound SELECT</a>.
    It cannot follow a <a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator</a>.
</ul>
These and other similar syntax restrictions are described in the text.

<p>The SELECT statement is the most complicated command in the SQL language.
To make the description easier to follow, some of the passages below describe
the way the data returned by a SELECT statement is determined as a series of
steps. It is important to keep in mind that this is purely illustrative -
................................................................................
this or any other specific process.

<a name="simpleselect"></a>

<h3>Simple Select Processing</h3>

<p>The core of a SELECT statement is a "simple SELECT" shown by the
<a href="syntax/select-core.html">select-core</a> and <a href="syntax/simple-select-stmt.html">simple-select-stmt</a> syntax diagrams below.  
In practice, most SELECT statements are simple SELECT statements.

<p><b><a href="syntax/simple-select-stmt.html">simple-select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1257' onclick='hideorshow("x1257","x1258")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1258'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram simple-select-stmt" src="images/syntax/simple-select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1259' onclick='hideorshow("x1259","x1260")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1260' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1261' onclick='hideorshow("x1261","x1262")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1262' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1263' onclick='hideorshow("x1263","x1264")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1264' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1265' onclick='hideorshow("x1265","x1266")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1266' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1267' onclick='hideorshow("x1267","x1268")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1268' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1269' onclick='hideorshow("x1269","x1270")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1270' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1271' onclick='hideorshow("x1271","x1272")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1272' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1273' onclick='hideorshow("x1273","x1274")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1274' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1275' onclick='hideorshow("x1275","x1276")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1276' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1277' onclick='hideorshow("x1277","x1278")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1278' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x1279' onclick='hideorshow("x1279","x1280")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1280' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1281' onclick='hideorshow("x1281","x1282")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1282' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1283' onclick='hideorshow("x1283","x1284")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1284' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1285' onclick='hideorshow("x1285","x1286")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1286' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1287' onclick='hideorshow("x1287","x1288")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1288' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1289' onclick='hideorshow("x1289","x1290")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1290' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1291' onclick='hideorshow("x1291","x1292")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1292' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1293' onclick='hideorshow("x1293","x1294")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1294' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1295' onclick='hideorshow("x1295","x1296")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1296' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1297' onclick='hideorshow("x1297","x1298")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1298' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1299' onclick='hideorshow("x1299","x1300")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1300' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-core.html">select-core:</a></b>
<button id='x1301' onclick='hideorshow("x1301","x1302")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1302'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-core" src="images/syntax/select-core.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1303' onclick='hideorshow("x1303","x1304")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1304' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1305' onclick='hideorshow("x1305","x1306")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1306' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1307' onclick='hideorshow("x1307","x1308")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1308' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1309' onclick='hideorshow("x1309","x1310")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1310' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1311' onclick='hideorshow("x1311","x1312")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1312' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1313' onclick='hideorshow("x1313","x1314")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1314' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1315' onclick='hideorshow("x1315","x1316")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1316' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
................................................................................
in the subquery statement.

<p>If there is only a single table or subquery in the FROM
clause, then the input data used by the SELECT statement is the contents of the
named table. If there is more than one table or subquery in FROM clause
then the contents of all tables and/or subqueries
are joined into a single dataset for the simple SELECT statement to operate on.
Exactly how the data is combined depends on the specific <a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator</a> and
<a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint</a> used to connect the tables or subqueries together.

<p>All joins in SQLite are based on the cartesian product of the left and
right-hand datasets. The columns of the cartesian product dataset are, in 
order, all the columns of the left-hand dataset followed by all the columns
of the right-hand dataset. There is a row in the cartesian product dataset
formed by combining each unique combination of a row from the left-hand 
and right-hand datasets. In other words, if the left-hand dataset consists of
................................................................................

<h3>Compound Select Statements</h3>

<p>Two or more <a href="lang_select.html#simpleselect">simple SELECT</a> statements may be connected together to form
a compound SELECT using the UNION, UNION ALL, INTERSECT or EXCEPT operator,
as shown by the following diagram:

<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-select-stmt.html">compound-select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1317' onclick='hideorshow("x1317","x1318")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1318'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-select-stmt" src="images/syntax/compound-select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1319' onclick='hideorshow("x1319","x1320")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1320' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1321' onclick='hideorshow("x1321","x1322")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1322' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1323' onclick='hideorshow("x1323","x1324")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1324' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1325' onclick='hideorshow("x1325","x1326")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1326' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1327' onclick='hideorshow("x1327","x1328")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1328' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1329' onclick='hideorshow("x1329","x1330")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1330' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1331' onclick='hideorshow("x1331","x1332")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1332' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1333' onclick='hideorshow("x1333","x1334")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1334' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1335' onclick='hideorshow("x1335","x1336")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1336' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1337' onclick='hideorshow("x1337","x1338")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1338' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x1339' onclick='hideorshow("x1339","x1340")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1340' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1341' onclick='hideorshow("x1341","x1342")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1342' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1343' onclick='hideorshow("x1343","x1344")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1344' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1345' onclick='hideorshow("x1345","x1346")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1346' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1347' onclick='hideorshow("x1347","x1348")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1348' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1349' onclick='hideorshow("x1349","x1350")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1350' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1351' onclick='hideorshow("x1351","x1352")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1352' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1353' onclick='hideorshow("x1353","x1354")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1354' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1355' onclick='hideorshow("x1355","x1356")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1356' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1357' onclick='hideorshow("x1357","x1358")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1358' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1359' onclick='hideorshow("x1359","x1360")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1360' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-core.html">select-core:</a></b>
<button id='x1361' onclick='hideorshow("x1361","x1362")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1362' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-core" src="images/syntax/select-core.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1363' onclick='hideorshow("x1363","x1364")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1364' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1365' onclick='hideorshow("x1365","x1366")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1366' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1367' onclick='hideorshow("x1367","x1368")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1368' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1369' onclick='hideorshow("x1369","x1370")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1370' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1371' onclick='hideorshow("x1371","x1372")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1372' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1373' onclick='hideorshow("x1373","x1374")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1374' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1375' onclick='hideorshow("x1375","x1376")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1376' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>

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<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>BEGIN TRANSACTION</h2><p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#begin-stmt">begin-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x809' onclick='hideorshow("x809","x810")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x810'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram begin-stmt" src="images/syntax/begin-stmt.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#commit-stmt">commit-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x811' onclick='hideorshow("x811","x812")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x812'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram commit-stmt" src="images/syntax/commit-stmt.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#rollback-stmt">rollback-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x813' onclick='hideorshow("x813","x814")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x814'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram rollback-stmt" src="images/syntax/rollback-stmt.gif" />
</blockquote>


<p>







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<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>BEGIN TRANSACTION</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/begin-stmt.html">begin-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x809' onclick='hideorshow("x809","x810")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x810'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram begin-stmt" src="images/syntax/begin-stmt.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/commit-stmt.html">commit-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x811' onclick='hideorshow("x811","x812")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x812'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram commit-stmt" src="images/syntax/commit-stmt.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/rollback-stmt.html">rollback-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x813' onclick='hideorshow("x813","x814")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x814'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram rollback-stmt" src="images/syntax/rollback-stmt.gif" />
</blockquote>


<p>

Changes to Doc/Extra/Core/lang_update.html.

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<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>UPDATE</h2><p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#update-stmt">update-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1377' onclick='hideorshow("x1377","x1378")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1378'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram update-stmt" src="images/syntax/update-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#expr">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1379' onclick='hideorshow("x1379","x1380")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1380' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#literal-value">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1381' onclick='hideorshow("x1381","x1382")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1382' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#raise-function">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x1383' onclick='hideorshow("x1383","x1384")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1384' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#select-stmt">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1385' onclick='hideorshow("x1385","x1386")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1386' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#common-table-expression">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1387' onclick='hideorshow("x1387","x1388")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1388' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#compound-operator">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1389' onclick='hideorshow("x1389","x1390")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1390' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#join-clause">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1391' onclick='hideorshow("x1391","x1392")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1392' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#join-constraint">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1393' onclick='hideorshow("x1393","x1394")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1394' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#join-operator">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1395' onclick='hideorshow("x1395","x1396")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1396' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#ordering-term">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1397' onclick='hideorshow("x1397","x1398")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1398' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#result-column">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1399' onclick='hideorshow("x1399","x1400")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1400' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#table-or-subquery">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1401' onclick='hideorshow("x1401","x1402")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1402' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#type-name">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1403' onclick='hideorshow("x1403","x1404")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1404' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#signed-number">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1405' onclick='hideorshow("x1405","x1406")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1406' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#qualified-table-name">qualified-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1407' onclick='hideorshow("x1407","x1408")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1408' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram qualified-table-name" src="images/syntax/qualified-table-name.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#with-clause">with-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1409' onclick='hideorshow("x1409","x1410")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1410' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram with-clause" src="images/syntax/with-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#cte-table-name">cte-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1411' onclick='hideorshow("x1411","x1412")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1412' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram cte-table-name" src="images/syntax/cte-table-name.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#select-stmt">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1413' onclick='hideorshow("x1413","x1414")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1414' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#common-table-expression">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1415' onclick='hideorshow("x1415","x1416")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1416' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#compound-operator">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1417' onclick='hideorshow("x1417","x1418")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1418' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#join-clause">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1419' onclick='hideorshow("x1419","x1420")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1420' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#join-constraint">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1421' onclick='hideorshow("x1421","x1422")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1422' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#join-operator">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1423' onclick='hideorshow("x1423","x1424")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1424' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#ordering-term">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1425' onclick='hideorshow("x1425","x1426")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1426' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#result-column">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1427' onclick='hideorshow("x1427","x1428")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1428' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#table-or-subquery">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1429' onclick='hideorshow("x1429","x1430")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1430' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
................................................................................

<h3>Optional LIMIT and ORDER BY Clauses</h3>

<p>If SQLite is built with the <a href="compile.html#enable_update_delete_limit">SQLITE_ENABLE_UPDATE_DELETE_LIMIT</a>
compile-time option then the syntax of the UPDATE statement is extended
with optional ORDER BY and LIMIT clauses as follows:</p>

<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#update-stmt-limited">update-stmt-limited:</a></b></p><blockquote>
 <img alt="syntax diagram update-stmt-limited" src="images/syntax/update-stmt-limited.gif"></img>
 </blockquote>


<p>If an UPDATE statement has a LIMIT clause, the maximum number of rows that
will be updated is found by evaluating the accompanying expression and casting
it to an integer value. A negative value is interpreted as "no limit".







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    <div style="padding:0 1em 0px 0;white-space:nowrap">
    <form name=f method="GET" action="https://www.sqlite.org/search">
      <input id=q name=q type=text
       onfocus="entersearch()" onblur="leavesearch()" style="width:24ex;padding:1px 1ex; border:solid white 1px; font-size:0.9em ; font-style:italic;color:#044a64;" value="Search SQLite Docs...">
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<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>UPDATE</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/update-stmt.html">update-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1377' onclick='hideorshow("x1377","x1378")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1378'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram update-stmt" src="images/syntax/update-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1379' onclick='hideorshow("x1379","x1380")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1380' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1381' onclick='hideorshow("x1381","x1382")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1382' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x1383' onclick='hideorshow("x1383","x1384")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1384' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1385' onclick='hideorshow("x1385","x1386")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1386' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1387' onclick='hideorshow("x1387","x1388")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1388' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1389' onclick='hideorshow("x1389","x1390")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1390' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1391' onclick='hideorshow("x1391","x1392")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1392' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1393' onclick='hideorshow("x1393","x1394")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1394' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1395' onclick='hideorshow("x1395","x1396")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1396' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1397' onclick='hideorshow("x1397","x1398")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1398' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1399' onclick='hideorshow("x1399","x1400")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1400' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1401' onclick='hideorshow("x1401","x1402")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1402' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1403' onclick='hideorshow("x1403","x1404")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1404' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1405' onclick='hideorshow("x1405","x1406")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1406' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/qualified-table-name.html">qualified-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1407' onclick='hideorshow("x1407","x1408")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1408' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram qualified-table-name" src="images/syntax/qualified-table-name.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/with-clause.html">with-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1409' onclick='hideorshow("x1409","x1410")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1410' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram with-clause" src="images/syntax/with-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/cte-table-name.html">cte-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1411' onclick='hideorshow("x1411","x1412")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1412' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram cte-table-name" src="images/syntax/cte-table-name.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1413' onclick='hideorshow("x1413","x1414")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1414' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1415' onclick='hideorshow("x1415","x1416")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1416' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1417' onclick='hideorshow("x1417","x1418")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1418' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1419' onclick='hideorshow("x1419","x1420")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1420' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1421' onclick='hideorshow("x1421","x1422")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1422' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1423' onclick='hideorshow("x1423","x1424")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1424' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1425' onclick='hideorshow("x1425","x1426")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1426' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1427' onclick='hideorshow("x1427","x1428")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1428' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1429' onclick='hideorshow("x1429","x1430")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1430' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
................................................................................

<h3>Optional LIMIT and ORDER BY Clauses</h3>

<p>If SQLite is built with the <a href="compile.html#enable_update_delete_limit">SQLITE_ENABLE_UPDATE_DELETE_LIMIT</a>
compile-time option then the syntax of the UPDATE statement is extended
with optional ORDER BY and LIMIT clauses as follows:</p>

<p><b><a href="syntax/update-stmt-limited.html">update-stmt-limited:</a></b></p><blockquote>
 <img alt="syntax diagram update-stmt-limited" src="images/syntax/update-stmt-limited.gif"></img>
 </blockquote>


<p>If an UPDATE statement has a LIMIT clause, the maximum number of rows that
will be updated is found by evaluating the accompanying expression and casting
it to an integer value. A negative value is interpreted as "no limit".

Changes to Doc/Extra/Core/lang_vacuum.html.

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<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>VACUUM</h2><p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#vacuum-stmt">vacuum-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1431' onclick='hideorshow("x1431","x1432")'>hide</button></p>
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</blockquote>


<p>







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<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>VACUUM</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/vacuum-stmt.html">vacuum-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1431' onclick='hideorshow("x1431","x1432")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1432'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram vacuum-stmt" src="images/syntax/vacuum-stmt.gif" />
</blockquote>


<p>

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<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>WITH clause</h2><p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#with-clause">with-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1137' onclick='hideorshow("x1137","x1138")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1138'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram with-clause" src="images/syntax/with-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#cte-table-name">cte-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1139' onclick='hideorshow("x1139","x1140")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1140' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram cte-table-name" src="images/syntax/cte-table-name.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#select-stmt">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1141' onclick='hideorshow("x1141","x1142")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1142' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#common-table-expression">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1143' onclick='hideorshow("x1143","x1144")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1144' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#compound-operator">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1145' onclick='hideorshow("x1145","x1146")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1146' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#expr">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1147' onclick='hideorshow("x1147","x1148")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1148' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#literal-value">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1149' onclick='hideorshow("x1149","x1150")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1150' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#raise-function">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x1151' onclick='hideorshow("x1151","x1152")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1152' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#type-name">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1153' onclick='hideorshow("x1153","x1154")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1154' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#signed-number">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1155' onclick='hideorshow("x1155","x1156")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1156' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#join-clause">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1157' onclick='hideorshow("x1157","x1158")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1158' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#join-constraint">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1159' onclick='hideorshow("x1159","x1160")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1160' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#join-operator">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1161' onclick='hideorshow("x1161","x1162")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1162' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#ordering-term">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1163' onclick='hideorshow("x1163","x1164")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1164' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#result-column">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1165' onclick='hideorshow("x1165","x1166")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1166' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#table-or-subquery">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1167' onclick='hideorshow("x1167","x1168")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1168' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>

................................................................................

<p>A recursive common table expression can be used to write a query that
walks a tree or graph.  A recursive common table expression has the same
basic syntax as an ordinary common table expression, but with the following
additional features:

<ol>
<li> The "<a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#select-stmt">select-stmt</a>"
     must be a <a href="lang_select.html#compound">compound select</a> where the right-most <a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#compound-operator">compound-operator</a> is
     either UNION or UNION ALL.
<li> The table named on the left-hand side of the AS keyword must appear
     exactly once in the FROM clause of the right-most SELECT statement
     of the compound select, and nowhere else.
</ol>

<p>To put it another way, a recursive common table expression must
look like the following:

<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#recursive-cte">recursive-cte:</a></b>
<button id='x1169' onclick='hideorshow("x1169","x1170")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1170'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram recursive-cte" src="images/syntax/recursive-cte.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#cte-table-name">cte-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1171' onclick='hideorshow("x1171","x1172")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1172' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram cte-table-name" src="images/syntax/cte-table-name.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>









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<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>WITH clause</h2><p><b><a href="syntax/with-clause.html">with-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1137' onclick='hideorshow("x1137","x1138")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1138'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram with-clause" src="images/syntax/with-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/cte-table-name.html">cte-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1139' onclick='hideorshow("x1139","x1140")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1140' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram cte-table-name" src="images/syntax/cte-table-name.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1141' onclick='hideorshow("x1141","x1142")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1142' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1143' onclick='hideorshow("x1143","x1144")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1144' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1145' onclick='hideorshow("x1145","x1146")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1146' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1147' onclick='hideorshow("x1147","x1148")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1148' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1149' onclick='hideorshow("x1149","x1150")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1150' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x1151' onclick='hideorshow("x1151","x1152")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1152' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1153' onclick='hideorshow("x1153","x1154")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1154' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1155' onclick='hideorshow("x1155","x1156")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1156' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1157' onclick='hideorshow("x1157","x1158")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1158' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1159' onclick='hideorshow("x1159","x1160")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1160' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1161' onclick='hideorshow("x1161","x1162")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1162' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1163' onclick='hideorshow("x1163","x1164")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1164' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1165' onclick='hideorshow("x1165","x1166")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1166' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</blockquote>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1167' onclick='hideorshow("x1167","x1168")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1168' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>

................................................................................

<p>A recursive common table expression can be used to write a query that
walks a tree or graph.  A recursive common table expression has the same
basic syntax as an ordinary common table expression, but with the following
additional features:

<ol>
<li> The "<a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt</a>"
     must be a <a href="lang_select.html#compound">compound select</a> where the right-most <a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator</a> is
     either UNION or UNION ALL.
<li> The table named on the left-hand side of the AS keyword must appear
     exactly once in the FROM clause of the right-most SELECT statement
     of the compound select, and nowhere else.
</ol>

<p>To put it another way, a recursive common table expression must
look like the following:

<p><b><a href="syntax/recursive-cte.html">recursive-cte:</a></b>
<button id='x1169' onclick='hideorshow("x1169","x1170")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1170'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram recursive-cte" src="images/syntax/recursive-cte.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/cte-table-name.html">cte-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1171' onclick='hideorshow("x1171","x1172")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1172' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram cte-table-name" src="images/syntax/cte-table-name.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>


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       onfocus="entersearch()" onblur="leavesearch()" style="width:24ex;padding:1px 1ex; border:solid white 1px; font-size:0.9em ; font-style:italic;color:#044a64;" value="Search SQLite Docs...">
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    </form>
    </div>
  </table>

................................................................................
<a href="c3ref/file_control.html">file control</a> which gives <a href="vfs.html">VFS</a> implementations the
opportunity to add new PRAGMA statements or to override the meaning of
built-in PRAGMA statements.</p>


<hr /><a name="syntax"></a>
<h2>PRAGMA command syntax</h2>
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#pragma-stmt">pragma-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1467' onclick='hideorshow("x1467","x1468")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1468'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram pragma-stmt" src="images/syntax/pragma-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#pragma-value">pragma-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1469' onclick='hideorshow("x1469","x1470")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1470'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram pragma-value" src="images/syntax/pragma-value.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntaxdiagrams.html#signed-number">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1471' onclick='hideorshow("x1471","x1472")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1472' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>

................................................................................
<li><a href="#pragma_default_cache_size"><s>default_cache_size</s></a>&sup1;
<li><a href="#pragma_defer_foreign_keys">defer_foreign_keys</a>
<li><a href="#pragma_empty_result_callbacks"><s>empty_result_callbacks</s></a>&sup1;
<li><a href="#pragma_encoding">encoding</a>
<li><a href="#pragma_foreign_key_check">foreign_key_check</a>
<li><a href="#pragma_foreign_key_list">foreign_key_list</a>
<li><a href="#pragma_foreign_keys">foreign_keys</a>
</ul></td><td valign="top" align="left"><ul>
<li><a href="#pragma_freelist_count">freelist_count</a>

<li><a href="#pragma_full_column_names"><s>full_column_names</s></a>&sup1;
<li><a href="#pragma_fullfsync">fullfsync</a>
<li><a href="#pragma_ignore_check_constraints">ignore_check_constraints</a>
<li><a href="#pragma_incremental_vacuum">incremental_vacuum</a>
<li><a href="#pragma_index_info">index_info</a>
<li><a href="#pragma_index_list">index_list</a>
<li><a href="#pragma_integrity_check">integrity_check</a>
................................................................................
<li><a href="#pragma_mmap_size">mmap_size</a>
<li><a href="#pragma_page_count">page_count</a>
<li><a href="#pragma_page_size">page_size</a>
<li><a href="#pragma_parser_trace"><i>parser_trace</i></a>&sup2;
<li><a href="#pragma_query_only">query_only</a>
<li><a href="#pragma_quick_check">quick_check</a>
<li><a href="#pragma_read_uncommitted">read_uncommitted</a>
</ul></td><td valign="top" align="left"><ul>
<li><a href="#pragma_recursive_triggers">recursive_triggers</a>
<li><a href="#pragma_reverse_unordered_selects">reverse_unordered_selects</a>

<li><a href="#pragma_schema_version">schema_version</a>
<li><a href="#pragma_secure_delete">secure_delete</a>
<li><a href="#pragma_short_column_names"><s>short_column_names</s></a>&sup1;
<li><a href="#pragma_shrink_memory">shrink_memory</a>
<li><a href="#pragma_soft_heap_limit">soft_heap_limit</a>
<li><a href="#pragma_stats"><i>stats</i></a>&sup3;
<li><a href="#pragma_synchronous">synchronous</a>
<li><a href="#pragma_table_info">table_info</a>
<li><a href="#pragma_temp_store">temp_store</a>
<li><a href="#pragma_temp_store_directory"><s>temp_store_directory</s></a>&sup1;

<li><a href="#pragma_schema_version">user_version</a>
<li><a href="#pragma_vdbe_addoptrace"><i>vdbe_addoptrace</i></a>&sup2;
<li><a href="#pragma_vdbe_debug"><i>vdbe_debug</i></a>&sup2;
<li><a href="#pragma_vdbe_listing"><i>vdbe_listing</i></a>&sup2;
<li><a href="#pragma_vdbe_trace"><i>vdbe_trace</i></a>&sup2;
<li><a href="#pragma_wal_autocheckpoint">wal_autocheckpoint</a>
<li><a href="#pragma_wal_checkpoint">wal_checkpoint</a>
................................................................................
    <b>This pragma is deprecated</b> and exists
    for backwards compatibility only.  New applications
    should avoid using this pragma.  Older applications should discontinue
    use of this pragma at the earliest opportunity.  This pragma may be omitted
    from the build when SQLite is compiled using <a href="compile.html#omit_deprecated">SQLITE_OMIT_DEPRECATED</a>.
    </p>
  
















<a name="pragma_vdbe_addoptrace"></a>
<hr>
    <p><b>PRAGMA vdbe_addoptrace = </b><i>boolean</i><b>;</b></p>

    <p>If SQLite has been compiled with the <a href="compile.html#debug">SQLITE_DEBUG</a> compile-time
    option, then the vdbe_addoptrace pragma can be used to cause a complete
    VDBE opcodes to be displayed as they are created during code generation.







|







 







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      b.innerHTML='hide';
    }
    return false;
  }
</script>
<td>
    <div style="padding:0 1em 0px 0;white-space:nowrap">
    <form name=f method="GET" action="https://www.sqlite.org/search">
      <input id=q name=q type=text
       onfocus="entersearch()" onblur="leavesearch()" style="width:24ex;padding:1px 1ex; border:solid white 1px; font-size:0.9em ; font-style:italic;color:#044a64;" value="Search SQLite Docs...">
      <input type=submit value="Go" style="border:solid white 1px;background-color:#044a64;color:white;font-size:0.9em;padding:0 1ex">
    </form>
    </div>
  </table>

................................................................................
<a href="c3ref/file_control.html">file control</a> which gives <a href="vfs.html">VFS</a> implementations the
opportunity to add new PRAGMA statements or to override the meaning of
built-in PRAGMA statements.</p>


<hr /><a name="syntax"></a>
<h2>PRAGMA command syntax</h2>
<p><b><a href="syntax/pragma-stmt.html">pragma-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1467' onclick='hideorshow("x1467","x1468")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1468'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram pragma-stmt" src="images/syntax/pragma-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/pragma-value.html">pragma-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1469' onclick='hideorshow("x1469","x1470")'>hide</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1470'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram pragma-value" src="images/syntax/pragma-value.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1471' onclick='hideorshow("x1471","x1472")'>show</button></p>
 <blockquote id='x1472' style='display:none;'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</blockquote>
</blockquote>
</blockquote>

................................................................................
<li><a href="#pragma_default_cache_size"><s>default_cache_size</s></a>&sup1;
<li><a href="#pragma_defer_foreign_keys">defer_foreign_keys</a>
<li><a href="#pragma_empty_result_callbacks"><s>empty_result_callbacks</s></a>&sup1;
<li><a href="#pragma_encoding">encoding</a>
<li><a href="#pragma_foreign_key_check">foreign_key_check</a>
<li><a href="#pragma_foreign_key_list">foreign_key_list</a>
<li><a href="#pragma_foreign_keys">foreign_keys</a>

<li><a href="#pragma_freelist_count">freelist_count</a>
</ul></td><td valign="top" align="left"><ul>
<li><a href="#pragma_full_column_names"><s>full_column_names</s></a>&sup1;
<li><a href="#pragma_fullfsync">fullfsync</a>
<li><a href="#pragma_ignore_check_constraints">ignore_check_constraints</a>
<li><a href="#pragma_incremental_vacuum">incremental_vacuum</a>
<li><a href="#pragma_index_info">index_info</a>
<li><a href="#pragma_index_list">index_list</a>
<li><a href="#pragma_integrity_check">integrity_check</a>
................................................................................
<li><a href="#pragma_mmap_size">mmap_size</a>
<li><a href="#pragma_page_count">page_count</a>
<li><a href="#pragma_page_size">page_size</a>
<li><a href="#pragma_parser_trace"><i>parser_trace</i></a>&sup2;
<li><a href="#pragma_query_only">query_only</a>
<li><a href="#pragma_quick_check">quick_check</a>
<li><a href="#pragma_read_uncommitted">read_uncommitted</a>

<li><a href="#pragma_recursive_triggers">recursive_triggers</a>
<li><a href="#pragma_reverse_unordered_selects">reverse_unordered_selects</a>
</ul></td><td valign="top" align="left"><ul>
<li><a href="#pragma_schema_version">schema_version</a>
<li><a href="#pragma_secure_delete">secure_delete</a>
<li><a href="#pragma_short_column_names"><s>short_column_names</s></a>&sup1;
<li><a href="#pragma_shrink_memory">shrink_memory</a>
<li><a href="#pragma_soft_heap_limit">soft_heap_limit</a>
<li><a href="#pragma_stats"><i>stats</i></a>&sup3;
<li><a href="#pragma_synchronous">synchronous</a>
<li><a href="#pragma_table_info">table_info</a>
<li><a href="#pragma_temp_store">temp_store</a>
<li><a href="#pragma_temp_store_directory"><s>temp_store_directory</s></a>&sup1;
<li><a href="#pragma_threads">threads</a>
<li><a href="#pragma_schema_version">user_version</a>
<li><a href="#pragma_vdbe_addoptrace"><i>vdbe_addoptrace</i></a>&sup2;
<li><a href="#pragma_vdbe_debug"><i>vdbe_debug</i></a>&sup2;
<li><a href="#pragma_vdbe_listing"><i>vdbe_listing</i></a>&sup2;
<li><a href="#pragma_vdbe_trace"><i>vdbe_trace</i></a>&sup2;
<li><a href="#pragma_wal_autocheckpoint">wal_autocheckpoint</a>
<li><a href="#pragma_wal_checkpoint">wal_checkpoint</a>
................................................................................
    <b>This pragma is deprecated</b> and exists
    for backwards compatibility only.  New applications
    should avoid using this pragma.  Older applications should discontinue
    use of this pragma at the earliest opportunity.  This pragma may be omitted
    from the build when SQLite is compiled using <a href="compile.html#omit_deprecated">SQLITE_OMIT_DEPRECATED</a>.
    </p>
  
<a name="pragma_threads"></a>
<hr>
    <p><b>PRAGMA threads;
       <br>PRAGMA threads = </b><i>N</i><b>;</b></p>
    <p>Query or change the value of the 
    <a href="c3ref/limit.html">sqlite3_limit</a>(db,<a href="c3ref/c_limit_attached.html#sqlitelimitworkerthreads">SQLITE_LIMIT_WORKER_THREADS</a>,...) limit for
    the current database connection.  This limit sets an upper bound
    on the number of auxiliary threads that a <a href="c3ref/stmt.html">prepared statement</a> is
    allowed to launch to assist with a query.  The default limit is 0
    unless it is changed using the <a href="compile.html#default_worker_threads">SQLITE_DEFAULT_WORKER_THREADS</a>
    compile-time option.  When the limit is zero, that means no
    auxiliary threads will be launched.</p>

    <p>This pragma is a thin wrapper around the
    <a href="c3ref/limit.html">sqlite3_limit</a>(db,<a href="c3ref/c_limit_attached.html#sqlitelimitworkerthreads">SQLITE_LIMIT_WORKER_THREADS</a>,...) interface.
    </p>
<a name="pragma_vdbe_addoptrace"></a>
<hr>
    <p><b>PRAGMA vdbe_addoptrace = </b><i>boolean</i><b>;</b></p>

    <p>If SQLite has been compiled with the <a href="compile.html#debug">SQLITE_DEBUG</a> compile-time
    option, then the vdbe_addoptrace pragma can be used to cause a complete
    VDBE opcodes to be displayed as they are created during code generation.

Added Doc/Extra/Core/syntax.html.































































































































































































































































































































































































































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<title>List of SQLite Syntax Diagrams</title>
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<div class=startsearch></div>
  


<h1 align="center">List of SQLite Syntax Diagrams</h1>

<table border=0 cellspacing=25 width="100%"><tr>
<td valign='top' width='33%'>
<ul>
<li><a href='syntax/alter-table-stmt.html'>alter-table-stmt</a></li>
<li><a href='syntax/analyze-stmt.html'>analyze-stmt</a></li>
<li><a href='syntax/attach-stmt.html'>attach-stmt</a></li>
<li><a href='syntax/begin-stmt.html'>begin-stmt</a></li>
<li><a href='syntax/column-constraint.html'>column-constraint</a></li>
<li><a href='syntax/column-def.html'>column-def</a></li>
<li><a href='syntax/comment-syntax.html'>comment-syntax</a></li>
<li><a href='syntax/commit-stmt.html'>commit-stmt</a></li>
<li><a href='syntax/common-table-expression.html'>common-table-expression</a></li>
<li><a href='syntax/compound-operator.html'>compound-operator</a></li>
<li><a href='syntax/compound-select-stmt.html'>compound-select-stmt</a></li>
<li><a href='syntax/conflict-clause.html'>conflict-clause</a></li>
<li><a href='syntax/create-index-stmt.html'>create-index-stmt</a></li>
<li><a href='syntax/create-table-stmt.html'>create-table-stmt</a></li>
<li><a href='syntax/create-trigger-stmt.html'>create-trigger-stmt</a></li>
<li><a href='syntax/create-view-stmt.html'>create-view-stmt</a></li>
<li><a href='syntax/create-virtual-table-stmt.html'>create-virtual-table-stmt</a></li>
<li><a href='syntax/cte-table-name.html'>cte-table-name</a></li>
<li><a href='syntax/delete-stmt.html'>delete-stmt</a></li>
<li><a href='syntax/delete-stmt-limited.html'>delete-stmt-limited</a></li>
</ul></td>
<td valign='top' width='33%'>
<ul>
<li><a href='syntax/detach-stmt.html'>detach-stmt</a></li>
<li><a href='syntax/drop-index-stmt.html'>drop-index-stmt</a></li>
<li><a href='syntax/drop-table-stmt.html'>drop-table-stmt</a></li>
<li><a href='syntax/drop-trigger-stmt.html'>drop-trigger-stmt</a></li>
<li><a href='syntax/drop-view-stmt.html'>drop-view-stmt</a></li>
<li><a href='syntax/expr.html'>expr</a></li>
<li><a href='syntax/factored-select-stmt.html'>factored-select-stmt</a></li>
<li><a href='syntax/foreign-key-clause.html'>foreign-key-clause</a></li>
<li><a href='syntax/indexed-column.html'>indexed-column</a></li>
<li><a href='syntax/insert-stmt.html'>insert-stmt</a></li>
<li><a href='syntax/join-clause.html'>join-clause</a></li>
<li><a href='syntax/join-constraint.html'>join-constraint</a></li>
<li><a href='syntax/join-operator.html'>join-operator</a></li>
<li><a href='syntax/literal-value.html'>literal-value</a></li>
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<li><a href='syntax/ordering-term.html'>ordering-term</a></li>
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<li><a href='syntax/qualified-table-name.html'>qualified-table-name</a></li>
<li><a href='syntax/raise-function.html'>raise-function</a></li>
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<li><a href='syntax/release-stmt.html'>release-stmt</a></li>
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<li><a href='syntax/savepoint-stmt.html'>savepoint-stmt</a></li>
<li><a href='syntax/select-core.html'>select-core</a></li>
<li><a href='syntax/select-stmt.html'>select-stmt</a></li>
<li><a href='syntax/signed-number.html'>signed-number</a></li>
<li><a href='syntax/simple-select-stmt.html'>simple-select-stmt</a></li>
<li><a href='syntax/sql-stmt.html'>sql-stmt</a></li>
<li><a href='syntax/sql-stmt-list.html'>sql-stmt-list</a></li>
<li><a href='syntax/table-constraint.html'>table-constraint</a></li>
<li><a href='syntax/table-or-subquery.html'>table-or-subquery</a></li>
<li><a href='syntax/type-name.html'>type-name</a></li>
<li><a href='syntax/update-stmt.html'>update-stmt</a></li>
<li><a href='syntax/update-stmt-limited.html'>update-stmt-limited</a></li>
<li><a href='syntax/vacuum-stmt.html'>vacuum-stmt</a></li>
<li><a href='syntax/with-clause.html'>with-clause</a></li>
</ul></td>

</tr></table>


Added Doc/Extra/Core/syntax/alter-table-stmt.html.

























































































































































































































































































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<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align='center'>alter-table-stmt</h1>
<blockquote>
<img src='../images/syntax/alter-table-stmt.gif'></img><br>

Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./sql-stmt.html'>sql-stmt</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./column-def.html'>column-def</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_altertable.html'>lang_altertable.html</a>
</blockquote>


Added Doc/Extra/Core/syntax/analyze-stmt.html.























































































































































































































































































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<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align='center'>analyze-stmt</h1>
<blockquote>
<img src='../images/syntax/analyze-stmt.gif'></img><br>

Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./sql-stmt.html'>sql-stmt</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_analyze.html'>lang_analyze.html</a>
</blockquote>


Added Doc/Extra/Core/syntax/attach-stmt.html.

























































































































































































































































































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<h1 align='center'>attach-stmt</h1>
<blockquote>
<img src='../images/syntax/attach-stmt.gif'></img><br>

Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./sql-stmt.html'>sql-stmt</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./expr.html'>expr</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_attach.html'>lang_attach.html</a>
</blockquote>


Added Doc/Extra/Core/syntax/begin-stmt.html.























































































































































































































































































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<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align='center'>begin-stmt</h1>
<blockquote>
<img src='../images/syntax/begin-stmt.gif'></img><br>

Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./sql-stmt.html'>sql-stmt</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_transaction.html'>lang_transaction.html</a>
</blockquote>


Added Doc/Extra/Core/syntax/column-constraint.html.

























































































































































































































































































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<h1 align='center'>column-constraint</h1>
<blockquote>
<img src='../images/syntax/column-constraint.gif'></img><br>

Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./column-def.html'>column-def</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./conflict-clause.html'>conflict-clause</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./expr.html'>expr</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./foreign-key-clause.html'>foreign-key-clause</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./literal-value.html'>literal-value</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./signed-number.html'>signed-number</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_altertable.html'>lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtable.html'>lang_createtable.html</a>
</blockquote>


Added Doc/Extra/Core/syntax/column-def.html.

























































































































































































































































































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<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align='center'>column-def</h1>
<blockquote>
<img src='../images/syntax/column-def.gif'></img><br>

Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./alter-table-stmt.html'>alter-table-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./create-table-stmt.html'>create-table-stmt</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./column-constraint.html'>column-constraint</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./type-name.html'>type-name</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_altertable.html'>lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtable.html'>lang_createtable.html</a>
</blockquote>


Added Doc/Extra/Core/syntax/comment-syntax.html.





















































































































































































































































































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<h1 align='center'>comment-syntax</h1>
<blockquote>
<img src='../images/syntax/comment-syntax.gif'></img><br>
<br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_comment.html'>lang_comment.html</a>
</blockquote>


Added Doc/Extra/Core/syntax/commit-stmt.html.























































































































































































































































































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<h1 align='center'>commit-stmt</h1>
<blockquote>
<img src='../images/syntax/commit-stmt.gif'></img><br>

Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./sql-stmt.html'>sql-stmt</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_transaction.html'>lang_transaction.html</a>
</blockquote>


Added Doc/Extra/Core/syntax/common-table-expression.html.

























































































































































































































































































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<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align='center'>common-table-expression</h1>
<blockquote>
<img src='../images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif'></img><br>

Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./compound-select-stmt.html'>compound-select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./factored-select-stmt.html'>factored-select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./select-stmt.html'>select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./simple-select-stmt.html'>simple-select-stmt</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./select-stmt.html'>select-stmt</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_altertable.html'>lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_attach.html'>lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createindex.html'>lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtable.html'>lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtrigger.html'>lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createview.html'>lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_delete.html'>lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_expr.html'>lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_insert.html'>lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_select.html'>lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_update.html'>lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_with.html'>lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../partialindex.html'>partialindex.html</a>
</blockquote>


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<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align='center'>compound-operator</h1>
<blockquote>
<img src='../images/syntax/compound-operator.gif'></img><br>

Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./factored-select-stmt.html'>factored-select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./select-stmt.html'>select-stmt</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_altertable.html'>lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_attach.html'>lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createindex.html'>lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtable.html'>lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtrigger.html'>lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createview.html'>lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_delete.html'>lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_expr.html'>lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_insert.html'>lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_select.html'>lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_update.html'>lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_with.html'>lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../partialindex.html'>partialindex.html</a>
</blockquote>


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<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align='center'>compound-select-stmt</h1>
<blockquote>
<img src='../images/syntax/compound-select-stmt.gif'></img><br>
<br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./common-table-expression.html'>common-table-expression</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./expr.html'>expr</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./ordering-term.html'>ordering-term</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./select-core.html'>select-core</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_select.html'>lang_select.html</a>
</blockquote>


Added Doc/Extra/Core/syntax/conflict-clause.html.























































































































































































































































































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<h1 align='center'>conflict-clause</h1>
<blockquote>
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See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_altertable.html'>lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_conflict.html'>lang_conflict.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtable.html'>lang_createtable.html</a>
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<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align='center'>create-index-stmt</h1>
<blockquote>
<img src='../images/syntax/create-index-stmt.gif'></img><br>

Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./sql-stmt.html'>sql-stmt</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./expr.html'>expr</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./indexed-column.html'>indexed-column</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createindex.html'>lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../partialindex.html'>partialindex.html</a>
</blockquote>


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<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align='center'>create-table-stmt</h1>
<blockquote>
<img src='../images/syntax/create-table-stmt.gif'></img><br>

Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./sql-stmt.html'>sql-stmt</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./column-def.html'>column-def</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./select-stmt.html'>select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./table-constraint.html'>table-constraint</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtable.html'>lang_createtable.html</a>
</blockquote>


Added Doc/Extra/Core/syntax/create-trigger-stmt.html.

























































































































































































































































































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<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align='center'>create-trigger-stmt</h1>
<blockquote>
<img src='../images/syntax/create-trigger-stmt.gif'></img><br>

Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./sql-stmt.html'>sql-stmt</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./delete-stmt.html'>delete-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./expr.html'>expr</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./insert-stmt.html'>insert-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./select-stmt.html'>select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./update-stmt.html'>update-stmt</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtrigger.html'>lang_createtrigger.html</a>
</blockquote>


Added Doc/Extra/Core/syntax/create-view-stmt.html.

























































































































































































































































































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<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align='center'>create-view-stmt</h1>
<blockquote>
<img src='../images/syntax/create-view-stmt.gif'></img><br>

Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./sql-stmt.html'>sql-stmt</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./select-stmt.html'>select-stmt</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createview.html'>lang_createview.html</a>
</blockquote>


Added Doc/Extra/Core/syntax/create-virtual-table-stmt.html.























































































































































































































































































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<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align='center'>create-virtual-table-stmt</h1>
<blockquote>
<img src='../images/syntax/create-virtual-table-stmt.gif'></img><br>

Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./sql-stmt.html'>sql-stmt</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createvtab.html'>lang_createvtab.html</a>
</blockquote>


Added Doc/Extra/Core/syntax/cte-table-name.html.























































































































































































































































































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<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align='center'>cte-table-name</h1>
<blockquote>
<img src='../images/syntax/cte-table-name.gif'></img><br>

Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./recursive-cte.html'>recursive-cte</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./with-clause.html'>with-clause</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtrigger.html'>lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_delete.html'>lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_insert.html'>lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_update.html'>lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_with.html'>lang_with.html</a>
</blockquote>


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<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align='center'>delete-stmt-limited</h1>
<blockquote>
<img src='../images/syntax/delete-stmt-limited.gif'></img><br>

Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./sql-stmt.html'>sql-stmt</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./expr.html'>expr</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./ordering-term.html'>ordering-term</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./qualified-table-name.html'>qualified-table-name</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./with-clause.html'>with-clause</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_delete.html'>lang_delete.html</a>
</blockquote>


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<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align='center'>delete-stmt</h1>
<blockquote>
<img src='../images/syntax/delete-stmt.gif'></img><br>

Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./create-trigger-stmt.html'>create-trigger-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./sql-stmt.html'>sql-stmt</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./expr.html'>expr</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./qualified-table-name.html'>qualified-table-name</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./with-clause.html'>with-clause</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtrigger.html'>lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_delete.html'>lang_delete.html</a>
</blockquote>


Added Doc/Extra/Core/syntax/detach-stmt.html.























































































































































































































































































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<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align='center'>detach-stmt</h1>
<blockquote>
<img src='../images/syntax/detach-stmt.gif'></img><br>

Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./sql-stmt.html'>sql-stmt</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_detach.html'>lang_detach.html</a>
</blockquote>


Added Doc/Extra/Core/syntax/drop-index-stmt.html.























































































































































































































































































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<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align='center'>drop-index-stmt</h1>
<blockquote>
<img src='../images/syntax/drop-index-stmt.gif'></img><br>

Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./sql-stmt.html'>sql-stmt</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_dropindex.html'>lang_dropindex.html</a>
</blockquote>


Added Doc/Extra/Core/syntax/drop-table-stmt.html.























































































































































































































































































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<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align='center'>drop-table-stmt</h1>
<blockquote>
<img src='../images/syntax/drop-table-stmt.gif'></img><br>

Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./sql-stmt.html'>sql-stmt</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_droptable.html'>lang_droptable.html</a>
</blockquote>


Added Doc/Extra/Core/syntax/drop-trigger-stmt.html.























































































































































































































































































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<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align='center'>drop-trigger-stmt</h1>
<blockquote>
<img src='../images/syntax/drop-trigger-stmt.gif'></img><br>

Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./sql-stmt.html'>sql-stmt</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_droptrigger.html'>lang_droptrigger.html</a>
</blockquote>


Added Doc/Extra/Core/syntax/drop-view-stmt.html.























































































































































































































































































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<h1 align='center'>drop-view-stmt</h1>
<blockquote>
<img src='../images/syntax/drop-view-stmt.gif'></img><br>

Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./sql-stmt.html'>sql-stmt</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_dropview.html'>lang_dropview.html</a>
</blockquote>


Added Doc/Extra/Core/syntax/expr.html.

























































































































































































































































































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<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align='center'>expr</h1>
<blockquote>
<img src='../images/syntax/expr.gif'></img><br>

Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./attach-stmt.html'>attach-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./column-constraint.html'>column-constraint</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./compound-select-stmt.html'>compound-select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./create-index-stmt.html'>create-index-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./create-trigger-stmt.html'>create-trigger-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./delete-stmt.html'>delete-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./delete-stmt-limited.html'>delete-stmt-limited</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./factored-select-stmt.html'>factored-select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./insert-stmt.html'>insert-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./join-constraint.html'>join-constraint</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./ordering-term.html'>ordering-term</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./result-column.html'>result-column</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./select-core.html'>select-core</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./select-stmt.html'>select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./simple-select-stmt.html'>simple-select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./table-constraint.html'>table-constraint</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./update-stmt.html'>update-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./update-stmt-limited.html'>update-stmt-limited</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./literal-value.html'>literal-value</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./raise-function.html'>raise-function</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./select-stmt.html'>select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./type-name.html'>type-name</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_altertable.html'>lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_attach.html'>lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createindex.html'>lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtable.html'>lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtrigger.html'>lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createview.html'>lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_delete.html'>lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_expr.html'>lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_insert.html'>lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_select.html'>lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_update.html'>lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_with.html'>lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../partialindex.html'>partialindex.html</a>
</blockquote>


Added Doc/Extra/Core/syntax/factored-select-stmt.html.























































































































































































































































































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<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align='center'>factored-select-stmt</h1>
<blockquote>
<img src='../images/syntax/factored-select-stmt.gif'></img><br>
<br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./common-table-expression.html'>common-table-expression</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./compound-operator.html'>compound-operator</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./expr.html'>expr</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./ordering-term.html'>ordering-term</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./select-core.html'>select-core</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_select.html'>lang_select.html</a>
</blockquote>


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<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align='center'>foreign-key-clause</h1>
<blockquote>
<img src='../images/syntax/foreign-key-clause.gif'></img><br>

Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./column-constraint.html'>column-constraint</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./table-constraint.html'>table-constraint</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_altertable.html'>lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtable.html'>lang_createtable.html</a>
</blockquote>


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<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/strict.dtd">
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<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align='center'>indexed-column</h1>
<blockquote>
<img src='../images/syntax/indexed-column.gif'></img><br>

Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./create-index-stmt.html'>create-index-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./table-constraint.html'>table-constraint</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createindex.html'>lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtable.html'>lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../partialindex.html'>partialindex.html</a>
</blockquote>


Added Doc/Extra/Core/syntax/insert-stmt.html.

























































































































































































































































































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<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align='center'>insert-stmt</h1>
<blockquote>
<img src='../images/syntax/insert-stmt.gif'></img><br>

Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./create-trigger-stmt.html'>create-trigger-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./sql-stmt.html'>sql-stmt</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./expr.html'>expr</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./select-stmt.html'>select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./with-clause.html'>with-clause</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtrigger.html'>lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_insert.html'>lang_insert.html</a>
</blockquote>


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<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/strict.dtd">
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<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align='center'>join-clause</h1>
<blockquote>
<img src='../images/syntax/join-clause.gif'></img><br>

Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./select-core.html'>select-core</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./select-stmt.html'>select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./table-or-subquery.html'>table-or-subquery</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./join-constraint.html'>join-constraint</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./join-operator.html'>join-operator</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./table-or-subquery.html'>table-or-subquery</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_altertable.html'>lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_attach.html'>lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createindex.html'>lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtable.html'>lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtrigger.html'>lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createview.html'>lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_delete.html'>lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_expr.html'>lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_insert.html'>lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_select.html'>lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_update.html'>lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_with.html'>lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../partialindex.html'>partialindex.html</a>
</blockquote>


Added Doc/Extra/Core/syntax/join-constraint.html.

























































































































































































































































































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<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/strict.dtd">
<html><head>
<meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8">
<title>SQLite Syntax: join-constraint</title>
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<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align='center'>join-constraint</h1>
<blockquote>
<img src='../images/syntax/join-constraint.gif'></img><br>

Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./join-clause.html'>join-clause</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./expr.html'>expr</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_altertable.html'>lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_attach.html'>lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createindex.html'>lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtable.html'>lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtrigger.html'>lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createview.html'>lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_delete.html'>lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_expr.html'>lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_insert.html'>lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_select.html'>lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_update.html'>lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_with.html'>lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../partialindex.html'>partialindex.html</a>
</blockquote>


Added Doc/Extra/Core/syntax/join-operator.html.























































































































































































































































































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<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/strict.dtd">
<html><head>
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<title>SQLite Syntax: join-operator</title>
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<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align='center'>join-operator</h1>
<blockquote>
<img src='../images/syntax/join-operator.gif'></img><br>

Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./join-clause.html'>join-clause</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_altertable.html'>lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_attach.html'>lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createindex.html'>lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtable.html'>lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtrigger.html'>lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createview.html'>lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_delete.html'>lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_expr.html'>lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_insert.html'>lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_select.html'>lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_update.html'>lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_with.html'>lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../partialindex.html'>partialindex.html</a>
</blockquote>


Added Doc/Extra/Core/syntax/literal-value.html.























































































































































































































































































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<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align='center'>literal-value</h1>
<blockquote>
<img src='../images/syntax/literal-value.gif'></img><br>

Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./column-constraint.html'>column-constraint</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./expr.html'>expr</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_altertable.html'>lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_attach.html'>lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createindex.html'>lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtable.html'>lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtrigger.html'>lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createview.html'>lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_delete.html'>lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_expr.html'>lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_insert.html'>lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_select.html'>lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_update.html'>lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_with.html'>lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../partialindex.html'>partialindex.html</a>
</blockquote>


Added Doc/Extra/Core/syntax/numeric-literal.html.





















































































































































































































































































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<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align='center'>numeric-literal</h1>
<blockquote>
<img src='../images/syntax/numeric-literal.gif'></img><br>
<br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_expr.html'>lang_expr.html</a>
</blockquote>


Added Doc/Extra/Core/syntax/ordering-term.html.

























































































































































































































































































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<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align='center'>ordering-term</h1>
<blockquote>
<img src='../images/syntax/ordering-term.gif'></img><br>

Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./compound-select-stmt.html'>compound-select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./delete-stmt-limited.html'>delete-stmt-limited</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./factored-select-stmt.html'>factored-select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./select-stmt.html'>select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./simple-select-stmt.html'>simple-select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./update-stmt-limited.html'>update-stmt-limited</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./expr.html'>expr</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_altertable.html'>lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_attach.html'>lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createindex.html'>lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtable.html'>lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtrigger.html'>lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createview.html'>lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_delete.html'>lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_expr.html'>lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_insert.html'>lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_select.html'>lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_update.html'>lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_with.html'>lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../partialindex.html'>partialindex.html</a>
</blockquote>


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<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align='center'>pragma-stmt</h1>
<blockquote>
<img src='../images/syntax/pragma-stmt.gif'></img><br>

Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./sql-stmt.html'>sql-stmt</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./pragma-value.html'>pragma-value</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../pragma.html'>pragma.html</a>
</blockquote>


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<h1 align='center'>pragma-value</h1>
<blockquote>
<img src='../images/syntax/pragma-value.gif'></img><br>

Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./pragma-stmt.html'>pragma-stmt</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./signed-number.html'>signed-number</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../pragma.html'>pragma.html</a>
</blockquote>


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<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/strict.dtd">
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<h1 align='center'>qualified-table-name</h1>
<blockquote>
<img src='../images/syntax/qualified-table-name.gif'></img><br>

Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./delete-stmt.html'>delete-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./delete-stmt-limited.html'>delete-stmt-limited</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./update-stmt.html'>update-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./update-stmt-limited.html'>update-stmt-limited</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtrigger.html'>lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_delete.html'>lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_indexedby.html'>lang_indexedby.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_update.html'>lang_update.html</a>
</blockquote>


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<h1 align='center'>raise-function</h1>
<blockquote>
<img src='../images/syntax/raise-function.gif'></img><br>

Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./expr.html'>expr</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_altertable.html'>lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_attach.html'>lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createindex.html'>lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtable.html'>lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtrigger.html'>lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createview.html'>lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_delete.html'>lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_expr.html'>lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_insert.html'>lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_select.html'>lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_update.html'>lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_with.html'>lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../partialindex.html'>partialindex.html</a>
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<h1 align='center'>recursive-cte</h1>
<blockquote>
<img src='../images/syntax/recursive-cte.gif'></img><br>
<br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./cte-table-name.html'>cte-table-name</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_with.html'>lang_with.html</a>
</blockquote>


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<h1 align='center'>reindex-stmt</h1>
<blockquote>
<img src='../images/syntax/reindex-stmt.gif'></img><br>

Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./sql-stmt.html'>sql-stmt</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_reindex.html'>lang_reindex.html</a>
</blockquote>


Added Doc/Extra/Core/syntax/release-stmt.html.























































































































































































































































































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<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align='center'>release-stmt</h1>
<blockquote>
<img src='../images/syntax/release-stmt.gif'></img><br>

Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./sql-stmt.html'>sql-stmt</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_savepoint.html'>lang_savepoint.html</a>
</blockquote>


Added Doc/Extra/Core/syntax/result-column.html.

























































































































































































































































































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<h1 align='center'>result-column</h1>
<blockquote>
<img src='../images/syntax/result-column.gif'></img><br>

Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./select-core.html'>select-core</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./select-stmt.html'>select-stmt</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./expr.html'>expr</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_altertable.html'>lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_attach.html'>lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createindex.html'>lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtable.html'>lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtrigger.html'>lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createview.html'>lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_delete.html'>lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_expr.html'>lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_insert.html'>lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_select.html'>lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_update.html'>lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_with.html'>lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../partialindex.html'>partialindex.html</a>
</blockquote>


Added Doc/Extra/Core/syntax/rollback-stmt.html.























































































































































































































































































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<h1 align='center'>rollback-stmt</h1>
<blockquote>
<img src='../images/syntax/rollback-stmt.gif'></img><br>

Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./sql-stmt.html'>sql-stmt</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_savepoint.html'>lang_savepoint.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_transaction.html'>lang_transaction.html</a>
</blockquote>


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<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align='center'>savepoint-stmt</h1>
<blockquote>
<img src='../images/syntax/savepoint-stmt.gif'></img><br>

Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./sql-stmt.html'>sql-stmt</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_savepoint.html'>lang_savepoint.html</a>
</blockquote>


Added Doc/Extra/Core/syntax/select-core.html.

























































































































































































































































































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<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align='center'>select-core</h1>
<blockquote>
<img src='../images/syntax/select-core.gif'></img><br>

Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./compound-select-stmt.html'>compound-select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./factored-select-stmt.html'>factored-select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./simple-select-stmt.html'>simple-select-stmt</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./expr.html'>expr</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./join-clause.html'>join-clause</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./result-column.html'>result-column</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./table-or-subquery.html'>table-or-subquery</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_select.html'>lang_select.html</a>
</blockquote>


Added Doc/Extra/Core/syntax/select-stmt.html.

























































































































































































































































































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<h1 align='center'>select-stmt</h1>
<blockquote>
<img src='../images/syntax/select-stmt.gif'></img><br>

Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./common-table-expression.html'>common-table-expression</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./create-table-stmt.html'>create-table-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./create-trigger-stmt.html'>create-trigger-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./create-view-stmt.html'>create-view-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./expr.html'>expr</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./insert-stmt.html'>insert-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./sql-stmt.html'>sql-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./table-or-subquery.html'>table-or-subquery</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./with-clause.html'>with-clause</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./common-table-expression.html'>common-table-expression</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./compound-operator.html'>compound-operator</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./expr.html'>expr</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./join-clause.html'>join-clause</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./ordering-term.html'>ordering-term</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./result-column.html'>result-column</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./table-or-subquery.html'>table-or-subquery</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_altertable.html'>lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_attach.html'>lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createindex.html'>lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtable.html'>lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtrigger.html'>lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createview.html'>lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_delete.html'>lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_expr.html'>lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_insert.html'>lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_select.html'>lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_update.html'>lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_with.html'>lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../partialindex.html'>partialindex.html</a>
</blockquote>


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<div class=startsearch></div>
  
<h1 align='center'>signed-number</h1>
<blockquote>
<img src='../images/syntax/signed-number.gif'></img><br>

Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./column-constraint.html'>column-constraint</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./pragma-value.html'>pragma-value</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./type-name.html'>type-name</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_altertable.html'>lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_attach.html'>lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createindex.html'>lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtable.html'>lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtrigger.html'>lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createview.html'>lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_delete.html'>lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_expr.html'>lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_insert.html'>lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_select.html'>lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_update.html'>lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_with.html'>lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../partialindex.html'>partialindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../pragma.html'>pragma.html</a>
</blockquote>


Added Doc/Extra/Core/syntax/simple-select-stmt.html.























































































































































































































































































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