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Overview
Comment:Pickup the SQLite core library 3.30.0 docs from upstream.
Downloads: Tarball | ZIP archive | SQL archive
Timelines: family | ancestors | descendants | both | trunk
Files: files | file ages | folders
SHA1: 914417fc18aae0fb918b01b21ced8839a33b6dab
User & Date: mistachkin 2019-10-05 02:12:40
Context
2019-10-05
02:15
Simplify test suite changes from check-in [cdd3330990]. check-in: 0388466597 user: mistachkin tags: trunk
02:12
Pickup the SQLite core library 3.30.0 docs from upstream. check-in: 914417fc18 user: mistachkin tags: trunk
02:06
Update SQLite core library to the 3.30.0 release. check-in: cdd3330990 user: mistachkin tags: trunk
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<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>upsert</h2></div><p><b><a href="syntax/upsert-clause.html">upsert-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1583' onclick='hideorshow("x1583","x1584")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1584' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram upsert-clause" src="images/syntax/upsert-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/column-name-list.html">column-name-list:</a></b>
<button id='x1585' onclick='hideorshow("x1585","x1586")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1586' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram column-name-list" src="images/syntax/column-name-list.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1587' onclick='hideorshow("x1587","x1588")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1588' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/filter.html">filter:</a></b>
<button id='x1589' onclick='hideorshow("x1589","x1590")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1590' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram filter" src="images/syntax/filter.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1591' onclick='hideorshow("x1591","x1592")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1592' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</div>















<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x1593' onclick='hideorshow("x1593","x1594")'>show</button></p>

 <div id='x1594' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1595' onclick='hideorshow("x1595","x1596")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1596' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1597' onclick='hideorshow("x1597","x1598")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1598' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1599' onclick='hideorshow("x1599","x1600")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1600' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1601' onclick='hideorshow("x1601","x1602")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1602' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1603' onclick='hideorshow("x1603","x1604")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1604' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1605' onclick='hideorshow("x1605","x1606")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1606' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1607' onclick='hideorshow("x1607","x1608")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1608' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1609' onclick='hideorshow("x1609","x1610")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1610' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1611' onclick='hideorshow("x1611","x1612")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1612' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />










</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1613' onclick='hideorshow("x1613","x1614")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1614' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1615' onclick='hideorshow("x1615","x1616")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1616' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/window-defn.html">window-defn:</a></b>
<button id='x1617' onclick='hideorshow("x1617","x1618")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1618' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram window-defn" src="images/syntax/window-defn.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/frame-spec.html">frame-spec:</a></b>
<button id='x1619' onclick='hideorshow("x1619","x1620")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1620' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram frame-spec" src="images/syntax/frame-spec.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1621' onclick='hideorshow("x1621","x1622")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1622' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/indexed-column.html">indexed-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1623' onclick='hideorshow("x1623","x1624")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1624' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram indexed-column" src="images/syntax/indexed-column.gif" />
</div>
</div>


<p>UPSERT is a special syntax addition to <a href="lang_insert.html">INSERT</a> that causes the
INSERT to behave as an <a href="lang_update.html">UPDATE</a> or a no-op if the INSERT would violate







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b.innerHTML='hide';
}
return false;
}
</script>
</div>
<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>upsert</h2></div><p><b><a href="syntax/upsert-clause.html">upsert-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1767' onclick='hideorshow("x1767","x1768")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1768' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram upsert-clause" src="images/syntax/upsert-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/column-name-list.html">column-name-list:</a></b>
<button id='x1769' onclick='hideorshow("x1769","x1770")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1770' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram column-name-list" src="images/syntax/column-name-list.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1771' onclick='hideorshow("x1771","x1772")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1772' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/filter-clause.html">filter-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1773' onclick='hideorshow("x1773","x1774")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1774' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram filter-clause" src="images/syntax/filter-clause.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1775' onclick='hideorshow("x1775","x1776")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1776' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/over-clause.html">over-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1777' onclick='hideorshow("x1777","x1778")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1778' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram over-clause" src="images/syntax/over-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/frame-spec.html">frame-spec:</a></b>
<button id='x1779' onclick='hideorshow("x1779","x1780")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1780' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram frame-spec" src="images/syntax/frame-spec.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1781' onclick='hideorshow("x1781","x1782")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1782' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>

<button id='x1783' onclick='hideorshow("x1783","x1784")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1784' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1785' onclick='hideorshow("x1785","x1786")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1786' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1787' onclick='hideorshow("x1787","x1788")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1788' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1789' onclick='hideorshow("x1789","x1790")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1790' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1791' onclick='hideorshow("x1791","x1792")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1792' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1793' onclick='hideorshow("x1793","x1794")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1794' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1795' onclick='hideorshow("x1795","x1796")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1796' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1797' onclick='hideorshow("x1797","x1798")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1798' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1799' onclick='hideorshow("x1799","x1800")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1800' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1801' onclick='hideorshow("x1801","x1802")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1802' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/window-defn.html">window-defn:</a></b>
<button id='x1803' onclick='hideorshow("x1803","x1804")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1804' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram window-defn" src="images/syntax/window-defn.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/frame-spec.html">frame-spec:</a></b>
<button id='x1805' onclick='hideorshow("x1805","x1806")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1806' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram frame-spec" src="images/syntax/frame-spec.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1807' onclick='hideorshow("x1807","x1808")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1808' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1809' onclick='hideorshow("x1809","x1810")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1810' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</div>















</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/indexed-column.html">indexed-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1811' onclick='hideorshow("x1811","x1812")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1812' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram indexed-column" src="images/syntax/indexed-column.gif" />
</div>
</div>


<p>UPSERT is a special syntax addition to <a href="lang_insert.html">INSERT</a> that causes the
INSERT to behave as an <a href="lang_update.html">UPDATE</a> or a no-op if the INSERT would violate

Changes to Doc/Extra/Core/lang_aggfunc.html.

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<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>Aggregate Functions</h2></div>













































































































<p>
The aggregate functions shown below are available by default.  Additional
aggregate functions written in C may be added using the 
<a href="c3ref/create_function.html">sqlite3_create_function()</a></a>
API.</p>

................................................................................
In any aggregate function that takes a single argument, that argument
can be preceded by the keyword DISTINCT.  In such cases, duplicate
elements are filtered before being passed into the aggregate function.
For example, the function "count(distinct X)" will return the number
of distinct values of column X instead of the total number of non-null
values in column X.
</p>








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<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>Aggregate Functions</h2></div>


<p><b><a href="syntax/aggregate-function-invocation.html">aggregate-function-invocation:</a></b>
<button id='x1673' onclick='hideorshow("x1673","x1674")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1674' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram aggregate-function-invocation" src="images/syntax/aggregate-function-invocation.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1675' onclick='hideorshow("x1675","x1676")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1676' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1677' onclick='hideorshow("x1677","x1678")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1678' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/over-clause.html">over-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1679' onclick='hideorshow("x1679","x1680")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1680' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram over-clause" src="images/syntax/over-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/frame-spec.html">frame-spec:</a></b>
<button id='x1681' onclick='hideorshow("x1681","x1682")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1682' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram frame-spec" src="images/syntax/frame-spec.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1683' onclick='hideorshow("x1683","x1684")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1684' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x1685' onclick='hideorshow("x1685","x1686")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1686' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1687' onclick='hideorshow("x1687","x1688")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1688' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1689' onclick='hideorshow("x1689","x1690")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1690' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1691' onclick='hideorshow("x1691","x1692")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1692' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1693' onclick='hideorshow("x1693","x1694")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1694' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1695' onclick='hideorshow("x1695","x1696")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1696' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1697' onclick='hideorshow("x1697","x1698")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1698' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1699' onclick='hideorshow("x1699","x1700")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1700' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1701' onclick='hideorshow("x1701","x1702")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1702' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1703' onclick='hideorshow("x1703","x1704")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1704' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/window-defn.html">window-defn:</a></b>
<button id='x1705' onclick='hideorshow("x1705","x1706")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1706' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram window-defn" src="images/syntax/window-defn.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/frame-spec.html">frame-spec:</a></b>
<button id='x1707' onclick='hideorshow("x1707","x1708")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1708' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram frame-spec" src="images/syntax/frame-spec.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1709' onclick='hideorshow("x1709","x1710")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1710' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1711' onclick='hideorshow("x1711","x1712")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1712' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/filter-clause.html">filter-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1713' onclick='hideorshow("x1713","x1714")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1714' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram filter-clause" src="images/syntax/filter-clause.gif" />
</div>
</div>


<p>
The aggregate functions shown below are available by default.  Additional
aggregate functions written in C may be added using the 
<a href="c3ref/create_function.html">sqlite3_create_function()</a></a>
API.</p>

................................................................................
In any aggregate function that takes a single argument, that argument
can be preceded by the keyword DISTINCT.  In such cases, duplicate
elements are filtered before being passed into the aggregate function.
For example, the function "count(distinct X)" will return the number
of distinct values of column X instead of the total number of non-null
values in column X.
</p>

<a name="aggfilter"></a>

<p>
If a FILTER clause is provided, then only rows for which the <i>expr</i> is
true are included in the aggregate.
</p>

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<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>ALTER TABLE</h2></div><p><b><a href="syntax/alter-table-stmt.html">alter-table-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1077' onclick='hideorshow("x1077","x1078")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1078' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram alter-table-stmt" src="images/syntax/alter-table-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/column-def.html">column-def:</a></b>
<button id='x1079' onclick='hideorshow("x1079","x1080")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1080' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram column-def" src="images/syntax/column-def.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/column-constraint.html">column-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1081' onclick='hideorshow("x1081","x1082")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1082' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram column-constraint" src="images/syntax/column-constraint.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/conflict-clause.html">conflict-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1083' onclick='hideorshow("x1083","x1084")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1084' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram conflict-clause" src="images/syntax/conflict-clause.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1085' onclick='hideorshow("x1085","x1086")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1086' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/filter.html">filter:</a></b>
<button id='x1087' onclick='hideorshow("x1087","x1088")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1088' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram filter" src="images/syntax/filter.gif" />
</div>















<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x1089' onclick='hideorshow("x1089","x1090")'>show</button></p>

 <div id='x1090' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1091' onclick='hideorshow("x1091","x1092")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1092' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1093' onclick='hideorshow("x1093","x1094")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1094' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1095' onclick='hideorshow("x1095","x1096")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1096' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1097' onclick='hideorshow("x1097","x1098")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1098' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1099' onclick='hideorshow("x1099","x1100")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1100' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1101' onclick='hideorshow("x1101","x1102")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1102' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1103' onclick='hideorshow("x1103","x1104")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1104' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1105' onclick='hideorshow("x1105","x1106")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1106' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1107' onclick='hideorshow("x1107","x1108")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1108' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/window-defn.html">window-defn:</a></b>
<button id='x1109' onclick='hideorshow("x1109","x1110")'>show</button></p>

 <div id='x1110' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram window-defn" src="images/syntax/window-defn.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/frame-spec.html">frame-spec:</a></b>
<button id='x1111' onclick='hideorshow("x1111","x1112")'>show</button></p>

 <div id='x1112' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram frame-spec" src="images/syntax/frame-spec.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1113' onclick='hideorshow("x1113","x1114")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1114' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/foreign-key-clause.html">foreign-key-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1115' onclick='hideorshow("x1115","x1116")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1116' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram foreign-key-clause" src="images/syntax/foreign-key-clause.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1117' onclick='hideorshow("x1117","x1118")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1118' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1119' onclick='hideorshow("x1119","x1120")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1120' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1121' onclick='hideorshow("x1121","x1122")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1122' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1123' onclick='hideorshow("x1123","x1124")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1124' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
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<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>ALTER TABLE</h2></div><p><b><a href="syntax/alter-table-stmt.html">alter-table-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1191' onclick='hideorshow("x1191","x1192")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1192' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram alter-table-stmt" src="images/syntax/alter-table-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/column-def.html">column-def:</a></b>
<button id='x1193' onclick='hideorshow("x1193","x1194")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1194' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram column-def" src="images/syntax/column-def.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/column-constraint.html">column-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1195' onclick='hideorshow("x1195","x1196")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1196' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram column-constraint" src="images/syntax/column-constraint.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/conflict-clause.html">conflict-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1197' onclick='hideorshow("x1197","x1198")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1198' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram conflict-clause" src="images/syntax/conflict-clause.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1199' onclick='hideorshow("x1199","x1200")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1200' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/filter-clause.html">filter-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1201' onclick='hideorshow("x1201","x1202")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1202' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram filter-clause" src="images/syntax/filter-clause.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/over-clause.html">over-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1203' onclick='hideorshow("x1203","x1204")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1204' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram over-clause" src="images/syntax/over-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/frame-spec.html">frame-spec:</a></b>
<button id='x1205' onclick='hideorshow("x1205","x1206")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1206' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram frame-spec" src="images/syntax/frame-spec.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1207' onclick='hideorshow("x1207","x1208")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1208' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>

<button id='x1209' onclick='hideorshow("x1209","x1210")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1210' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1211' onclick='hideorshow("x1211","x1212")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1212' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1213' onclick='hideorshow("x1213","x1214")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1214' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1215' onclick='hideorshow("x1215","x1216")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1216' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1217' onclick='hideorshow("x1217","x1218")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1218' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1219' onclick='hideorshow("x1219","x1220")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1220' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1221' onclick='hideorshow("x1221","x1222")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1222' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1223' onclick='hideorshow("x1223","x1224")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1224' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1225' onclick='hideorshow("x1225","x1226")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1226' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1227' onclick='hideorshow("x1227","x1228")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1228' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</div>

<p><b><a href="syntax/window-defn.html">window-defn:</a></b>

<button id='x1229' onclick='hideorshow("x1229","x1230")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1230' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram window-defn" src="images/syntax/window-defn.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/frame-spec.html">frame-spec:</a></b>

<button id='x1231' onclick='hideorshow("x1231","x1232")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1232' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram frame-spec" src="images/syntax/frame-spec.gif" />
</div>




</div>
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/foreign-key-clause.html">foreign-key-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1233' onclick='hideorshow("x1233","x1234")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1234' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram foreign-key-clause" src="images/syntax/foreign-key-clause.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1235' onclick='hideorshow("x1235","x1236")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1236' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1237' onclick='hideorshow("x1237","x1238")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1238' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1239' onclick='hideorshow("x1239","x1240")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1240' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1241' onclick='hideorshow("x1241","x1242")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1242' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>


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<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>ANALYZE</h2></div><p><b><a href="syntax/analyze-stmt.html">analyze-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1125' onclick='hideorshow("x1125","x1126")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1126' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram analyze-stmt" src="images/syntax/analyze-stmt.gif" />
</div>


<p> The ANALYZE command gathers statistics about tables and
indices and stores the collected information
in <a href="fileformat2.html#intschema">internal tables</a> of the database where the query optimizer can







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<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>ANALYZE</h2></div><p><b><a href="syntax/analyze-stmt.html">analyze-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1243' onclick='hideorshow("x1243","x1244")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1244' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram analyze-stmt" src="images/syntax/analyze-stmt.gif" />
</div>


<p> The ANALYZE command gathers statistics about tables and
indices and stores the collected information
in <a href="fileformat2.html#intschema">internal tables</a> of the database where the query optimizer can

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<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>ATTACH DATABASE</h2></div><p><b><a href="syntax/attach-stmt.html">attach-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1127' onclick='hideorshow("x1127","x1128")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1128' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram attach-stmt" src="images/syntax/attach-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1129' onclick='hideorshow("x1129","x1130")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1130' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/filter.html">filter:</a></b>
<button id='x1131' onclick='hideorshow("x1131","x1132")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1132' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram filter" src="images/syntax/filter.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1133' onclick='hideorshow("x1133","x1134")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1134' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</div>















<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x1135' onclick='hideorshow("x1135","x1136")'>show</button></p>

 <div id='x1136' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1137' onclick='hideorshow("x1137","x1138")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1138' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1139' onclick='hideorshow("x1139","x1140")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1140' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1141' onclick='hideorshow("x1141","x1142")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1142' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1143' onclick='hideorshow("x1143","x1144")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1144' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1145' onclick='hideorshow("x1145","x1146")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1146' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1147' onclick='hideorshow("x1147","x1148")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1148' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1149' onclick='hideorshow("x1149","x1150")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1150' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1151' onclick='hideorshow("x1151","x1152")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1152' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1153' onclick='hideorshow("x1153","x1154")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1154' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />










</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1155' onclick='hideorshow("x1155","x1156")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1156' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1157' onclick='hideorshow("x1157","x1158")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1158' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/window-defn.html">window-defn:</a></b>
<button id='x1159' onclick='hideorshow("x1159","x1160")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1160' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram window-defn" src="images/syntax/window-defn.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/frame-spec.html">frame-spec:</a></b>
<button id='x1161' onclick='hideorshow("x1161","x1162")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1162' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram frame-spec" src="images/syntax/frame-spec.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1163' onclick='hideorshow("x1163","x1164")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1164' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>


<p> The ATTACH DATABASE statement adds another database 
file to the current <a href="c3ref/sqlite3.html">database connection</a>. 







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<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>ATTACH DATABASE</h2></div><p><b><a href="syntax/attach-stmt.html">attach-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1245' onclick='hideorshow("x1245","x1246")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1246' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram attach-stmt" src="images/syntax/attach-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1247' onclick='hideorshow("x1247","x1248")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1248' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/filter-clause.html">filter-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1249' onclick='hideorshow("x1249","x1250")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1250' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram filter-clause" src="images/syntax/filter-clause.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1251' onclick='hideorshow("x1251","x1252")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1252' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/over-clause.html">over-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1253' onclick='hideorshow("x1253","x1254")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1254' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram over-clause" src="images/syntax/over-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/frame-spec.html">frame-spec:</a></b>
<button id='x1255' onclick='hideorshow("x1255","x1256")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1256' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram frame-spec" src="images/syntax/frame-spec.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1257' onclick='hideorshow("x1257","x1258")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1258' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>

<button id='x1259' onclick='hideorshow("x1259","x1260")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1260' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1261' onclick='hideorshow("x1261","x1262")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1262' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1263' onclick='hideorshow("x1263","x1264")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1264' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1265' onclick='hideorshow("x1265","x1266")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1266' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1267' onclick='hideorshow("x1267","x1268")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1268' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1269' onclick='hideorshow("x1269","x1270")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1270' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1271' onclick='hideorshow("x1271","x1272")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1272' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1273' onclick='hideorshow("x1273","x1274")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1274' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1275' onclick='hideorshow("x1275","x1276")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1276' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1277' onclick='hideorshow("x1277","x1278")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1278' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/window-defn.html">window-defn:</a></b>
<button id='x1279' onclick='hideorshow("x1279","x1280")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1280' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram window-defn" src="images/syntax/window-defn.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/frame-spec.html">frame-spec:</a></b>
<button id='x1281' onclick='hideorshow("x1281","x1282")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1282' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram frame-spec" src="images/syntax/frame-spec.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1283' onclick='hideorshow("x1283","x1284")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1284' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1285' onclick='hideorshow("x1285","x1286")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1286' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</div>















</div>
</div>
</div>


<p> The ATTACH DATABASE statement adds another database 
file to the current <a href="c3ref/sqlite3.html">database connection</a>. 

Changes to Doc/Extra/Core/lang_comment.html.

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<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>comment</h2></div><p><b><a href="syntax/comment-syntax.html">comment-syntax:</a></b>
<button id='x1177' onclick='hideorshow("x1177","x1178")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1178' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram comment-syntax" src="images/syntax/comment-syntax.gif" />
</div>


<p>Comments are not SQL commands, but can occur within the text of
SQL queries passed to <a href="c3ref/prepare.html">sqlite3_prepare_v2()</a> and related interfaces.
Comments are treated as whitespace by the parser.







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<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>comment</h2></div><p><b><a href="syntax/comment-syntax.html">comment-syntax:</a></b>
<button id='x1299' onclick='hideorshow("x1299","x1300")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1300' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram comment-syntax" src="images/syntax/comment-syntax.gif" />
</div>


<p>Comments are not SQL commands, but can occur within the text of
SQL queries passed to <a href="c3ref/prepare.html">sqlite3_prepare_v2()</a> and related interfaces.
Comments are treated as whitespace by the parser.

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<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>ON CONFLICT clause</h2></div><p><b><a href="syntax/conflict-clause.html">conflict-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1625' onclick='hideorshow("x1625","x1626")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1626' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram conflict-clause" src="images/syntax/conflict-clause.gif" />
</div>


<p>The ON CONFLICT clause is a
non-standard extension specific to SQLite 
that can appear in many other SQL commands.







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<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>ON CONFLICT clause</h2></div><p><b><a href="syntax/conflict-clause.html">conflict-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1813' onclick='hideorshow("x1813","x1814")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1814' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram conflict-clause" src="images/syntax/conflict-clause.gif" />
</div>


<p>The ON CONFLICT clause is a
non-standard extension specific to SQLite 
that can appear in many other SQL commands.

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<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>CREATE INDEX</h2></div><p><b><a href="syntax/create-index-stmt.html">create-index-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1179' onclick='hideorshow("x1179","x1180")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1180' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram create-index-stmt" src="images/syntax/create-index-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1181' onclick='hideorshow("x1181","x1182")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1182' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/filter.html">filter:</a></b>
<button id='x1183' onclick='hideorshow("x1183","x1184")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1184' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram filter" src="images/syntax/filter.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1185' onclick='hideorshow("x1185","x1186")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1186' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</div>















<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x1187' onclick='hideorshow("x1187","x1188")'>show</button></p>

 <div id='x1188' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1189' onclick='hideorshow("x1189","x1190")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1190' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1191' onclick='hideorshow("x1191","x1192")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1192' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1193' onclick='hideorshow("x1193","x1194")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1194' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1195' onclick='hideorshow("x1195","x1196")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1196' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1197' onclick='hideorshow("x1197","x1198")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1198' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1199' onclick='hideorshow("x1199","x1200")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1200' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1201' onclick='hideorshow("x1201","x1202")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1202' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1203' onclick='hideorshow("x1203","x1204")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1204' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1205' onclick='hideorshow("x1205","x1206")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1206' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />










</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1207' onclick='hideorshow("x1207","x1208")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1208' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1209' onclick='hideorshow("x1209","x1210")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1210' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/window-defn.html">window-defn:</a></b>
<button id='x1211' onclick='hideorshow("x1211","x1212")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1212' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram window-defn" src="images/syntax/window-defn.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/frame-spec.html">frame-spec:</a></b>
<button id='x1213' onclick='hideorshow("x1213","x1214")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1214' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram frame-spec" src="images/syntax/frame-spec.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1215' onclick='hideorshow("x1215","x1216")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1216' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/indexed-column.html">indexed-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1217' onclick='hideorshow("x1217","x1218")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1218' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram indexed-column" src="images/syntax/indexed-column.gif" />
</div>
</div>


<p>The CREATE INDEX command consists of the keywords "CREATE INDEX" followed
by the name of the new index, the keyword "ON", the name of a previously
................................................................................
and later are able to understand
the descending index format. For compatibility, version of SQLite between 3.3.0
and 3.7.9 use the legacy schema format by default.  The newer schema format is
used by default in version 3.7.10 (2012-01-16) and later.
The <a href="pragma.html#pragma_legacy_file_format">legacy_file_format pragma</a> can be used to change set the specific
behavior for any version of SQLite.</p>






<a name="collidx"></a>

<p>The COLLATE clause optionally following each column name
or expression defines a
collating sequence used for text entries in that column.
The default collating
sequence is the collating sequence defined for that column in the







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<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>CREATE INDEX</h2></div><p><b><a href="syntax/create-index-stmt.html">create-index-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1301' onclick='hideorshow("x1301","x1302")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1302' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram create-index-stmt" src="images/syntax/create-index-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1303' onclick='hideorshow("x1303","x1304")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1304' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/filter-clause.html">filter-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1305' onclick='hideorshow("x1305","x1306")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1306' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram filter-clause" src="images/syntax/filter-clause.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1307' onclick='hideorshow("x1307","x1308")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1308' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/over-clause.html">over-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1309' onclick='hideorshow("x1309","x1310")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1310' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram over-clause" src="images/syntax/over-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/frame-spec.html">frame-spec:</a></b>
<button id='x1311' onclick='hideorshow("x1311","x1312")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1312' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram frame-spec" src="images/syntax/frame-spec.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1313' onclick='hideorshow("x1313","x1314")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1314' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>

<button id='x1315' onclick='hideorshow("x1315","x1316")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1316' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1317' onclick='hideorshow("x1317","x1318")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1318' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1319' onclick='hideorshow("x1319","x1320")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1320' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1321' onclick='hideorshow("x1321","x1322")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1322' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1323' onclick='hideorshow("x1323","x1324")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1324' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1325' onclick='hideorshow("x1325","x1326")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1326' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1327' onclick='hideorshow("x1327","x1328")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1328' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1329' onclick='hideorshow("x1329","x1330")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1330' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1331' onclick='hideorshow("x1331","x1332")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1332' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1333' onclick='hideorshow("x1333","x1334")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1334' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/window-defn.html">window-defn:</a></b>
<button id='x1335' onclick='hideorshow("x1335","x1336")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1336' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram window-defn" src="images/syntax/window-defn.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/frame-spec.html">frame-spec:</a></b>
<button id='x1337' onclick='hideorshow("x1337","x1338")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1338' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram frame-spec" src="images/syntax/frame-spec.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1339' onclick='hideorshow("x1339","x1340")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1340' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1341' onclick='hideorshow("x1341","x1342")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1342' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</div>















</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/indexed-column.html">indexed-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1343' onclick='hideorshow("x1343","x1344")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1344' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram indexed-column" src="images/syntax/indexed-column.gif" />
</div>
</div>


<p>The CREATE INDEX command consists of the keywords "CREATE INDEX" followed
by the name of the new index, the keyword "ON", the name of a previously
................................................................................
and later are able to understand
the descending index format. For compatibility, version of SQLite between 3.3.0
and 3.7.9 use the legacy schema format by default.  The newer schema format is
used by default in version 3.7.10 (2012-01-16) and later.
The <a href="pragma.html#pragma_legacy_file_format">legacy_file_format pragma</a> can be used to change set the specific
behavior for any version of SQLite.</p>

<p>The NULLS FIRST and NULLS LAST predicates are not supported
for indexes.  For <a href="datatype3.html#sortorder">sorting purposes</a>, SQLite considers NULL values 
to be smaller than all other values.  Hences NULL values always appear at
the beginning of an ASC index and at the end of a DESC index.</p>

<a name="collidx"></a>

<p>The COLLATE clause optionally following each column name
or expression defines a
collating sequence used for text entries in that column.
The default collating
sequence is the collating sequence defined for that column in the

Changes to Doc/Extra/Core/lang_createtable.html.

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<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>CREATE TABLE</h2></div><p><b><a href="syntax/create-table-stmt.html">create-table-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1219' onclick='hideorshow("x1219","x1220")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1220' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram create-table-stmt" src="images/syntax/create-table-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/column-def.html">column-def:</a></b>
<button id='x1221' onclick='hideorshow("x1221","x1222")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1222' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram column-def" src="images/syntax/column-def.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/column-constraint.html">column-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1223' onclick='hideorshow("x1223","x1224")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1224' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram column-constraint" src="images/syntax/column-constraint.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/conflict-clause.html">conflict-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1225' onclick='hideorshow("x1225","x1226")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1226' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram conflict-clause" src="images/syntax/conflict-clause.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1227' onclick='hideorshow("x1227","x1228")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1228' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/filter.html">filter:</a></b>
<button id='x1229' onclick='hideorshow("x1229","x1230")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1230' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram filter" src="images/syntax/filter.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x1231' onclick='hideorshow("x1231","x1232")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1232' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/window-defn.html">window-defn:</a></b>
<button id='x1233' onclick='hideorshow("x1233","x1234")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1234' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram window-defn" src="images/syntax/window-defn.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/frame-spec.html">frame-spec:</a></b>
<button id='x1235' onclick='hideorshow("x1235","x1236")'>show</button></p>

 <div id='x1236' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram frame-spec" src="images/syntax/frame-spec.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1237' onclick='hideorshow("x1237","x1238")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1238' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</div>
</div>




</div>

<p><b><a href="syntax/foreign-key-clause.html">foreign-key-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1239' onclick='hideorshow("x1239","x1240")'>show</button></p>

 <div id='x1240' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram foreign-key-clause" src="images/syntax/foreign-key-clause.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1241' onclick='hideorshow("x1241","x1242")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1242' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1243' onclick='hideorshow("x1243","x1244")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1244' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1245' onclick='hideorshow("x1245","x1246")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1246' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1247' onclick='hideorshow("x1247","x1248")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1248' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1249' onclick='hideorshow("x1249","x1250")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1250' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1251' onclick='hideorshow("x1251","x1252")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1252' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1253' onclick='hideorshow("x1253","x1254")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1254' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1255' onclick='hideorshow("x1255","x1256")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1256' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/filter.html">filter:</a></b>
<button id='x1257' onclick='hideorshow("x1257","x1258")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1258' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram filter" src="images/syntax/filter.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1259' onclick='hideorshow("x1259","x1260")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1260' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</div>










<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x1261' onclick='hideorshow("x1261","x1262")'>show</button></p>

 <div id='x1262' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1263' onclick='hideorshow("x1263","x1264")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1264' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1265' onclick='hideorshow("x1265","x1266")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1266' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1267' onclick='hideorshow("x1267","x1268")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1268' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1269' onclick='hideorshow("x1269","x1270")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1270' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1271' onclick='hideorshow("x1271","x1272")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1272' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1273' onclick='hideorshow("x1273","x1274")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1274' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1275' onclick='hideorshow("x1275","x1276")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1276' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1277' onclick='hideorshow("x1277","x1278")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1278' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/window-defn.html">window-defn:</a></b>
<button id='x1279' onclick='hideorshow("x1279","x1280")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1280' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram window-defn" src="images/syntax/window-defn.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/frame-spec.html">frame-spec:</a></b>
<button id='x1281' onclick='hideorshow("x1281","x1282")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1282' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram frame-spec" src="images/syntax/frame-spec.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-constraint.html">table-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1283' onclick='hideorshow("x1283","x1284")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1284' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-constraint" src="images/syntax/table-constraint.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/conflict-clause.html">conflict-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1285' onclick='hideorshow("x1285","x1286")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1286' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram conflict-clause" src="images/syntax/conflict-clause.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1287' onclick='hideorshow("x1287","x1288")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1288' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/filter.html">filter:</a></b>
<button id='x1289' onclick='hideorshow("x1289","x1290")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1290' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram filter" src="images/syntax/filter.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1291' onclick='hideorshow("x1291","x1292")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1292' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</div>















<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x1293' onclick='hideorshow("x1293","x1294")'>show</button></p>

 <div id='x1294' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1295' onclick='hideorshow("x1295","x1296")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1296' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1297' onclick='hideorshow("x1297","x1298")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1298' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/window-defn.html">window-defn:</a></b>
<button id='x1299' onclick='hideorshow("x1299","x1300")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1300' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram window-defn" src="images/syntax/window-defn.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/frame-spec.html">frame-spec:</a></b>
<button id='x1301' onclick='hideorshow("x1301","x1302")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1302' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram frame-spec" src="images/syntax/frame-spec.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1303' onclick='hideorshow("x1303","x1304")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1304' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/foreign-key-clause.html">foreign-key-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1305' onclick='hideorshow("x1305","x1306")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1306' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram foreign-key-clause" src="images/syntax/foreign-key-clause.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/indexed-column.html">indexed-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1307' onclick='hideorshow("x1307","x1308")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1308' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram indexed-column" src="images/syntax/indexed-column.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>


<p>The "CREATE TABLE" command is used to create a new table in an SQLite 







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b.innerHTML='hide';
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<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>CREATE TABLE</h2></div><p><b><a href="syntax/create-table-stmt.html">create-table-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1345' onclick='hideorshow("x1345","x1346")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1346' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram create-table-stmt" src="images/syntax/create-table-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/column-def.html">column-def:</a></b>
<button id='x1347' onclick='hideorshow("x1347","x1348")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1348' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram column-def" src="images/syntax/column-def.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/column-constraint.html">column-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1349' onclick='hideorshow("x1349","x1350")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1350' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram column-constraint" src="images/syntax/column-constraint.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/conflict-clause.html">conflict-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1351' onclick='hideorshow("x1351","x1352")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1352' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram conflict-clause" src="images/syntax/conflict-clause.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1353' onclick='hideorshow("x1353","x1354")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1354' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/filter-clause.html">filter-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1355' onclick='hideorshow("x1355","x1356")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1356' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram filter-clause" src="images/syntax/filter-clause.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/over-clause.html">over-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1357' onclick='hideorshow("x1357","x1358")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1358' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram over-clause" src="images/syntax/over-clause.gif" />





<p><b><a href="syntax/frame-spec.html">frame-spec:</a></b>

<button id='x1359' onclick='hideorshow("x1359","x1360")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1360' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram frame-spec" src="images/syntax/frame-spec.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1361' onclick='hideorshow("x1361","x1362")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1362' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x1363' onclick='hideorshow("x1363","x1364")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1364' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/foreign-key-clause.html">foreign-key-clause:</a></b>

<button id='x1365' onclick='hideorshow("x1365","x1366")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1366' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram foreign-key-clause" src="images/syntax/foreign-key-clause.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1367' onclick='hideorshow("x1367","x1368")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1368' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1369' onclick='hideorshow("x1369","x1370")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1370' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1371' onclick='hideorshow("x1371","x1372")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1372' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1373' onclick='hideorshow("x1373","x1374")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1374' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1375' onclick='hideorshow("x1375","x1376")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1376' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1377' onclick='hideorshow("x1377","x1378")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1378' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1379' onclick='hideorshow("x1379","x1380")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1380' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1381' onclick='hideorshow("x1381","x1382")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1382' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/filter-clause.html">filter-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1383' onclick='hideorshow("x1383","x1384")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1384' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram filter-clause" src="images/syntax/filter-clause.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1385' onclick='hideorshow("x1385","x1386")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1386' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/over-clause.html">over-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1387' onclick='hideorshow("x1387","x1388")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1388' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram over-clause" src="images/syntax/over-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/frame-spec.html">frame-spec:</a></b>
<button id='x1389' onclick='hideorshow("x1389","x1390")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1390' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram frame-spec" src="images/syntax/frame-spec.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>

<button id='x1391' onclick='hideorshow("x1391","x1392")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1392' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1393' onclick='hideorshow("x1393","x1394")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1394' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1395' onclick='hideorshow("x1395","x1396")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1396' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1397' onclick='hideorshow("x1397","x1398")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1398' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1399' onclick='hideorshow("x1399","x1400")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1400' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1401' onclick='hideorshow("x1401","x1402")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1402' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1403' onclick='hideorshow("x1403","x1404")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1404' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1405' onclick='hideorshow("x1405","x1406")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1406' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1407' onclick='hideorshow("x1407","x1408")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1408' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/window-defn.html">window-defn:</a></b>
<button id='x1409' onclick='hideorshow("x1409","x1410")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1410' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram window-defn" src="images/syntax/window-defn.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/frame-spec.html">frame-spec:</a></b>
<button id='x1411' onclick='hideorshow("x1411","x1412")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1412' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram frame-spec" src="images/syntax/frame-spec.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-constraint.html">table-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1413' onclick='hideorshow("x1413","x1414")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1414' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-constraint" src="images/syntax/table-constraint.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/conflict-clause.html">conflict-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1415' onclick='hideorshow("x1415","x1416")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1416' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram conflict-clause" src="images/syntax/conflict-clause.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1417' onclick='hideorshow("x1417","x1418")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1418' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/filter-clause.html">filter-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1419' onclick='hideorshow("x1419","x1420")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1420' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram filter-clause" src="images/syntax/filter-clause.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1421' onclick='hideorshow("x1421","x1422")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1422' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/over-clause.html">over-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1423' onclick='hideorshow("x1423","x1424")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1424' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram over-clause" src="images/syntax/over-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/frame-spec.html">frame-spec:</a></b>
<button id='x1425' onclick='hideorshow("x1425","x1426")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1426' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram frame-spec" src="images/syntax/frame-spec.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1427' onclick='hideorshow("x1427","x1428")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1428' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>

<button id='x1429' onclick='hideorshow("x1429","x1430")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1430' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1431' onclick='hideorshow("x1431","x1432")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1432' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1433' onclick='hideorshow("x1433","x1434")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1434' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</div>















</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/foreign-key-clause.html">foreign-key-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1435' onclick='hideorshow("x1435","x1436")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1436' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram foreign-key-clause" src="images/syntax/foreign-key-clause.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/indexed-column.html">indexed-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1437' onclick='hideorshow("x1437","x1438")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1438' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram indexed-column" src="images/syntax/indexed-column.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>


<p>The "CREATE TABLE" command is used to create a new table in an SQLite 

Changes to Doc/Extra/Core/lang_createtrigger.html.

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b.innerHTML='hide';
}
return false;
}
</script>
</div>
<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>CREATE TRIGGER</h2></div><p><b><a href="syntax/create-trigger-stmt.html">create-trigger-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1309' onclick='hideorshow("x1309","x1310")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1310' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram create-trigger-stmt" src="images/syntax/create-trigger-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/delete-stmt.html">delete-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1311' onclick='hideorshow("x1311","x1312")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1312' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram delete-stmt" src="images/syntax/delete-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/qualified-table-name.html">qualified-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1313' onclick='hideorshow("x1313","x1314")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1314' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram qualified-table-name" src="images/syntax/qualified-table-name.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/with-clause.html">with-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1315' onclick='hideorshow("x1315","x1316")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1316' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram with-clause" src="images/syntax/with-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/cte-table-name.html">cte-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1317' onclick='hideorshow("x1317","x1318")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1318' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram cte-table-name" src="images/syntax/cte-table-name.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1319' onclick='hideorshow("x1319","x1320")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1320' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/filter.html">filter:</a></b>
<button id='x1321' onclick='hideorshow("x1321","x1322")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1322' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram filter" src="images/syntax/filter.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1323' onclick='hideorshow("x1323","x1324")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1324' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</div>















<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x1325' onclick='hideorshow("x1325","x1326")'>show</button></p>

 <div id='x1326' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1327' onclick='hideorshow("x1327","x1328")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1328' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1329' onclick='hideorshow("x1329","x1330")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1330' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/window-defn.html">window-defn:</a></b>
<button id='x1331' onclick='hideorshow("x1331","x1332")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1332' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram window-defn" src="images/syntax/window-defn.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/frame-spec.html">frame-spec:</a></b>
<button id='x1333' onclick='hideorshow("x1333","x1334")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1334' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram frame-spec" src="images/syntax/frame-spec.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1335' onclick='hideorshow("x1335","x1336")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1336' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/insert-stmt.html">insert-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1337' onclick='hideorshow("x1337","x1338")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1338' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram insert-stmt" src="images/syntax/insert-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/upsert-clause.html">upsert-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1339' onclick='hideorshow("x1339","x1340")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1340' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram upsert-clause" src="images/syntax/upsert-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/column-name-list.html">column-name-list:</a></b>
<button id='x1341' onclick='hideorshow("x1341","x1342")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1342' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram column-name-list" src="images/syntax/column-name-list.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/indexed-column.html">indexed-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1343' onclick='hideorshow("x1343","x1344")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1344' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram indexed-column" src="images/syntax/indexed-column.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/with-clause.html">with-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1345' onclick='hideorshow("x1345","x1346")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1346' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram with-clause" src="images/syntax/with-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/cte-table-name.html">cte-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1347' onclick='hideorshow("x1347","x1348")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1348' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram cte-table-name" src="images/syntax/cte-table-name.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1349' onclick='hideorshow("x1349","x1350")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1350' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1351' onclick='hideorshow("x1351","x1352")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1352' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1353' onclick='hideorshow("x1353","x1354")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1354' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1355' onclick='hideorshow("x1355","x1356")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1356' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1357' onclick='hideorshow("x1357","x1358")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1358' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1359' onclick='hideorshow("x1359","x1360")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1360' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1361' onclick='hideorshow("x1361","x1362")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1362' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1363' onclick='hideorshow("x1363","x1364")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1364' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1365' onclick='hideorshow("x1365","x1366")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1366' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/window-defn.html">window-defn:</a></b>
<button id='x1367' onclick='hideorshow("x1367","x1368")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1368' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram window-defn" src="images/syntax/window-defn.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/frame-spec.html">frame-spec:</a></b>
<button id='x1369' onclick='hideorshow("x1369","x1370")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1370' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram frame-spec" src="images/syntax/frame-spec.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/update-stmt.html">update-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1371' onclick='hideorshow("x1371","x1372")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1372' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram update-stmt" src="images/syntax/update-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/column-name-list.html">column-name-list:</a></b>
<button id='x1373' onclick='hideorshow("x1373","x1374")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1374' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram column-name-list" src="images/syntax/column-name-list.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/qualified-table-name.html">qualified-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1375' onclick='hideorshow("x1375","x1376")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1376' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram qualified-table-name" src="images/syntax/qualified-table-name.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/with-clause.html">with-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1377' onclick='hideorshow("x1377","x1378")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1378' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram with-clause" src="images/syntax/with-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/cte-table-name.html">cte-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1379' onclick='hideorshow("x1379","x1380")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1380' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram cte-table-name" src="images/syntax/cte-table-name.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
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b.innerHTML='hide';
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<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>CREATE TRIGGER</h2></div><p><b><a href="syntax/create-trigger-stmt.html">create-trigger-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1439' onclick='hideorshow("x1439","x1440")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1440' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram create-trigger-stmt" src="images/syntax/create-trigger-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/delete-stmt.html">delete-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1441' onclick='hideorshow("x1441","x1442")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1442' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram delete-stmt" src="images/syntax/delete-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/qualified-table-name.html">qualified-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1443' onclick='hideorshow("x1443","x1444")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1444' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram qualified-table-name" src="images/syntax/qualified-table-name.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/with-clause.html">with-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1445' onclick='hideorshow("x1445","x1446")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1446' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram with-clause" src="images/syntax/with-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/cte-table-name.html">cte-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1447' onclick='hideorshow("x1447","x1448")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1448' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram cte-table-name" src="images/syntax/cte-table-name.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1449' onclick='hideorshow("x1449","x1450")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1450' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/filter-clause.html">filter-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1451' onclick='hideorshow("x1451","x1452")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1452' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram filter-clause" src="images/syntax/filter-clause.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1453' onclick='hideorshow("x1453","x1454")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1454' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/over-clause.html">over-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1455' onclick='hideorshow("x1455","x1456")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1456' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram over-clause" src="images/syntax/over-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/frame-spec.html">frame-spec:</a></b>
<button id='x1457' onclick='hideorshow("x1457","x1458")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1458' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram frame-spec" src="images/syntax/frame-spec.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1459' onclick='hideorshow("x1459","x1460")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1460' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>

<button id='x1461' onclick='hideorshow("x1461","x1462")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1462' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1463' onclick='hideorshow("x1463","x1464")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1464' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1465' onclick='hideorshow("x1465","x1466")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1466' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</div>















</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/insert-stmt.html">insert-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1467' onclick='hideorshow("x1467","x1468")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1468' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram insert-stmt" src="images/syntax/insert-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/upsert-clause.html">upsert-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1469' onclick='hideorshow("x1469","x1470")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1470' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram upsert-clause" src="images/syntax/upsert-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/column-name-list.html">column-name-list:</a></b>
<button id='x1471' onclick='hideorshow("x1471","x1472")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1472' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram column-name-list" src="images/syntax/column-name-list.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/indexed-column.html">indexed-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1473' onclick='hideorshow("x1473","x1474")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1474' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram indexed-column" src="images/syntax/indexed-column.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/with-clause.html">with-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1475' onclick='hideorshow("x1475","x1476")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1476' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram with-clause" src="images/syntax/with-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/cte-table-name.html">cte-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1477' onclick='hideorshow("x1477","x1478")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1478' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram cte-table-name" src="images/syntax/cte-table-name.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1479' onclick='hideorshow("x1479","x1480")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1480' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1481' onclick='hideorshow("x1481","x1482")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1482' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1483' onclick='hideorshow("x1483","x1484")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1484' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1485' onclick='hideorshow("x1485","x1486")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1486' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1487' onclick='hideorshow("x1487","x1488")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1488' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1489' onclick='hideorshow("x1489","x1490")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1490' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1491' onclick='hideorshow("x1491","x1492")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1492' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1493' onclick='hideorshow("x1493","x1494")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1494' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1495' onclick='hideorshow("x1495","x1496")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1496' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/window-defn.html">window-defn:</a></b>
<button id='x1497' onclick='hideorshow("x1497","x1498")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1498' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram window-defn" src="images/syntax/window-defn.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/frame-spec.html">frame-spec:</a></b>
<button id='x1499' onclick='hideorshow("x1499","x1500")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1500' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram frame-spec" src="images/syntax/frame-spec.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/update-stmt.html">update-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1501' onclick='hideorshow("x1501","x1502")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1502' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram update-stmt" src="images/syntax/update-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/column-name-list.html">column-name-list:</a></b>
<button id='x1503' onclick='hideorshow("x1503","x1504")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1504' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram column-name-list" src="images/syntax/column-name-list.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/qualified-table-name.html">qualified-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1505' onclick='hideorshow("x1505","x1506")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1506' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram qualified-table-name" src="images/syntax/qualified-table-name.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/with-clause.html">with-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1507' onclick='hideorshow("x1507","x1508")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1508' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram with-clause" src="images/syntax/with-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/cte-table-name.html">cte-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1509' onclick='hideorshow("x1509","x1510")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1510' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram cte-table-name" src="images/syntax/cte-table-name.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>


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}
</script>
</div>
<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>CREATE VIEW</h2></div><p><b><a href="syntax/create-view-stmt.html">create-view-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1381' onclick='hideorshow("x1381","x1382")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1382' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram create-view-stmt" src="images/syntax/create-view-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1383' onclick='hideorshow("x1383","x1384")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1384' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1385' onclick='hideorshow("x1385","x1386")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1386' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1387' onclick='hideorshow("x1387","x1388")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1388' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1389' onclick='hideorshow("x1389","x1390")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1390' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/filter.html">filter:</a></b>
<button id='x1391' onclick='hideorshow("x1391","x1392")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1392' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram filter" src="images/syntax/filter.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1393' onclick='hideorshow("x1393","x1394")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1394' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</div>










<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x1395' onclick='hideorshow("x1395","x1396")'>show</button></p>

 <div id='x1396' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1397' onclick='hideorshow("x1397","x1398")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1398' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1399' onclick='hideorshow("x1399","x1400")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1400' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1401' onclick='hideorshow("x1401","x1402")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1402' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1403' onclick='hideorshow("x1403","x1404")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1404' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1405' onclick='hideorshow("x1405","x1406")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1406' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1407' onclick='hideorshow("x1407","x1408")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1408' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1409' onclick='hideorshow("x1409","x1410")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1410' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1411' onclick='hideorshow("x1411","x1412")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1412' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/window-defn.html">window-defn:</a></b>
<button id='x1413' onclick='hideorshow("x1413","x1414")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1414' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram window-defn" src="images/syntax/window-defn.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/frame-spec.html">frame-spec:</a></b>
<button id='x1415' onclick='hideorshow("x1415","x1416")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1416' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram frame-spec" src="images/syntax/frame-spec.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>









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<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>CREATE VIEW</h2></div><p><b><a href="syntax/create-view-stmt.html">create-view-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1511' onclick='hideorshow("x1511","x1512")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1512' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram create-view-stmt" src="images/syntax/create-view-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1513' onclick='hideorshow("x1513","x1514")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1514' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1515' onclick='hideorshow("x1515","x1516")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1516' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1517' onclick='hideorshow("x1517","x1518")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1518' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1519' onclick='hideorshow("x1519","x1520")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1520' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/filter-clause.html">filter-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1521' onclick='hideorshow("x1521","x1522")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1522' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram filter-clause" src="images/syntax/filter-clause.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1523' onclick='hideorshow("x1523","x1524")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1524' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/over-clause.html">over-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1525' onclick='hideorshow("x1525","x1526")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1526' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram over-clause" src="images/syntax/over-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/frame-spec.html">frame-spec:</a></b>
<button id='x1527' onclick='hideorshow("x1527","x1528")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1528' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram frame-spec" src="images/syntax/frame-spec.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>

<button id='x1529' onclick='hideorshow("x1529","x1530")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1530' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1531' onclick='hideorshow("x1531","x1532")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1532' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1533' onclick='hideorshow("x1533","x1534")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1534' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1535' onclick='hideorshow("x1535","x1536")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1536' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1537' onclick='hideorshow("x1537","x1538")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1538' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1539' onclick='hideorshow("x1539","x1540")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1540' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1541' onclick='hideorshow("x1541","x1542")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1542' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1543' onclick='hideorshow("x1543","x1544")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1544' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1545' onclick='hideorshow("x1545","x1546")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1546' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/window-defn.html">window-defn:</a></b>
<button id='x1547' onclick='hideorshow("x1547","x1548")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1548' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram window-defn" src="images/syntax/window-defn.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/frame-spec.html">frame-spec:</a></b>
<button id='x1549' onclick='hideorshow("x1549","x1550")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1550' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram frame-spec" src="images/syntax/frame-spec.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>


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<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>CREATE VIRTUAL TABLE</h2></div><p><b><a href="syntax/create-virtual-table-stmt.html">create-virtual-table-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1417' onclick='hideorshow("x1417","x1418")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1418' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram create-virtual-table-stmt" src="images/syntax/create-virtual-table-stmt.gif" />
</div>


<p>A <a href="vtab.html">virtual table</a> is an interface to an external storage or computation
engine that appears to be a table but does not actually store information
in the database file.</p>







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<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>CREATE VIRTUAL TABLE</h2></div><p><b><a href="syntax/create-virtual-table-stmt.html">create-virtual-table-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1551' onclick='hideorshow("x1551","x1552")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1552' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram create-virtual-table-stmt" src="images/syntax/create-virtual-table-stmt.gif" />
</div>


<p>A <a href="vtab.html">virtual table</a> is an interface to an external storage or computation
engine that appears to be a table but does not actually store information
in the database file.</p>

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<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>DELETE</h2></div><p><b><a href="syntax/delete-stmt.html">delete-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1419' onclick='hideorshow("x1419","x1420")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1420' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram delete-stmt" src="images/syntax/delete-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1421' onclick='hideorshow("x1421","x1422")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1422' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/filter.html">filter:</a></b>
<button id='x1423' onclick='hideorshow("x1423","x1424")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1424' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram filter" src="images/syntax/filter.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1425' onclick='hideorshow("x1425","x1426")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1426' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</div>















<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x1427' onclick='hideorshow("x1427","x1428")'>show</button></p>

 <div id='x1428' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1429' onclick='hideorshow("x1429","x1430")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1430' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1431' onclick='hideorshow("x1431","x1432")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1432' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1433' onclick='hideorshow("x1433","x1434")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1434' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1435' onclick='hideorshow("x1435","x1436")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1436' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1437' onclick='hideorshow("x1437","x1438")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1438' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1439' onclick='hideorshow("x1439","x1440")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1440' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1441' onclick='hideorshow("x1441","x1442")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1442' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1443' onclick='hideorshow("x1443","x1444")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1444' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1445' onclick='hideorshow("x1445","x1446")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1446' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />










</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1447' onclick='hideorshow("x1447","x1448")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1448' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1449' onclick='hideorshow("x1449","x1450")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1450' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/window-defn.html">window-defn:</a></b>
<button id='x1451' onclick='hideorshow("x1451","x1452")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1452' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram window-defn" src="images/syntax/window-defn.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/frame-spec.html">frame-spec:</a></b>
<button id='x1453' onclick='hideorshow("x1453","x1454")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1454' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram frame-spec" src="images/syntax/frame-spec.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1455' onclick='hideorshow("x1455","x1456")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1456' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/qualified-table-name.html">qualified-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1457' onclick='hideorshow("x1457","x1458")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1458' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram qualified-table-name" src="images/syntax/qualified-table-name.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/with-clause.html">with-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1459' onclick='hideorshow("x1459","x1460")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1460' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram with-clause" src="images/syntax/with-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/cte-table-name.html">cte-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1461' onclick='hideorshow("x1461","x1462")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1462' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram cte-table-name" src="images/syntax/cte-table-name.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1463' onclick='hideorshow("x1463","x1464")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1464' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1465' onclick='hideorshow("x1465","x1466")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1466' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1467' onclick='hideorshow("x1467","x1468")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1468' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1469' onclick='hideorshow("x1469","x1470")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1470' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1471' onclick='hideorshow("x1471","x1472")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1472' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1473' onclick='hideorshow("x1473","x1474")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1474' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1475' onclick='hideorshow("x1475","x1476")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1476' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1477' onclick='hideorshow("x1477","x1478")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1478' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1479' onclick='hideorshow("x1479","x1480")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1480' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/window-defn.html">window-defn:</a></b>
<button id='x1481' onclick='hideorshow("x1481","x1482")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1482' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram window-defn" src="images/syntax/window-defn.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/frame-spec.html">frame-spec:</a></b>
<button id='x1483' onclick='hideorshow("x1483","x1484")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1484' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram frame-spec" src="images/syntax/frame-spec.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
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<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>DELETE</h2></div><p><b><a href="syntax/delete-stmt.html">delete-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1553' onclick='hideorshow("x1553","x1554")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1554' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram delete-stmt" src="images/syntax/delete-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1555' onclick='hideorshow("x1555","x1556")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1556' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/filter-clause.html">filter-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1557' onclick='hideorshow("x1557","x1558")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1558' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram filter-clause" src="images/syntax/filter-clause.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1559' onclick='hideorshow("x1559","x1560")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1560' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/over-clause.html">over-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1561' onclick='hideorshow("x1561","x1562")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1562' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram over-clause" src="images/syntax/over-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/frame-spec.html">frame-spec:</a></b>
<button id='x1563' onclick='hideorshow("x1563","x1564")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1564' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram frame-spec" src="images/syntax/frame-spec.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1565' onclick='hideorshow("x1565","x1566")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1566' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>

<button id='x1567' onclick='hideorshow("x1567","x1568")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1568' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1569' onclick='hideorshow("x1569","x1570")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1570' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1571' onclick='hideorshow("x1571","x1572")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1572' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1573' onclick='hideorshow("x1573","x1574")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1574' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1575' onclick='hideorshow("x1575","x1576")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1576' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1577' onclick='hideorshow("x1577","x1578")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1578' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1579' onclick='hideorshow("x1579","x1580")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1580' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1581' onclick='hideorshow("x1581","x1582")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1582' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1583' onclick='hideorshow("x1583","x1584")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1584' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1585' onclick='hideorshow("x1585","x1586")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1586' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/window-defn.html">window-defn:</a></b>
<button id='x1587' onclick='hideorshow("x1587","x1588")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1588' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram window-defn" src="images/syntax/window-defn.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/frame-spec.html">frame-spec:</a></b>
<button id='x1589' onclick='hideorshow("x1589","x1590")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1590' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram frame-spec" src="images/syntax/frame-spec.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1591' onclick='hideorshow("x1591","x1592")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1592' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1593' onclick='hideorshow("x1593","x1594")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1594' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</div>















</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/qualified-table-name.html">qualified-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1595' onclick='hideorshow("x1595","x1596")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1596' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram qualified-table-name" src="images/syntax/qualified-table-name.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/with-clause.html">with-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1597' onclick='hideorshow("x1597","x1598")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1598' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram with-clause" src="images/syntax/with-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/cte-table-name.html">cte-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1599' onclick='hideorshow("x1599","x1600")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1600' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram cte-table-name" src="images/syntax/cte-table-name.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1601' onclick='hideorshow("x1601","x1602")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1602' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1603' onclick='hideorshow("x1603","x1604")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1604' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1605' onclick='hideorshow("x1605","x1606")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1606' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1607' onclick='hideorshow("x1607","x1608")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1608' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1609' onclick='hideorshow("x1609","x1610")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1610' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1611' onclick='hideorshow("x1611","x1612")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1612' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1613' onclick='hideorshow("x1613","x1614")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1614' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1615' onclick='hideorshow("x1615","x1616")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1616' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1617' onclick='hideorshow("x1617","x1618")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1618' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/window-defn.html">window-defn:</a></b>
<button id='x1619' onclick='hideorshow("x1619","x1620")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1620' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram window-defn" src="images/syntax/window-defn.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/frame-spec.html">frame-spec:</a></b>
<button id='x1621' onclick='hideorshow("x1621","x1622")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1622' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram frame-spec" src="images/syntax/frame-spec.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>

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<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>DETACH DATABASE</h2></div><p><b><a href="syntax/detach-stmt.html">detach-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1485' onclick='hideorshow("x1485","x1486")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1486' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram detach-stmt" src="images/syntax/detach-stmt.gif" />
</div>


<p>This statement detaches an additional database connection previously 
attached using the <a href="lang_attach.html">ATTACH</a> statement.  
When not in <a href="sharedcache.html">shared cache mode</a>, 







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<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>DETACH DATABASE</h2></div><p><b><a href="syntax/detach-stmt.html">detach-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1623' onclick='hideorshow("x1623","x1624")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1624' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram detach-stmt" src="images/syntax/detach-stmt.gif" />
</div>


<p>This statement detaches an additional database connection previously 
attached using the <a href="lang_attach.html">ATTACH</a> statement.  
When not in <a href="sharedcache.html">shared cache mode</a>, 

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<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>DROP INDEX</h2></div><p><b><a href="syntax/drop-index-stmt.html">drop-index-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1487' onclick='hideorshow("x1487","x1488")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1488' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram drop-index-stmt" src="images/syntax/drop-index-stmt.gif" />
</div>


<p>The DROP INDEX statement removes an index added
with the <a href="lang_createindex.html">CREATE INDEX</a> statement.  The index is completely removed from
the disk.  The only way to recover the index is to reenter the
appropriate <a href="lang_createindex.html">CREATE INDEX</a> command.</p>









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<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>DROP INDEX</h2></div><p><b><a href="syntax/drop-index-stmt.html">drop-index-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1625' onclick='hideorshow("x1625","x1626")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1626' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram drop-index-stmt" src="images/syntax/drop-index-stmt.gif" />
</div>


<p>The DROP INDEX statement removes an index added
with the <a href="lang_createindex.html">CREATE INDEX</a> statement.  The index is completely removed from
the disk.  The only way to recover the index is to reenter the
appropriate <a href="lang_createindex.html">CREATE INDEX</a> command.</p>


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<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>DROP TABLE</h2></div><p><b><a href="syntax/drop-table-stmt.html">drop-table-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1489' onclick='hideorshow("x1489","x1490")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1490' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram drop-table-stmt" src="images/syntax/drop-table-stmt.gif" />
</div>


<p>The DROP TABLE statement removes a table added with the
<a href="lang_createtable.html">CREATE TABLE</a> statement.  The name specified is the
table name.  The dropped table is completely removed from the database 







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<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>DROP TABLE</h2></div><p><b><a href="syntax/drop-table-stmt.html">drop-table-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1627' onclick='hideorshow("x1627","x1628")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1628' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram drop-table-stmt" src="images/syntax/drop-table-stmt.gif" />
</div>


<p>The DROP TABLE statement removes a table added with the
<a href="lang_createtable.html">CREATE TABLE</a> statement.  The name specified is the
table name.  The dropped table is completely removed from the database 

Changes to Doc/Extra/Core/lang_droptrigger.html.

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<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>DROP TRIGGER</h2></div><p><b><a href="syntax/drop-trigger-stmt.html">drop-trigger-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1491' onclick='hideorshow("x1491","x1492")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1492' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram drop-trigger-stmt" src="images/syntax/drop-trigger-stmt.gif" />
</div>


<p>The DROP TRIGGER statement removes a trigger created by the 
<a href="lang_createtrigger.html">CREATE TRIGGER</a> statement. Once removed, the trigger definition is no
longer present in the sqlite_master (or sqlite_temp_master) table and is
not fired by any subsequent INSERT, UPDATE or DELETE statements.

<p>Note that triggers are automatically dropped when the associated table is
dropped.









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<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>DROP TRIGGER</h2></div><p><b><a href="syntax/drop-trigger-stmt.html">drop-trigger-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1629' onclick='hideorshow("x1629","x1630")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1630' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram drop-trigger-stmt" src="images/syntax/drop-trigger-stmt.gif" />
</div>


<p>The DROP TRIGGER statement removes a trigger created by the 
<a href="lang_createtrigger.html">CREATE TRIGGER</a> statement. Once removed, the trigger definition is no
longer present in the sqlite_master (or sqlite_temp_master) table and is
not fired by any subsequent INSERT, UPDATE or DELETE statements.

<p>Note that triggers are automatically dropped when the associated table is
dropped.


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<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>DROP VIEW</h2></div><p><b><a href="syntax/drop-view-stmt.html">drop-view-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1493' onclick='hideorshow("x1493","x1494")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1494' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram drop-view-stmt" src="images/syntax/drop-view-stmt.gif" />
</div>


<p>The DROP VIEW statement removes a view created by the <a href="lang_createview.html">CREATE VIEW</a> 
  statement. The view definition is removed from the database schema, but 
  no actual data in the underlying base tables is modified.







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<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>DROP VIEW</h2></div><p><b><a href="syntax/drop-view-stmt.html">drop-view-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1631' onclick='hideorshow("x1631","x1632")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1632' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram drop-view-stmt" src="images/syntax/drop-view-stmt.gif" />
</div>


<p>The DROP VIEW statement removes a view created by the <a href="lang_createview.html">CREATE VIEW</a> 
  statement. The view definition is removed from the database schema, but 
  no actual data in the underlying base tables is modified.

Changes to Doc/Extra/Core/lang_explain.html.

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<p>When the EXPLAIN keyword appears by itself it causes the statement
to behave as a query that returns the sequence of 
<a href="opcode.html">virtual machine instructions</a> it would have used to execute the command had
the EXPLAIN keyword not been present. When the EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN phrase
appears, the statement returns high-level information regarding the query
plan that would have been used.

The EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN command is described in 
<a href="eqp.html">more detail here</a>.




































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<p>When the EXPLAIN keyword appears by itself it causes the statement
to behave as a query that returns the sequence of 
<a href="opcode.html">virtual machine instructions</a> it would have used to execute the command had
the EXPLAIN keyword not been present. When the EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN phrase
appears, the statement returns high-level information regarding the query
plan that would have been used.

<p>The EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN command is described in 
<a href="eqp.html">more detail here</a>.

<h3>EXPLAIN operates at run-time, not at prepare-time</h3>

<p>The EXPLAIN and EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN prefixes affect the behavior of
running a <a href="c3ref/stmt.html">prepared statement</a> using <a href="c3ref/step.html">sqlite3_step()</a>.  The process of
generating a new prepared statement using <a href="c3ref/prepare.html">sqlite3_prepare()</a> or similar
is (mostly) unaffected by EXPLAIN.  (The exception to the previous sentence
is that some special opcodes used by EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN are omitted when
building an EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN prepared statement, as a performance
optimization.)

<p>This means that actions that occur during sqlite3_prepare() are
unaffected by EXPLAIN.

<ul>
<li><p>
Some <a href="pragma.html#syntax">PRAGMA</a> statements do their work during sqlite3_prepare() rather
than during sqlite3_step().  Those PRAGMA statements are unaffected
by EXPLAIN.  They operate the same with or without the EXPLAIN prefix.
The set of PRAGMA statements that are unaffected by EXPLAIN can vary
from one release to the next.  Some PRAGMA statements operate during
sqlite3_prepare() depending on their arguments.  For consistent
results, avoid using EXPLAIN on PRAGMA statements.

<li><p>
The <a href="c3ref/set_authorizer.html">authorizer callback</a> is invoked regardless of the presence of
EXPLAIN or EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN.
</ul>

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</script>
</div>
<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>expression</h2></div><p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1495' onclick='hideorshow("x1495","x1496")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1496' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/filter.html">filter:</a></b>
<button id='x1497' onclick='hideorshow("x1497","x1498")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1498' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram filter" src="images/syntax/filter.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1499' onclick='hideorshow("x1499","x1500")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1500' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</div>















<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x1501' onclick='hideorshow("x1501","x1502")'>show</button></p>

 <div id='x1502' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1503' onclick='hideorshow("x1503","x1504")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1504' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1505' onclick='hideorshow("x1505","x1506")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1506' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1507' onclick='hideorshow("x1507","x1508")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1508' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1509' onclick='hideorshow("x1509","x1510")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1510' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1511' onclick='hideorshow("x1511","x1512")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1512' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1513' onclick='hideorshow("x1513","x1514")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1514' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1515' onclick='hideorshow("x1515","x1516")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1516' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1517' onclick='hideorshow("x1517","x1518")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1518' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1519' onclick='hideorshow("x1519","x1520")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1520' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />










</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1521' onclick='hideorshow("x1521","x1522")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1522' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1523' onclick='hideorshow("x1523","x1524")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1524' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/window-defn.html">window-defn:</a></b>
<button id='x1525' onclick='hideorshow("x1525","x1526")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1526' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram window-defn" src="images/syntax/window-defn.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/frame-spec.html">frame-spec:</a></b>
<button id='x1527' onclick='hideorshow("x1527","x1528")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1528' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram frame-spec" src="images/syntax/frame-spec.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1529' onclick='hideorshow("x1529","x1530")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1530' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>


<p>This section is different from the others.  Most other sections of
this document talks about a particular SQL command.  This section does
not talk about a standalone command but about "expressions" which are 
................................................................................

<p>A <a href="lang_select.html">SELECT</a> statement enclosed in parentheses is a subquery.
All types of SELECT statement, including
aggregate and compound SELECT queries (queries with keywords like
UNION or EXCEPT) are allowed as scalar subqueries.
The value of a subquery expression is the first row of the result
from the enclosed <a href="lang_select.html">SELECT</a> statement.
In other words, an implied "LIMIT 1" is added to the subquery, overriding
an explicitly coded LIMIT.
The value of a subquery expression is NULL if the enclosed
<a href="lang_select.html">SELECT</a> statement returns no rows.

<p>A subquery that returns a single column is a scalar subquery and can
be used most anywhere.
A subquery that returns two or more columns is a <a href="rowvalue.html">row value</a>
subquery and can only be used as the operand of a comparison operator.
................................................................................
SQL functions.  For presentation purposes, simple functions are further
subdivided into <a href="lang_corefunc.html">core functions</a>, <a href="lang_datefunc.html">date-time functions</a>,
and <a href="json1.html">JSON functions</a>.
Applications can add new functions, written in C/C++, using the
<a href="c3ref/create_function.html">sqlite3_create_function()</a> interface.
</p>
























<p>It is possible to have an aggregate function with the same name as a
simple function, as long as the number of arguments for the two forms of the
function are different.  For example, the <a href="lang_aggfunc.html#maxggunc">max()</a> function with a
single argument is an aggregate and the <a href="lang_corefunc.html#maxoreunc">max()</a> function with two or more
arguments is a simple function.










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b.innerHTML='hide';
}
return false;
}
</script>
</div>
<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>expression</h2></div><p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1633' onclick='hideorshow("x1633","x1634")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1634' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/filter-clause.html">filter-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1635' onclick='hideorshow("x1635","x1636")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1636' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram filter-clause" src="images/syntax/filter-clause.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1637' onclick='hideorshow("x1637","x1638")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1638' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/over-clause.html">over-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1639' onclick='hideorshow("x1639","x1640")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1640' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram over-clause" src="images/syntax/over-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/frame-spec.html">frame-spec:</a></b>
<button id='x1641' onclick='hideorshow("x1641","x1642")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1642' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram frame-spec" src="images/syntax/frame-spec.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1643' onclick='hideorshow("x1643","x1644")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1644' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>

<button id='x1645' onclick='hideorshow("x1645","x1646")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1646' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1647' onclick='hideorshow("x1647","x1648")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1648' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1649' onclick='hideorshow("x1649","x1650")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1650' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1651' onclick='hideorshow("x1651","x1652")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1652' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1653' onclick='hideorshow("x1653","x1654")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1654' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1655' onclick='hideorshow("x1655","x1656")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1656' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1657' onclick='hideorshow("x1657","x1658")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1658' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1659' onclick='hideorshow("x1659","x1660")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1660' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1661' onclick='hideorshow("x1661","x1662")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1662' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1663' onclick='hideorshow("x1663","x1664")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1664' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/window-defn.html">window-defn:</a></b>
<button id='x1665' onclick='hideorshow("x1665","x1666")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1666' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram window-defn" src="images/syntax/window-defn.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/frame-spec.html">frame-spec:</a></b>
<button id='x1667' onclick='hideorshow("x1667","x1668")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1668' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram frame-spec" src="images/syntax/frame-spec.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1669' onclick='hideorshow("x1669","x1670")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1670' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1671' onclick='hideorshow("x1671","x1672")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1672' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</div>















</div>
</div>


<p>This section is different from the others.  Most other sections of
this document talks about a particular SQL command.  This section does
not talk about a standalone command but about "expressions" which are 
................................................................................

<p>A <a href="lang_select.html">SELECT</a> statement enclosed in parentheses is a subquery.
All types of SELECT statement, including
aggregate and compound SELECT queries (queries with keywords like
UNION or EXCEPT) are allowed as scalar subqueries.
The value of a subquery expression is the first row of the result
from the enclosed <a href="lang_select.html">SELECT</a> statement.


The value of a subquery expression is NULL if the enclosed
<a href="lang_select.html">SELECT</a> statement returns no rows.

<p>A subquery that returns a single column is a scalar subquery and can
be used most anywhere.
A subquery that returns two or more columns is a <a href="rowvalue.html">row value</a>
subquery and can only be used as the operand of a comparison operator.
................................................................................
SQL functions.  For presentation purposes, simple functions are further
subdivided into <a href="lang_corefunc.html">core functions</a>, <a href="lang_datefunc.html">date-time functions</a>,
and <a href="json1.html">JSON functions</a>.
Applications can add new functions, written in C/C++, using the
<a href="c3ref/create_function.html">sqlite3_create_function()</a> interface.
</p>

<p>
The main expression bubble diagram above shows a single syntax for
all function invocations.  But this is merely to simplify the expression
bubble diagram.  In reality, each type of function has a slightly different
syntax, shown below.  The function invocation syntax shown in the main
expression bubble diagram is the union of the three syntaxes shown here:

<p><b><a href="syntax/simple-function-invocation.html">simple-function-invocation:</a></b></p><div class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram simple-function-invocation" src="images/syntax/simple-function-invocation.gif"></img>
 </div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/aggregate-function-invocation.html">aggregate-function-invocation:</a></b></p><div class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram aggregate-function-invocation" src="images/syntax/aggregate-function-invocation.gif"></img>
 </div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/window-function-invocation.html">window-function-invocation:</a></b></p><div class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram window-function-invocation" src="images/syntax/window-function-invocation.gif"></img>
 </div>


<p>
The OVER clause is required for <a href="windowfunctions.html">window functions</a> and is prohibited
otherwise.  The DISTINCT keyword is only allowed in <a href="lang_aggfunc.html">aggregate functions</a>.
The FILTER clause may not appear on a <a href="lang_corefunc.html">simple function</a>.

<p>It is possible to have an aggregate function with the same name as a
simple function, as long as the number of arguments for the two forms of the
function are different.  For example, the <a href="lang_aggfunc.html#maxggunc">max()</a> function with a
single argument is an aggregate and the <a href="lang_corefunc.html#maxoreunc">max()</a> function with two or more
arguments is a simple function.  Aggregate functions can usually also
be used as window functions.


Changes to Doc/Extra/Core/lang_indexedby.html.

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<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>INDEXED BY</h2></div>
<p>The INDEXED BY phrase forces the <a href="optoverview.html">SQLite query planner</a> to use a
particular named index on a <a href="lang_delete.html">DELETE</a>, <a href="lang_select.html">SELECT</a>, or <a href="lang_update.html">UPDATE</a> statement.
The INDEXED BY phrase is an SQLite extension and
is not portable to other SQL database engines.</p>

<p><b><a href="syntax/qualified-table-name.html">qualified-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1993' onclick='hideorshow("x1993","x1994")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1994' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram qualified-table-name" src="images/syntax/qualified-table-name.gif" />
</div>


<p>The "INDEXED BY <span class='yyterm'>index-name</span>" phrase specifies 
that the named index
must be used in order to look up values on the preceding table.







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<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>INDEXED BY</h2></div>
<p>The INDEXED BY phrase forces the <a href="optoverview.html">SQLite query planner</a> to use a
particular named index on a <a href="lang_delete.html">DELETE</a>, <a href="lang_select.html">SELECT</a>, or <a href="lang_update.html">UPDATE</a> statement.
The INDEXED BY phrase is an SQLite extension and
is not portable to other SQL database engines.</p>

<p><b><a href="syntax/qualified-table-name.html">qualified-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x2205' onclick='hideorshow("x2205","x2206")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x2206' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram qualified-table-name" src="images/syntax/qualified-table-name.gif" />
</div>


<p>The "INDEXED BY <span class='yyterm'>index-name</span>" phrase specifies 
that the named index
must be used in order to look up values on the preceding table.

Changes to Doc/Extra/Core/lang_insert.html.

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<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>INSERT</h2></div><p><b><a href="syntax/insert-stmt.html">insert-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1531' onclick='hideorshow("x1531","x1532")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1532' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram insert-stmt" src="images/syntax/insert-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1533' onclick='hideorshow("x1533","x1534")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1534' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/filter.html">filter:</a></b>
<button id='x1535' onclick='hideorshow("x1535","x1536")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1536' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram filter" src="images/syntax/filter.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1537' onclick='hideorshow("x1537","x1538")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1538' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</div>















<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x1539' onclick='hideorshow("x1539","x1540")'>show</button></p>

 <div id='x1540' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1541' onclick='hideorshow("x1541","x1542")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1542' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1543' onclick='hideorshow("x1543","x1544")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1544' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/window-defn.html">window-defn:</a></b>
<button id='x1545' onclick='hideorshow("x1545","x1546")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1546' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram window-defn" src="images/syntax/window-defn.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/frame-spec.html">frame-spec:</a></b>
<button id='x1547' onclick='hideorshow("x1547","x1548")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1548' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram frame-spec" src="images/syntax/frame-spec.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1549' onclick='hideorshow("x1549","x1550")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1550' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1551' onclick='hideorshow("x1551","x1552")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1552' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1553' onclick='hideorshow("x1553","x1554")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1554' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1555' onclick='hideorshow("x1555","x1556")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1556' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1557' onclick='hideorshow("x1557","x1558")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1558' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1559' onclick='hideorshow("x1559","x1560")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1560' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1561' onclick='hideorshow("x1561","x1562")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1562' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1563' onclick='hideorshow("x1563","x1564")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1564' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1565' onclick='hideorshow("x1565","x1566")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1566' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1567' onclick='hideorshow("x1567","x1568")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1568' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/window-defn.html">window-defn:</a></b>
<button id='x1569' onclick='hideorshow("x1569","x1570")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1570' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram window-defn" src="images/syntax/window-defn.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/frame-spec.html">frame-spec:</a></b>
<button id='x1571' onclick='hideorshow("x1571","x1572")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1572' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram frame-spec" src="images/syntax/frame-spec.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/upsert-clause.html">upsert-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1573' onclick='hideorshow("x1573","x1574")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1574' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram upsert-clause" src="images/syntax/upsert-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/column-name-list.html">column-name-list:</a></b>
<button id='x1575' onclick='hideorshow("x1575","x1576")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1576' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram column-name-list" src="images/syntax/column-name-list.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/indexed-column.html">indexed-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1577' onclick='hideorshow("x1577","x1578")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1578' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram indexed-column" src="images/syntax/indexed-column.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/with-clause.html">with-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1579' onclick='hideorshow("x1579","x1580")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1580' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram with-clause" src="images/syntax/with-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/cte-table-name.html">cte-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1581' onclick='hideorshow("x1581","x1582")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1582' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram cte-table-name" src="images/syntax/cte-table-name.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>


<p>The INSERT statement comes in three basic forms.  







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b.innerHTML='hide';
}
return false;
}
</script>
</div>
<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>INSERT</h2></div><p><b><a href="syntax/insert-stmt.html">insert-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1715' onclick='hideorshow("x1715","x1716")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1716' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram insert-stmt" src="images/syntax/insert-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1717' onclick='hideorshow("x1717","x1718")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1718' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/filter-clause.html">filter-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1719' onclick='hideorshow("x1719","x1720")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1720' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram filter-clause" src="images/syntax/filter-clause.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1721' onclick='hideorshow("x1721","x1722")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1722' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/over-clause.html">over-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1723' onclick='hideorshow("x1723","x1724")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1724' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram over-clause" src="images/syntax/over-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/frame-spec.html">frame-spec:</a></b>
<button id='x1725' onclick='hideorshow("x1725","x1726")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1726' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram frame-spec" src="images/syntax/frame-spec.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1727' onclick='hideorshow("x1727","x1728")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1728' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>

<button id='x1729' onclick='hideorshow("x1729","x1730")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1730' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1731' onclick='hideorshow("x1731","x1732")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1732' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1733' onclick='hideorshow("x1733","x1734")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1734' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</div>















</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1735' onclick='hideorshow("x1735","x1736")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1736' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1737' onclick='hideorshow("x1737","x1738")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1738' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1739' onclick='hideorshow("x1739","x1740")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1740' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1741' onclick='hideorshow("x1741","x1742")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1742' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1743' onclick='hideorshow("x1743","x1744")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1744' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1745' onclick='hideorshow("x1745","x1746")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1746' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1747' onclick='hideorshow("x1747","x1748")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1748' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1749' onclick='hideorshow("x1749","x1750")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1750' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1751' onclick='hideorshow("x1751","x1752")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1752' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/window-defn.html">window-defn:</a></b>
<button id='x1753' onclick='hideorshow("x1753","x1754")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1754' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram window-defn" src="images/syntax/window-defn.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/frame-spec.html">frame-spec:</a></b>
<button id='x1755' onclick='hideorshow("x1755","x1756")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1756' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram frame-spec" src="images/syntax/frame-spec.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/upsert-clause.html">upsert-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1757' onclick='hideorshow("x1757","x1758")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1758' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram upsert-clause" src="images/syntax/upsert-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/column-name-list.html">column-name-list:</a></b>
<button id='x1759' onclick='hideorshow("x1759","x1760")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1760' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram column-name-list" src="images/syntax/column-name-list.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/indexed-column.html">indexed-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1761' onclick='hideorshow("x1761","x1762")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1762' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram indexed-column" src="images/syntax/indexed-column.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/with-clause.html">with-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1763' onclick='hideorshow("x1763","x1764")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1764' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram with-clause" src="images/syntax/with-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/cte-table-name.html">cte-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1765' onclick='hideorshow("x1765","x1766")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1766' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram cte-table-name" src="images/syntax/cte-table-name.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>


<p>The INSERT statement comes in three basic forms.  

Changes to Doc/Extra/Core/lang_keywords.html.

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but some keywords may be omitted when SQL language features are
disabled.
Applications can use the
<a href="c3ref/keyword_check.html">sqlite3_keyword_count()</a>, <a href="c3ref/keyword_check.html">sqlite3_keyword_name()</a>, and
<a href="c3ref/keyword_check.html">sqlite3_keyword_check()</a> interfaces to determine the keywords
recognized by SQLite at run-time.
Regardless of the compile-time configuration, any identifier that is not on
the following 140 element
list is not a keyword to the SQL parser in SQLite:
</p>

<ol>
<li>ABORT</li>
<li>ACTION</li>
<li>ADD</li>
................................................................................
<li>EXCEPT</li>
<li>EXCLUDE</li>
<li>EXCLUSIVE</li>
<li>EXISTS</li>
<li>EXPLAIN</li>
<li>FAIL</li>
<li>FILTER</li>

<li>FOLLOWING</li>
<li>FOR</li>
<li>FOREIGN</li>
<li>FROM</li>
<li>FULL</li>
<li>GLOB</li>
<li>GROUP</li>
................................................................................
<li>INSTEAD</li>
<li>INTERSECT</li>
<li>INTO</li>
<li>IS</li>
<li>ISNULL</li>
<li>JOIN</li>
<li>KEY</li>

<li>LEFT</li>
<li>LIKE</li>
<li>LIMIT</li>
<li>MATCH</li>
<li>NATURAL</li>
<li>NO</li>
<li>NOT</li>
<li>NOTHING</li>
<li>NOTNULL</li>
<li>NULL</li>

<li>OF</li>
<li>OFFSET</li>
<li>ON</li>
<li>OR</li>
<li>ORDER</li>
<li>OTHERS</li>
<li>OUTER</li>







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but some keywords may be omitted when SQL language features are
disabled.
Applications can use the
<a href="c3ref/keyword_check.html">sqlite3_keyword_count()</a>, <a href="c3ref/keyword_check.html">sqlite3_keyword_name()</a>, and
<a href="c3ref/keyword_check.html">sqlite3_keyword_check()</a> interfaces to determine the keywords
recognized by SQLite at run-time.
Regardless of the compile-time configuration, any identifier that is not on
the following 143 element
list is not a keyword to the SQL parser in SQLite:
</p>

<ol>
<li>ABORT</li>
<li>ACTION</li>
<li>ADD</li>
................................................................................
<li>EXCEPT</li>
<li>EXCLUDE</li>
<li>EXCLUSIVE</li>
<li>EXISTS</li>
<li>EXPLAIN</li>
<li>FAIL</li>
<li>FILTER</li>
<li>FIRST</li>
<li>FOLLOWING</li>
<li>FOR</li>
<li>FOREIGN</li>
<li>FROM</li>
<li>FULL</li>
<li>GLOB</li>
<li>GROUP</li>
................................................................................
<li>INSTEAD</li>
<li>INTERSECT</li>
<li>INTO</li>
<li>IS</li>
<li>ISNULL</li>
<li>JOIN</li>
<li>KEY</li>
<li>LAST</li>
<li>LEFT</li>
<li>LIKE</li>
<li>LIMIT</li>
<li>MATCH</li>
<li>NATURAL</li>
<li>NO</li>
<li>NOT</li>
<li>NOTHING</li>
<li>NOTNULL</li>
<li>NULL</li>
<li>NULLS</li>
<li>OF</li>
<li>OFFSET</li>
<li>ON</li>
<li>OR</li>
<li>ORDER</li>
<li>OTHERS</li>
<li>OUTER</li>

Changes to Doc/Extra/Core/lang_reindex.html.

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<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>REINDEX</h2></div><p><b><a href="syntax/reindex-stmt.html">reindex-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1627' onclick='hideorshow("x1627","x1628")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1628' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram reindex-stmt" src="images/syntax/reindex-stmt.gif" />
</div>


<p>The REINDEX command is used to delete and recreate indices from scratch.
This is useful when the definition of a collation sequence has changed.
</p>







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<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>REINDEX</h2></div><p><b><a href="syntax/reindex-stmt.html">reindex-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1815' onclick='hideorshow("x1815","x1816")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1816' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram reindex-stmt" src="images/syntax/reindex-stmt.gif" />
</div>


<p>The REINDEX command is used to delete and recreate indices from scratch.
This is useful when the definition of a collation sequence has changed.
</p>

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<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>SAVEPOINT</h2></div><p><b><a href="syntax/savepoint-stmt.html">savepoint-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1171' onclick='hideorshow("x1171","x1172")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1172' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram savepoint-stmt" src="images/syntax/savepoint-stmt.gif" />
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<p><b><a href="syntax/release-stmt.html">release-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1173' onclick='hideorshow("x1173","x1174")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1174' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram release-stmt" src="images/syntax/release-stmt.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/rollback-stmt.html">rollback-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1175' onclick='hideorshow("x1175","x1176")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1176' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram rollback-stmt" src="images/syntax/rollback-stmt.gif" />
</div>


<p> SAVEPOINTs are a method of creating transactions, similar to
<a href="lang_transaction.html">BEGIN</a> and <a href="lang_transaction.html">COMMIT</a>, except that the SAVEPOINT and RELEASE commands
are named and may be nested.</p>







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<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>SAVEPOINT</h2></div><p><b><a href="syntax/savepoint-stmt.html">savepoint-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1293' onclick='hideorshow("x1293","x1294")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1294' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram savepoint-stmt" src="images/syntax/savepoint-stmt.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/release-stmt.html">release-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1295' onclick='hideorshow("x1295","x1296")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1296' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram release-stmt" src="images/syntax/release-stmt.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/rollback-stmt.html">rollback-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1297' onclick='hideorshow("x1297","x1298")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1298' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram rollback-stmt" src="images/syntax/rollback-stmt.gif" />
</div>


<p> SAVEPOINTs are a method of creating transactions, similar to
<a href="lang_transaction.html">BEGIN</a> and <a href="lang_transaction.html">COMMIT</a>, except that the SAVEPOINT and RELEASE commands
are named and may be nested.</p>

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<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>SELECT</h2></div><p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1671' onclick='hideorshow("x1671","x1672")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1672' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1673' onclick='hideorshow("x1673","x1674")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1674' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1675' onclick='hideorshow("x1675","x1676")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1676' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1677' onclick='hideorshow("x1677","x1678")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1678' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/filter.html">filter:</a></b>
<button id='x1679' onclick='hideorshow("x1679","x1680")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1680' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram filter" src="images/syntax/filter.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1681' onclick='hideorshow("x1681","x1682")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1682' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</div>










<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x1683' onclick='hideorshow("x1683","x1684")'>show</button></p>

 <div id='x1684' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1685' onclick='hideorshow("x1685","x1686")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1686' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1687' onclick='hideorshow("x1687","x1688")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1688' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1689' onclick='hideorshow("x1689","x1690")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1690' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1691' onclick='hideorshow("x1691","x1692")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1692' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1693' onclick='hideorshow("x1693","x1694")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1694' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1695' onclick='hideorshow("x1695","x1696")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1696' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1697' onclick='hideorshow("x1697","x1698")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1698' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1699' onclick='hideorshow("x1699","x1700")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1700' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/window-defn.html">window-defn:</a></b>
<button id='x1701' onclick='hideorshow("x1701","x1702")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1702' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram window-defn" src="images/syntax/window-defn.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/frame-spec.html">frame-spec:</a></b>
<button id='x1703' onclick='hideorshow("x1703","x1704")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1704' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram frame-spec" src="images/syntax/frame-spec.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>



................................................................................
<p>The "<a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt</a>" syntax diagram above attempts to show as much of the
SELECT statement syntax as possible in a single diagram, because some readers
find that helpful.  The following "<a href="syntax/factored-select-stmt.html">factored-select-stmt</a>" is an alternative
syntax diagrams that expresses the same syntax but tries to break the syntax 
down into smaller chunks.

<p><b><a href="syntax/factored-select-stmt.html">factored-select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1705' onclick='hideorshow("x1705","x1706")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1706' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram factored-select-stmt" src="images/syntax/factored-select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1707' onclick='hideorshow("x1707","x1708")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1708' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1709' onclick='hideorshow("x1709","x1710")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1710' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1711' onclick='hideorshow("x1711","x1712")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1712' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1713' onclick='hideorshow("x1713","x1714")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1714' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1715' onclick='hideorshow("x1715","x1716")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1716' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1717' onclick='hideorshow("x1717","x1718")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1718' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1719' onclick='hideorshow("x1719","x1720")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1720' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/window-defn.html">window-defn:</a></b>
<button id='x1721' onclick='hideorshow("x1721","x1722")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1722' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram window-defn" src="images/syntax/window-defn.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/frame-spec.html">frame-spec:</a></b>
<button id='x1723' onclick='hideorshow("x1723","x1724")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1724' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram frame-spec" src="images/syntax/frame-spec.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1725' onclick='hideorshow("x1725","x1726")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1726' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1727' onclick='hideorshow("x1727","x1728")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1728' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/filter.html">filter:</a></b>
<button id='x1729' onclick='hideorshow("x1729","x1730")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1730' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram filter" src="images/syntax/filter.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1731' onclick='hideorshow("x1731","x1732")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1732' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</div>










<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x1733' onclick='hideorshow("x1733","x1734")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1734' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1735' onclick='hideorshow("x1735","x1736")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1736' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1737' onclick='hideorshow("x1737","x1738")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1738' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1739' onclick='hideorshow("x1739","x1740")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1740' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1741' onclick='hideorshow("x1741","x1742")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1742' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1743' onclick='hideorshow("x1743","x1744")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1744' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1745' onclick='hideorshow("x1745","x1746")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1746' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1747' onclick='hideorshow("x1747","x1748")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1748' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1749' onclick='hideorshow("x1749","x1750")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1750' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/window-defn.html">window-defn:</a></b>
<button id='x1751' onclick='hideorshow("x1751","x1752")'>show</button></p>

 <div id='x1752' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram window-defn" src="images/syntax/window-defn.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/frame-spec.html">frame-spec:</a></b>
<button id='x1753' onclick='hideorshow("x1753","x1754")'>show</button></p>

 <div id='x1754' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram frame-spec" src="images/syntax/frame-spec.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>











<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1755' onclick='hideorshow("x1755","x1756")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1756' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-core.html">select-core:</a></b>
<button id='x1757' onclick='hideorshow("x1757","x1758")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1758' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-core" src="images/syntax/select-core.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1759' onclick='hideorshow("x1759","x1760")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1760' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1761' onclick='hideorshow("x1761","x1762")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1762' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1763' onclick='hideorshow("x1763","x1764")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1764' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1765' onclick='hideorshow("x1765","x1766")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1766' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1767' onclick='hideorshow("x1767","x1768")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1768' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1769' onclick='hideorshow("x1769","x1770")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1770' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/window-defn.html">window-defn:</a></b>
<button id='x1771' onclick='hideorshow("x1771","x1772")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1772' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram window-defn" src="images/syntax/window-defn.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/frame-spec.html">frame-spec:</a></b>
<button id='x1773' onclick='hideorshow("x1773","x1774")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1774' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram frame-spec" src="images/syntax/frame-spec.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>


................................................................................
<h3>Simple Select Processing</h3>

<p>The core of a SELECT statement is a "simple SELECT" shown by the
<a href="syntax/select-core.html">select-core</a> and <a href="syntax/simple-select-stmt.html">simple-select-stmt</a> syntax diagrams below.  
In practice, most SELECT statements are simple SELECT statements.

<p><b><a href="syntax/simple-select-stmt.html">simple-select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1775' onclick='hideorshow("x1775","x1776")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1776' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram simple-select-stmt" src="images/syntax/simple-select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1777' onclick='hideorshow("x1777","x1778")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1778' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1779' onclick='hideorshow("x1779","x1780")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1780' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1781' onclick='hideorshow("x1781","x1782")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1782' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1783' onclick='hideorshow("x1783","x1784")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1784' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1785' onclick='hideorshow("x1785","x1786")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1786' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1787' onclick='hideorshow("x1787","x1788")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1788' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1789' onclick='hideorshow("x1789","x1790")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1790' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1791' onclick='hideorshow("x1791","x1792")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1792' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/window-defn.html">window-defn:</a></b>
<button id='x1793' onclick='hideorshow("x1793","x1794")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1794' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram window-defn" src="images/syntax/window-defn.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/frame-spec.html">frame-spec:</a></b>
<button id='x1795' onclick='hideorshow("x1795","x1796")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1796' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram frame-spec" src="images/syntax/frame-spec.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1797' onclick='hideorshow("x1797","x1798")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1798' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/filter.html">filter:</a></b>
<button id='x1799' onclick='hideorshow("x1799","x1800")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1800' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram filter" src="images/syntax/filter.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1801' onclick='hideorshow("x1801","x1802")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1802' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</div>










<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x1803' onclick='hideorshow("x1803","x1804")'>show</button></p>

 <div id='x1804' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1805' onclick='hideorshow("x1805","x1806")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1806' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1807' onclick='hideorshow("x1807","x1808")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1808' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1809' onclick='hideorshow("x1809","x1810")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1810' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1811' onclick='hideorshow("x1811","x1812")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1812' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1813' onclick='hideorshow("x1813","x1814")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1814' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1815' onclick='hideorshow("x1815","x1816")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1816' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1817' onclick='hideorshow("x1817","x1818")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1818' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1819' onclick='hideorshow("x1819","x1820")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1820' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1821' onclick='hideorshow("x1821","x1822")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1822' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/window-defn.html">window-defn:</a></b>
<button id='x1823' onclick='hideorshow("x1823","x1824")'>show</button></p>

 <div id='x1824' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram window-defn" src="images/syntax/window-defn.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/frame-spec.html">frame-spec:</a></b>
<button id='x1825' onclick='hideorshow("x1825","x1826")'>show</button></p>

 <div id='x1826' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram frame-spec" src="images/syntax/frame-spec.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>











<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1827' onclick='hideorshow("x1827","x1828")'>show</button></p>

 <div id='x1828' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-core.html">select-core:</a></b>
<button id='x1829' onclick='hideorshow("x1829","x1830")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1830' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-core" src="images/syntax/select-core.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1831' onclick='hideorshow("x1831","x1832")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1832' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1833' onclick='hideorshow("x1833","x1834")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1834' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1835' onclick='hideorshow("x1835","x1836")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1836' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1837' onclick='hideorshow("x1837","x1838")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1838' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1839' onclick='hideorshow("x1839","x1840")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1840' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1841' onclick='hideorshow("x1841","x1842")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1842' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1843' onclick='hideorshow("x1843","x1844")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1844' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/window-defn.html">window-defn:</a></b>
<button id='x1845' onclick='hideorshow("x1845","x1846")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1846' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram window-defn" src="images/syntax/window-defn.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/frame-spec.html">frame-spec:</a></b>
<button id='x1847' onclick='hideorshow("x1847","x1848")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1848' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram frame-spec" src="images/syntax/frame-spec.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>


................................................................................

<p>If the FROM clause is omitted from a simple SELECT statement, then the 
input data is implicitly a single row zero columns wide (i.e. <i>N</i>=1 and
<i>M</i>=0).

<p>If a FROM clause is specified, the data on which a simple SELECT query
operates comes from the one or more tables or subqueries (SELECT statements
in parenthesis) specified following the FROM keyword. A subquery specified
in the <span class='yyterm'>table-or-subquery</span> following the FROM clause in a 
simple SELECT statement is
handled as if it was a table containing the data returned by executing the
subquery statement. Each column of the subquery has the
<a href="datatype3.html#collation">collation sequence</a> and <a href="datatype3.html#affinity">affinity</a> of the corresponding expression
in the subquery statement.

................................................................................
have the same value for "a".  But what is the result of the bare 
column "b"? The answer is that the "b" result will be the
value for "b" in one of the input rows that form the aggregate.
The problem is that you usually do not know which input row is used
to compute "b", and so in many cases the value for "b" is undefined.
</p>
<p>
Special processing occurs occurs when the aggregate function is 
either <a href="lang_aggfunc.html#maxggunc">min()</a> or <a href="lang_aggfunc.html#minggunc">max()</a>.  Example:
<blockquote><pre>
SELECT a, b, max(c) FROM tab1 GROUP BY a;
</pre></blockquote>
When the <a href="lang_aggfunc.html#maxggunc">min()</a> or <a href="lang_aggfunc.html#minggunc">max()</a> aggregate functions 
are used in an aggregate query, all bare columns in the result set 
take values from the input
................................................................................
<h3>Compound Select Statements</h3>

<p>Two or more <a href="lang_select.html#simpleselect">simple SELECT</a> statements may be connected together to form
a compound SELECT using the UNION, UNION ALL, INTERSECT or EXCEPT operator,
as shown by the following diagram:

<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-select-stmt.html">compound-select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1849' onclick='hideorshow("x1849","x1850")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1850' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-select-stmt" src="images/syntax/compound-select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1851' onclick='hideorshow("x1851","x1852")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1852' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1853' onclick='hideorshow("x1853","x1854")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1854' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1855' onclick='hideorshow("x1855","x1856")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1856' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1857' onclick='hideorshow("x1857","x1858")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1858' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1859' onclick='hideorshow("x1859","x1860")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1860' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1861' onclick='hideorshow("x1861","x1862")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1862' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1863' onclick='hideorshow("x1863","x1864")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1864' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1865' onclick='hideorshow("x1865","x1866")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1866' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/window-defn.html">window-defn:</a></b>
<button id='x1867' onclick='hideorshow("x1867","x1868")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1868' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram window-defn" src="images/syntax/window-defn.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/frame-spec.html">frame-spec:</a></b>
<button id='x1869' onclick='hideorshow("x1869","x1870")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1870' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram frame-spec" src="images/syntax/frame-spec.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1871' onclick='hideorshow("x1871","x1872")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1872' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/filter.html">filter:</a></b>
<button id='x1873' onclick='hideorshow("x1873","x1874")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1874' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram filter" src="images/syntax/filter.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1875' onclick='hideorshow("x1875","x1876")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1876' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</div>










<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x1877' onclick='hideorshow("x1877","x1878")'>show</button></p>

 <div id='x1878' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1879' onclick='hideorshow("x1879","x1880")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1880' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1881' onclick='hideorshow("x1881","x1882")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1882' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1883' onclick='hideorshow("x1883","x1884")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1884' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1885' onclick='hideorshow("x1885","x1886")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1886' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1887' onclick='hideorshow("x1887","x1888")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1888' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1889' onclick='hideorshow("x1889","x1890")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1890' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1891' onclick='hideorshow("x1891","x1892")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1892' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1893' onclick='hideorshow("x1893","x1894")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1894' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1895' onclick='hideorshow("x1895","x1896")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1896' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/window-defn.html">window-defn:</a></b>
<button id='x1897' onclick='hideorshow("x1897","x1898")'>show</button></p>

 <div id='x1898' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram window-defn" src="images/syntax/window-defn.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/frame-spec.html">frame-spec:</a></b>
<button id='x1899' onclick='hideorshow("x1899","x1900")'>show</button></p>

 <div id='x1900' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram frame-spec" src="images/syntax/frame-spec.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>











<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1901' onclick='hideorshow("x1901","x1902")'>show</button></p>

 <div id='x1902' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-core.html">select-core:</a></b>
<button id='x1903' onclick='hideorshow("x1903","x1904")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1904' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-core" src="images/syntax/select-core.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1905' onclick='hideorshow("x1905","x1906")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1906' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1907' onclick='hideorshow("x1907","x1908")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1908' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1909' onclick='hideorshow("x1909","x1910")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1910' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1911' onclick='hideorshow("x1911","x1912")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1912' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1913' onclick='hideorshow("x1913","x1914")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1914' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1915' onclick='hideorshow("x1915","x1916")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1916' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1917' onclick='hideorshow("x1917","x1918")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1918' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/window-defn.html">window-defn:</a></b>
<button id='x1919' onclick='hideorshow("x1919","x1920")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1920' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram window-defn" src="images/syntax/window-defn.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/frame-spec.html">frame-spec:</a></b>
<button id='x1921' onclick='hideorshow("x1921","x1922")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1922' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram frame-spec" src="images/syntax/frame-spec.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>


................................................................................
by evaluating the second left-most expression and so on. The order in which
two rows for which all ORDER BY expressions evaluate to equal values are
returned is undefined. Each ORDER BY expression may be optionally followed
by one of the keywords ASC (smaller values are returned first) or DESC (larger
values are returned first). If neither ASC or DESC are specified, rows
are sorted in ascending (smaller values first) order by default.








<p>Each ORDER BY expression is processed as follows:</p>

<ol>
<li><p>If the ORDER BY expression is a constant integer K then the
expression is considered an alias for the K-th column of the result set
(columns are numbered from left to right starting with 1).








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b.innerHTML='hide';
}
return false;
}
</script>
</div>
<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>SELECT</h2></div><p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1863' onclick='hideorshow("x1863","x1864")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1864' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1865' onclick='hideorshow("x1865","x1866")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1866' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1867' onclick='hideorshow("x1867","x1868")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1868' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1869' onclick='hideorshow("x1869","x1870")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1870' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/filter-clause.html">filter-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1871' onclick='hideorshow("x1871","x1872")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1872' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram filter-clause" src="images/syntax/filter-clause.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1873' onclick='hideorshow("x1873","x1874")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1874' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/over-clause.html">over-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1875' onclick='hideorshow("x1875","x1876")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1876' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram over-clause" src="images/syntax/over-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/frame-spec.html">frame-spec:</a></b>
<button id='x1877' onclick='hideorshow("x1877","x1878")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1878' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram frame-spec" src="images/syntax/frame-spec.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>

<button id='x1879' onclick='hideorshow("x1879","x1880")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1880' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1881' onclick='hideorshow("x1881","x1882")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1882' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1883' onclick='hideorshow("x1883","x1884")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1884' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1885' onclick='hideorshow("x1885","x1886")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1886' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1887' onclick='hideorshow("x1887","x1888")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1888' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1889' onclick='hideorshow("x1889","x1890")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1890' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1891' onclick='hideorshow("x1891","x1892")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1892' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1893' onclick='hideorshow("x1893","x1894")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1894' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1895' onclick='hideorshow("x1895","x1896")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1896' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/window-defn.html">window-defn:</a></b>
<button id='x1897' onclick='hideorshow("x1897","x1898")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1898' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram window-defn" src="images/syntax/window-defn.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/frame-spec.html">frame-spec:</a></b>
<button id='x1899' onclick='hideorshow("x1899","x1900")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1900' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram frame-spec" src="images/syntax/frame-spec.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>



................................................................................
<p>The "<a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt</a>" syntax diagram above attempts to show as much of the
SELECT statement syntax as possible in a single diagram, because some readers
find that helpful.  The following "<a href="syntax/factored-select-stmt.html">factored-select-stmt</a>" is an alternative
syntax diagrams that expresses the same syntax but tries to break the syntax 
down into smaller chunks.

<p><b><a href="syntax/factored-select-stmt.html">factored-select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1901' onclick='hideorshow("x1901","x1902")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1902' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram factored-select-stmt" src="images/syntax/factored-select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1903' onclick='hideorshow("x1903","x1904")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1904' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1905' onclick='hideorshow("x1905","x1906")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1906' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1907' onclick='hideorshow("x1907","x1908")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1908' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1909' onclick='hideorshow("x1909","x1910")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1910' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1911' onclick='hideorshow("x1911","x1912")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1912' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1913' onclick='hideorshow("x1913","x1914")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1914' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1915' onclick='hideorshow("x1915","x1916")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1916' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/window-defn.html">window-defn:</a></b>
<button id='x1917' onclick='hideorshow("x1917","x1918")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1918' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram window-defn" src="images/syntax/window-defn.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/frame-spec.html">frame-spec:</a></b>
<button id='x1919' onclick='hideorshow("x1919","x1920")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1920' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram frame-spec" src="images/syntax/frame-spec.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1921' onclick='hideorshow("x1921","x1922")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1922' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1923' onclick='hideorshow("x1923","x1924")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1924' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/filter-clause.html">filter-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1925' onclick='hideorshow("x1925","x1926")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1926' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram filter-clause" src="images/syntax/filter-clause.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1927' onclick='hideorshow("x1927","x1928")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1928' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/over-clause.html">over-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1929' onclick='hideorshow("x1929","x1930")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1930' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram over-clause" src="images/syntax/over-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/frame-spec.html">frame-spec:</a></b>
<button id='x1931' onclick='hideorshow("x1931","x1932")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1932' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram frame-spec" src="images/syntax/frame-spec.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x1933' onclick='hideorshow("x1933","x1934")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1934' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1935' onclick='hideorshow("x1935","x1936")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1936' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1937' onclick='hideorshow("x1937","x1938")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1938' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1939' onclick='hideorshow("x1939","x1940")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1940' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1941' onclick='hideorshow("x1941","x1942")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1942' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1943' onclick='hideorshow("x1943","x1944")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1944' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1945' onclick='hideorshow("x1945","x1946")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1946' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</div>











<p><b><a href="syntax/window-defn.html">window-defn:</a></b>

<button id='x1947' onclick='hideorshow("x1947","x1948")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1948' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram window-defn" src="images/syntax/window-defn.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/frame-spec.html">frame-spec:</a></b>

<button id='x1949' onclick='hideorshow("x1949","x1950")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1950' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram frame-spec" src="images/syntax/frame-spec.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1951' onclick='hideorshow("x1951","x1952")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1952' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1953' onclick='hideorshow("x1953","x1954")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1954' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1955' onclick='hideorshow("x1955","x1956")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1956' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-core.html">select-core:</a></b>
<button id='x1957' onclick='hideorshow("x1957","x1958")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1958' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-core" src="images/syntax/select-core.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1959' onclick='hideorshow("x1959","x1960")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1960' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1961' onclick='hideorshow("x1961","x1962")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1962' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1963' onclick='hideorshow("x1963","x1964")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1964' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1965' onclick='hideorshow("x1965","x1966")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1966' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1967' onclick='hideorshow("x1967","x1968")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1968' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1969' onclick='hideorshow("x1969","x1970")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1970' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/window-defn.html">window-defn:</a></b>
<button id='x1971' onclick='hideorshow("x1971","x1972")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1972' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram window-defn" src="images/syntax/window-defn.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/frame-spec.html">frame-spec:</a></b>
<button id='x1973' onclick='hideorshow("x1973","x1974")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1974' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram frame-spec" src="images/syntax/frame-spec.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>


................................................................................
<h3>Simple Select Processing</h3>

<p>The core of a SELECT statement is a "simple SELECT" shown by the
<a href="syntax/select-core.html">select-core</a> and <a href="syntax/simple-select-stmt.html">simple-select-stmt</a> syntax diagrams below.  
In practice, most SELECT statements are simple SELECT statements.

<p><b><a href="syntax/simple-select-stmt.html">simple-select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1975' onclick='hideorshow("x1975","x1976")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1976' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram simple-select-stmt" src="images/syntax/simple-select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1977' onclick='hideorshow("x1977","x1978")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1978' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1979' onclick='hideorshow("x1979","x1980")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1980' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1981' onclick='hideorshow("x1981","x1982")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1982' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1983' onclick='hideorshow("x1983","x1984")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1984' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1985' onclick='hideorshow("x1985","x1986")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1986' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1987' onclick='hideorshow("x1987","x1988")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1988' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1989' onclick='hideorshow("x1989","x1990")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1990' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1991' onclick='hideorshow("x1991","x1992")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1992' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/window-defn.html">window-defn:</a></b>
<button id='x1993' onclick='hideorshow("x1993","x1994")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1994' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram window-defn" src="images/syntax/window-defn.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/frame-spec.html">frame-spec:</a></b>
<button id='x1995' onclick='hideorshow("x1995","x1996")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1996' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram frame-spec" src="images/syntax/frame-spec.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1997' onclick='hideorshow("x1997","x1998")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1998' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/filter-clause.html">filter-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1999' onclick='hideorshow("x1999","x2000")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2000' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram filter-clause" src="images/syntax/filter-clause.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x2001' onclick='hideorshow("x2001","x2002")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2002' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/over-clause.html">over-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x2003' onclick='hideorshow("x2003","x2004")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2004' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram over-clause" src="images/syntax/over-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/frame-spec.html">frame-spec:</a></b>
<button id='x2005' onclick='hideorshow("x2005","x2006")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2006' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram frame-spec" src="images/syntax/frame-spec.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>

<button id='x2007' onclick='hideorshow("x2007","x2008")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2008' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x2009' onclick='hideorshow("x2009","x2010")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2010' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x2011' onclick='hideorshow("x2011","x2012")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2012' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x2013' onclick='hideorshow("x2013","x2014")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2014' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x2015' onclick='hideorshow("x2015","x2016")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2016' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x2017' onclick='hideorshow("x2017","x2018")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2018' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x2019' onclick='hideorshow("x2019","x2020")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2020' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x2021' onclick='hideorshow("x2021","x2022")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2022' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</div>











<p><b><a href="syntax/window-defn.html">window-defn:</a></b>

<button id='x2023' onclick='hideorshow("x2023","x2024")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2024' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram window-defn" src="images/syntax/window-defn.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/frame-spec.html">frame-spec:</a></b>

<button id='x2025' onclick='hideorshow("x2025","x2026")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2026' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram frame-spec" src="images/syntax/frame-spec.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x2027' onclick='hideorshow("x2027","x2028")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2028' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x2029' onclick='hideorshow("x2029","x2030")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2030' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>

<button id='x2031' onclick='hideorshow("x2031","x2032")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2032' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-core.html">select-core:</a></b>
<button id='x2033' onclick='hideorshow("x2033","x2034")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x2034' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-core" src="images/syntax/select-core.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x2035' onclick='hideorshow("x2035","x2036")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2036' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x2037' onclick='hideorshow("x2037","x2038")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2038' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x2039' onclick='hideorshow("x2039","x2040")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2040' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x2041' onclick='hideorshow("x2041","x2042")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2042' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x2043' onclick='hideorshow("x2043","x2044")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2044' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x2045' onclick='hideorshow("x2045","x2046")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2046' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x2047' onclick='hideorshow("x2047","x2048")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2048' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/window-defn.html">window-defn:</a></b>
<button id='x2049' onclick='hideorshow("x2049","x2050")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2050' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram window-defn" src="images/syntax/window-defn.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/frame-spec.html">frame-spec:</a></b>
<button id='x2051' onclick='hideorshow("x2051","x2052")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2052' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram frame-spec" src="images/syntax/frame-spec.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>


................................................................................

<p>If the FROM clause is omitted from a simple SELECT statement, then the 
input data is implicitly a single row zero columns wide (i.e. <i>N</i>=1 and
<i>M</i>=0).

<p>If a FROM clause is specified, the data on which a simple SELECT query
operates comes from the one or more tables or subqueries (SELECT statements
in parentheses) specified following the FROM keyword. A subquery specified
in the <span class='yyterm'>table-or-subquery</span> following the FROM clause in a 
simple SELECT statement is
handled as if it was a table containing the data returned by executing the
subquery statement. Each column of the subquery has the
<a href="datatype3.html#collation">collation sequence</a> and <a href="datatype3.html#affinity">affinity</a> of the corresponding expression
in the subquery statement.

................................................................................
have the same value for "a".  But what is the result of the bare 
column "b"? The answer is that the "b" result will be the
value for "b" in one of the input rows that form the aggregate.
The problem is that you usually do not know which input row is used
to compute "b", and so in many cases the value for "b" is undefined.
</p>
<p>
Special processing occurs when the aggregate function is 
either <a href="lang_aggfunc.html#maxggunc">min()</a> or <a href="lang_aggfunc.html#minggunc">max()</a>.  Example:
<blockquote><pre>
SELECT a, b, max(c) FROM tab1 GROUP BY a;
</pre></blockquote>
When the <a href="lang_aggfunc.html#maxggunc">min()</a> or <a href="lang_aggfunc.html#minggunc">max()</a> aggregate functions 
are used in an aggregate query, all bare columns in the result set 
take values from the input
................................................................................
<h3>Compound Select Statements</h3>

<p>Two or more <a href="lang_select.html#simpleselect">simple SELECT</a> statements may be connected together to form
a compound SELECT using the UNION, UNION ALL, INTERSECT or EXCEPT operator,
as shown by the following diagram:

<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-select-stmt.html">compound-select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x2053' onclick='hideorshow("x2053","x2054")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x2054' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-select-stmt" src="images/syntax/compound-select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x2055' onclick='hideorshow("x2055","x2056")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2056' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x2057' onclick='hideorshow("x2057","x2058")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2058' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x2059' onclick='hideorshow("x2059","x2060")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2060' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x2061' onclick='hideorshow("x2061","x2062")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2062' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x2063' onclick='hideorshow("x2063","x2064")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2064' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x2065' onclick='hideorshow("x2065","x2066")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2066' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x2067' onclick='hideorshow("x2067","x2068")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2068' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x2069' onclick='hideorshow("x2069","x2070")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2070' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/window-defn.html">window-defn:</a></b>
<button id='x2071' onclick='hideorshow("x2071","x2072")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2072' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram window-defn" src="images/syntax/window-defn.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/frame-spec.html">frame-spec:</a></b>
<button id='x2073' onclick='hideorshow("x2073","x2074")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2074' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram frame-spec" src="images/syntax/frame-spec.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x2075' onclick='hideorshow("x2075","x2076")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2076' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/filter-clause.html">filter-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x2077' onclick='hideorshow("x2077","x2078")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2078' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram filter-clause" src="images/syntax/filter-clause.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x2079' onclick='hideorshow("x2079","x2080")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2080' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/over-clause.html">over-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x2081' onclick='hideorshow("x2081","x2082")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2082' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram over-clause" src="images/syntax/over-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/frame-spec.html">frame-spec:</a></b>
<button id='x2083' onclick='hideorshow("x2083","x2084")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2084' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram frame-spec" src="images/syntax/frame-spec.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>

<button id='x2085' onclick='hideorshow("x2085","x2086")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2086' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x2087' onclick='hideorshow("x2087","x2088")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2088' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x2089' onclick='hideorshow("x2089","x2090")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2090' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x2091' onclick='hideorshow("x2091","x2092")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2092' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x2093' onclick='hideorshow("x2093","x2094")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2094' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x2095' onclick='hideorshow("x2095","x2096")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2096' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x2097' onclick='hideorshow("x2097","x2098")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2098' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x2099' onclick='hideorshow("x2099","x2100")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2100' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</div>











<p><b><a href="syntax/window-defn.html">window-defn:</a></b>

<button id='x2101' onclick='hideorshow("x2101","x2102")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2102' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram window-defn" src="images/syntax/window-defn.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/frame-spec.html">frame-spec:</a></b>

<button id='x2103' onclick='hideorshow("x2103","x2104")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2104' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram frame-spec" src="images/syntax/frame-spec.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x2105' onclick='hideorshow("x2105","x2106")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2106' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x2107' onclick='hideorshow("x2107","x2108")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2108' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>

<button id='x2109' onclick='hideorshow("x2109","x2110")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2110' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-core.html">select-core:</a></b>
<button id='x2111' onclick='hideorshow("x2111","x2112")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2112' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-core" src="images/syntax/select-core.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x2113' onclick='hideorshow("x2113","x2114")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2114' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x2115' onclick='hideorshow("x2115","x2116")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2116' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x2117' onclick='hideorshow("x2117","x2118")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2118' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x2119' onclick='hideorshow("x2119","x2120")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2120' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x2121' onclick='hideorshow("x2121","x2122")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2122' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x2123' onclick='hideorshow("x2123","x2124")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2124' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x2125' onclick='hideorshow("x2125","x2126")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2126' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/window-defn.html">window-defn:</a></b>
<button id='x2127' onclick='hideorshow("x2127","x2128")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2128' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram window-defn" src="images/syntax/window-defn.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/frame-spec.html">frame-spec:</a></b>
<button id='x2129' onclick='hideorshow("x2129","x2130")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2130' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram frame-spec" src="images/syntax/frame-spec.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>


................................................................................
by evaluating the second left-most expression and so on. The order in which
two rows for which all ORDER BY expressions evaluate to equal values are
returned is undefined. Each ORDER BY expression may be optionally followed
by one of the keywords ASC (smaller values are returned first) or DESC (larger
values are returned first). If neither ASC or DESC are specified, rows
are sorted in ascending (smaller values first) order by default.

<a name="nullslast"></a>

<p>SQLite considers NULL values to be smaller than any other values
for sorting purposes.  Hence, NULLs naturally appear at the beginning
of an ASC order-by and at the end of a DESC order-by.  This can be changed
using the "ASC NULLS LAST" or "DESC NULLS FIRST" syntax.

<p>Each ORDER BY expression is processed as follows:</p>

<ol>
<li><p>If the ORDER BY expression is a constant integer K then the
expression is considered an alias for the K-th column of the result set
(columns are numbered from left to right starting with 1).

Changes to Doc/Extra/Core/lang_transaction.html.

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</script>
</div>
<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>BEGIN TRANSACTION</h2></div><p><b><a href="syntax/begin-stmt.html">begin-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1165' onclick='hideorshow("x1165","x1166")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1166' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram begin-stmt" src="images/syntax/begin-stmt.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/commit-stmt.html">commit-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1167' onclick='hideorshow("x1167","x1168")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1168' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram commit-stmt" src="images/syntax/commit-stmt.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/rollback-stmt.html">rollback-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1169' onclick='hideorshow("x1169","x1170")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1170' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram rollback-stmt" src="images/syntax/rollback-stmt.gif" />
</div>


<p>
No changes can be made to the database except within a transaction.
Any command that changes the database (basically, any SQL command

other than <a href="lang_select.html">SELECT</a>) will automatically start a transaction if
one is not already in effect.  Automatically started transactions
are committed when the last query finishes.
</p>

<p>
Transactions can be started manually using the BEGIN
command.  Such transactions usually persist until the next
COMMIT or ROLLBACK command.  But a transaction will also 
ROLLBACK if the database is closed or if an error occurs
................................................................................
in the syntax diagram above is only applicable to <a href="lang_savepoint.html">SAVEPOINT</a>
transactions.  An attempt to invoke the BEGIN command within
a transaction will fail with an error, regardless of whether
the transaction was started by <a href="lang_savepoint.html">SAVEPOINT</a> or a prior BEGIN.
The COMMIT command and the ROLLBACK command without the TO clause
work the same on <a href="lang_savepoint.html">SAVEPOINT</a> transactions as they do with transactions
started by BEGIN.</p>

<a name="immediate"></a>

<p>
Transactions can be deferred, immediate, or exclusive.  
The default transaction behavior is deferred.
Deferred means that no locks are acquired
on the database until the database is first accessed.  Thus with a
deferred transaction, the BEGIN statement itself does nothing to the
filesystem.  Locks
are not acquired until the first read or write operation.  The first read
operation against a database creates a <a href="lockingv3.html#shared_lock">SHARED</a> lock and the first
write operation creates a <a href="lockingv3.html#reserved_lock">RESERVED</a> lock.   Because the acquisition of
locks is deferred until they are needed, it is possible that another
thread or process could create a separate transaction and write to
the database after the BEGIN on the current thread has executed.
If the transaction is immediate, then <a href="lockingv3.html#reserved_lock">RESERVED</a> locks
are acquired on all databases as soon as the BEGIN command is
executed, without waiting for the
database to be used.  After a BEGIN IMMEDIATE, 
no other <a href="c3ref/sqlite3.html">database connection</a> will be able to write to the database or
do a BEGIN IMMEDIATE or BEGIN EXCLUSIVE.  Other processes can continue
to read from the database, however.  An exclusive transaction causes
<a href="lockingv3.html#excl_lock">EXCLUSIVE</a> locks to be acquired on all databases.  After a BEGIN
EXCLUSIVE, no other <a href="c3ref/sqlite3.html">database connection</a> except for <a href="pragma.html#pragma_read_uncommitted">read_uncommitted</a>
connections will be able to read the database and no other connection without
exception will be able to write the database until the transaction is
complete.
</p>














































<p>
An implicit transaction (a transaction that is started automatically,
not a transaction started by BEGIN) is committed automatically when
the last active statement finishes.  A statement finishes when its

prepared statement is <a href="c3ref/reset.html">reset</a> or
<a href="c3ref/finalize.html">finalized</a>.  An open <a href="c3ref/blob.html">sqlite3_blob</a> used for




incremental BLOB I/O counts as an unfinished statement.  The <a href="c3ref/blob.html">sqlite3_blob</a>
finishes when it is <a href="c3ref/blob_close.html">closed</a>.
</p>

<p>
The explicit COMMIT command runs immediately, even if there are
pending <a href="lang_select.html">SELECT</a> statements.  However, if there are pending
write operations, the COMMIT command
will fail with an error code <a href="rescode.html#busy">SQLITE_BUSY</a>.
</p>

<p>
An attempt to execute COMMIT might also result in an <a href="rescode.html#busy">SQLITE_BUSY</a> return code
if an another thread or process has a <a href="lockingv3.html#shared_lock">shared lock</a> on the database
that prevented the database from being updated.  When COMMIT fails in this
way, the transaction remains active and the COMMIT can be retried later
after the reader has had a chance to clear.
</p>

<p>
In very old versions of SQLite (before version 3.7.11 - 2012-03-20)
the ROLLBACK will fail with an error code 







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<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>BEGIN TRANSACTION</h2></div><p><b><a href="syntax/begin-stmt.html">begin-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1287' onclick='hideorshow("x1287","x1288")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1288' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram begin-stmt" src="images/syntax/begin-stmt.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/commit-stmt.html">commit-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1289' onclick='hideorshow("x1289","x1290")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1290' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram commit-stmt" src="images/syntax/commit-stmt.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/rollback-stmt.html">rollback-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1291' onclick='hideorshow("x1291","x1292")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1292' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram rollback-stmt" src="images/syntax/rollback-stmt.gif" />
</div>


<p>
No reads or writes occur except within a transaction.
Any command that accesses the database (basically, any SQL command,
except a few <a href="pragma.html#syntax">PRAGMA</a> statements)
will automatically start a transaction if
one is not already in effect.  Automatically started transactions
are committed when the last SQL statement finishes.
</p>

<p>
Transactions can be started manually using the BEGIN
command.  Such transactions usually persist until the next
COMMIT or ROLLBACK command.  But a transaction will also 
ROLLBACK if the database is closed or if an error occurs
................................................................................
in the syntax diagram above is only applicable to <a href="lang_savepoint.html">SAVEPOINT</a>
transactions.  An attempt to invoke the BEGIN command within
a transaction will fail with an error, regardless of whether
the transaction was started by <a href="lang_savepoint.html">SAVEPOINT</a> or a prior BEGIN.
The COMMIT command and the ROLLBACK command without the TO clause
work the same on <a href="lang_savepoint.html">SAVEPOINT</a> transactions as they do with transactions
started by BEGIN.</p>

<h3>Read transactions versus write transactions</h3>

<p>SQLite current supports multiple simultaneous read transactions
coming from separate database connections, possibly in separate
threads or processes, but only one simultaneous write transaction.
<p>

<p>A read transaction is used for reading only.  A write transaction
allows both reading and writing.  A read transaction is started
by a SELECT statement, and a write transaction is started by 
statements like CREATE, DELETE, DROP, INSERT, or UPDATE (collectively
"write statements").  If a write statement occurs while
a read transaction is active, then the read transaction is upgraded
to write transaction if possible.  If some other database connection
has already modified the database or is already in the process of
modifying the database, then upgrading to a write transaction is
not possible and the write statement will fail with <a href="rescode.html#busy">SQLITE_BUSY</a>.
</p>

<p>
While a read transaction is active, any changes to the database that
are implemented by separate database connections will not be seen
by the database connection that started the read transaction.  If database
connection X is holding a read transaction, it is possible that some
other database connection Y might change the content of the database
while X's transaction is still open, however X will not be able to see 
those changes until after the transaction ends.  While its read
transaction is active, X will continue to see an historic snapshot
the database prior to the changes implemented by Y.
</p>


<a name="immediate"></a>

<h3>DEFERRED, IMMEDIATE, and EXCLUSIVE transactions</h3>

<p>
Transactions can be DEFERRED, IMMEDIATE, or EXCLUSIVE.
The default transaction behavior is DEFERRED.
</p>

<p>
DEFERRED means that the transaction does not actually
start until the database is first accessed.  Internally,
the BEGIN DEFERRRED statement merely sets a flag on the database 
connection that turns off the automatic commit that would normally
occur when the last statement finishes.  This causes the transaction
that is automatically started to persist until an explicit
COMMIT or ROLLBACK or until a rollback is provoked by an error
or an ON CONFLICT ROLLBACK clause.  If the first statement after
BEGIN DEFERRED is a SELECT, then a read transaction is started.
Subsequent write statements will upgrade the transaction to a
write transaction if possible, or return SQLITE_BUSY.  If the
first statement after BEGIN DEFERRED is a write statement, then
a write transaction is started.
</p>

<p>
IMMEDIATE cause the database connection to start a new write
immediately, without waiting for a writes statement.  The 
BEGIN IMMEDIATE might fail with <a href="rescode.html#busy">SQLITE_BUSY</a> if another write
transaction is already active on another database connection.
</p>

<p>
EXCLUSIVE is similar to IMMEDIATE in that a write transaction
is started immediately.  EXCLUSIVE and IMMEDIATE are the same
in <a href="wal.html">WAL mode</a>, but in other journaling modes, EXCLUSIVE prevents
other database connections from reading the database while the
transaction is underway.
</p>

<h3>Implicit versus explicit transactions</h3>

<p>
An implicit transaction (a transaction that is started automatically,
not a transaction started by BEGIN) is committed automatically when
the last active statement finishes.  A statement finishes when its
last cursor closes, which is guaranteed to happen when the
prepared statement is <a href="c3ref/reset.html">reset</a> or
<a href="c3ref/finalize.html">finalized</a>.  Some statements might "finish"
for the purpose of transaction control prior to being reset or finalized,
but there is no guarantee of this.  The only way to ensure that a
statement has "finished" is to invoke <a href="c3ref/reset.html">sqlite3_reset()</a> or
<a href="c3ref/finalize.html">sqlite3_finalize()</a> on that statement.  An open <a href="c3ref/blob.html">sqlite3_blob</a> used for
incremental BLOB I/O also counts as an unfinished statement.
The <a href="c3ref/blob.html">sqlite3_blob</a> finishes when it is <a href="c3ref/blob_close.html">closed</a>.
</p>

<p>
The explicit COMMIT command runs immediately, even if there are
pending <a href="lang_select.html">SELECT</a> statements.  However, if there are pending
write operations, the COMMIT command
will fail with an error code <a href="rescode.html#busy">SQLITE_BUSY</a>.
</p>

<p>
An attempt to execute COMMIT might also result in an <a href="rescode.html#busy">SQLITE_BUSY</a> return code
if an another thread or process has an open read connection.
When COMMIT fails in this
way, the transaction remains active and the COMMIT can be retried later
after the reader has had a chance to clear.
</p>

<p>
In very old versions of SQLite (before version 3.7.11 - 2012-03-20)
the ROLLBACK will fail with an error code 

Changes to Doc/Extra/Core/lang_update.html.

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}
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</script>
</div>
<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>UPDATE</h2></div><p><b><a href="syntax/update-stmt.html">update-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1923' onclick='hideorshow("x1923","x1924")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1924' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram update-stmt" src="images/syntax/update-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/column-name-list.html">column-name-list:</a></b>
<button id='x1925' onclick='hideorshow("x1925","x1926")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1926' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram column-name-list" src="images/syntax/column-name-list.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1927' onclick='hideorshow("x1927","x1928")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1928' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/filter.html">filter:</a></b>
<button id='x1929' onclick='hideorshow("x1929","x1930")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1930' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram filter" src="images/syntax/filter.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1931' onclick='hideorshow("x1931","x1932")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1932' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</div>















<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x1933' onclick='hideorshow("x1933","x1934")'>show</button></p>

 <div id='x1934' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1935' onclick='hideorshow("x1935","x1936")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1936' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1937' onclick='hideorshow("x1937","x1938")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1938' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1939' onclick='hideorshow("x1939","x1940")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1940' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1941' onclick='hideorshow("x1941","x1942")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1942' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1943' onclick='hideorshow("x1943","x1944")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1944' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1945' onclick='hideorshow("x1945","x1946")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1946' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1947' onclick='hideorshow("x1947","x1948")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1948' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1949' onclick='hideorshow("x1949","x1950")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1950' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1951' onclick='hideorshow("x1951","x1952")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1952' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />










</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1953' onclick='hideorshow("x1953","x1954")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1954' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1955' onclick='hideorshow("x1955","x1956")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1956' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/window-defn.html">window-defn:</a></b>
<button id='x1957' onclick='hideorshow("x1957","x1958")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1958' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram window-defn" src="images/syntax/window-defn.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/frame-spec.html">frame-spec:</a></b>
<button id='x1959' onclick='hideorshow("x1959","x1960")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1960' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram frame-spec" src="images/syntax/frame-spec.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1961' onclick='hideorshow("x1961","x1962")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1962' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/qualified-table-name.html">qualified-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1963' onclick='hideorshow("x1963","x1964")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1964' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram qualified-table-name" src="images/syntax/qualified-table-name.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/with-clause.html">with-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1965' onclick='hideorshow("x1965","x1966")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1966' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram with-clause" src="images/syntax/with-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/cte-table-name.html">cte-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1967' onclick='hideorshow("x1967","x1968")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1968' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram cte-table-name" src="images/syntax/cte-table-name.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1969' onclick='hideorshow("x1969","x1970")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1970' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1971' onclick='hideorshow("x1971","x1972")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1972' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1973' onclick='hideorshow("x1973","x1974")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1974' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1975' onclick='hideorshow("x1975","x1976")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1976' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1977' onclick='hideorshow("x1977","x1978")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1978' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1979' onclick='hideorshow("x1979","x1980")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1980' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1981' onclick='hideorshow("x1981","x1982")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1982' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1983' onclick='hideorshow("x1983","x1984")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1984' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1985' onclick='hideorshow("x1985","x1986")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1986' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/window-defn.html">window-defn:</a></b>
<button id='x1987' onclick='hideorshow("x1987","x1988")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1988' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram window-defn" src="images/syntax/window-defn.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/frame-spec.html">frame-spec:</a></b>
<button id='x1989' onclick='hideorshow("x1989","x1990")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1990' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram frame-spec" src="images/syntax/frame-spec.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
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b.innerHTML='hide';
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<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>UPDATE</h2></div><p><b><a href="syntax/update-stmt.html">update-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x2131' onclick='hideorshow("x2131","x2132")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x2132' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram update-stmt" src="images/syntax/update-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/column-name-list.html">column-name-list:</a></b>
<button id='x2133' onclick='hideorshow("x2133","x2134")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2134' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram column-name-list" src="images/syntax/column-name-list.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x2135' onclick='hideorshow("x2135","x2136")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2136' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/filter-clause.html">filter-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x2137' onclick='hideorshow("x2137","x2138")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2138' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram filter-clause" src="images/syntax/filter-clause.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x2139' onclick='hideorshow("x2139","x2140")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2140' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/over-clause.html">over-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x2141' onclick='hideorshow("x2141","x2142")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2142' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram over-clause" src="images/syntax/over-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/frame-spec.html">frame-spec:</a></b>
<button id='x2143' onclick='hideorshow("x2143","x2144")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2144' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram frame-spec" src="images/syntax/frame-spec.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x2145' onclick='hideorshow("x2145","x2146")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2146' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>

<button id='x2147' onclick='hideorshow("x2147","x2148")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2148' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x2149' onclick='hideorshow("x2149","x2150")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2150' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x2151' onclick='hideorshow("x2151","x2152")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2152' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x2153' onclick='hideorshow("x2153","x2154")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2154' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x2155' onclick='hideorshow("x2155","x2156")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2156' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x2157' onclick='hideorshow("x2157","x2158")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2158' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x2159' onclick='hideorshow("x2159","x2160")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2160' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x2161' onclick='hideorshow("x2161","x2162")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2162' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x2163' onclick='hideorshow("x2163","x2164")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2164' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x2165' onclick='hideorshow("x2165","x2166")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2166' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/window-defn.html">window-defn:</a></b>
<button id='x2167' onclick='hideorshow("x2167","x2168")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2168' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram window-defn" src="images/syntax/window-defn.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/frame-spec.html">frame-spec:</a></b>
<button id='x2169' onclick='hideorshow("x2169","x2170")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2170' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram frame-spec" src="images/syntax/frame-spec.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x2171' onclick='hideorshow("x2171","x2172")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2172' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x2173' onclick='hideorshow("x2173","x2174")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2174' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</div>















</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/qualified-table-name.html">qualified-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x2175' onclick='hideorshow("x2175","x2176")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2176' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram qualified-table-name" src="images/syntax/qualified-table-name.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/with-clause.html">with-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x2177' onclick='hideorshow("x2177","x2178")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2178' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram with-clause" src="images/syntax/with-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/cte-table-name.html">cte-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x2179' onclick='hideorshow("x2179","x2180")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2180' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram cte-table-name" src="images/syntax/cte-table-name.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x2181' onclick='hideorshow("x2181","x2182")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2182' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x2183' onclick='hideorshow("x2183","x2184")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2184' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x2185' onclick='hideorshow("x2185","x2186")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2186' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x2187' onclick='hideorshow("x2187","x2188")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2188' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x2189' onclick='hideorshow("x2189","x2190")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2190' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x2191' onclick='hideorshow("x2191","x2192")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2192' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x2193' onclick='hideorshow("x2193","x2194")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2194' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x2195' onclick='hideorshow("x2195","x2196")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2196' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x2197' onclick='hideorshow("x2197","x2198")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2198' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/window-defn.html">window-defn:</a></b>
<button id='x2199' onclick='hideorshow("x2199","x2200")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2200' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram window-defn" src="images/syntax/window-defn.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/frame-spec.html">frame-spec:</a></b>
<button id='x2201' onclick='hideorshow("x2201","x2202")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2202' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram frame-spec" src="images/syntax/frame-spec.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>

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<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>VACUUM</h2></div><p><b><a href="syntax/vacuum-stmt.html">vacuum-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1991' onclick='hideorshow("x1991","x1992")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1992' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram vacuum-stmt" src="images/syntax/vacuum-stmt.gif" />
</div>


<p>
  The VACUUM command rebuilds the database file, repacking it into a minimal
  amount of disk space. There are several 
................................................................................
     <a href="c3ref/c_open_autoproxy.html">SQLITE_OPEN_URI</a> flag.
</ul>

<p>
The VACUUM INTO command is transactional in the sense that
the generated output database is a consistent snapshot of the
original database.  However, if the VACUUM INTO command is
interrupted by a unplanned shutdown or power lose, then
the generated output database might be incomplete and corrupt.
Also, SQLite does not invoke fsync() or FlushFileBuffers()
on the generated database to ensure that it has reached
non-volatile storage before completing.


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<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>VACUUM</h2></div><p><b><a href="syntax/vacuum-stmt.html">vacuum-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x2203' onclick='hideorshow("x2203","x2204")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x2204' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram vacuum-stmt" src="images/syntax/vacuum-stmt.gif" />
</div>


<p>
  The VACUUM command rebuilds the database file, repacking it into a minimal
  amount of disk space. There are several 
................................................................................
     <a href="c3ref/c_open_autoproxy.html">SQLITE_OPEN_URI</a> flag.
</ul>

<p>
The VACUUM INTO command is transactional in the sense that
the generated output database is a consistent snapshot of the
original database.  However, if the VACUUM INTO command is
interrupted by an unplanned shutdown or power lose, then
the generated output database might be incomplete and corrupt.
Also, SQLite does not invoke fsync() or FlushFileBuffers()
on the generated database to ensure that it has reached
non-volatile storage before completing.


<a name="howvacuumworks"></a>

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<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>WITH clause</h2></div><p><b><a href="syntax/with-clause.html">with-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1629' onclick='hideorshow("x1629","x1630")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1630' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram with-clause" src="images/syntax/with-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/cte-table-name.html">cte-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1631' onclick='hideorshow("x1631","x1632")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1632' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram cte-table-name" src="images/syntax/cte-table-name.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1633' onclick='hideorshow("x1633","x1634")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1634' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1635' onclick='hideorshow("x1635","x1636")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1636' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1637' onclick='hideorshow("x1637","x1638")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1638' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1639' onclick='hideorshow("x1639","x1640")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1640' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/filter.html">filter:</a></b>
<button id='x1641' onclick='hideorshow("x1641","x1642")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1642' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram filter" src="images/syntax/filter.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1643' onclick='hideorshow("x1643","x1644")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1644' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</div>










<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>
<button id='x1645' onclick='hideorshow("x1645","x1646")'>show</button></p>

 <div id='x1646' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1647' onclick='hideorshow("x1647","x1648")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1648' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1649' onclick='hideorshow("x1649","x1650")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1650' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1651' onclick='hideorshow("x1651","x1652")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1652' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1653' onclick='hideorshow("x1653","x1654")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1654' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1655' onclick='hideorshow("x1655","x1656")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1656' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1657' onclick='hideorshow("x1657","x1658")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1658' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1659' onclick='hideorshow("x1659","x1660")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1660' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1661' onclick='hideorshow("x1661","x1662")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1662' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/window-defn.html">window-defn:</a></b>
<button id='x1663' onclick='hideorshow("x1663","x1664")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1664' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram window-defn" src="images/syntax/window-defn.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/frame-spec.html">frame-spec:</a></b>
<button id='x1665' onclick='hideorshow("x1665","x1666")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1666' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram frame-spec" src="images/syntax/frame-spec.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>


................................................................................
     <a href="lang_aggfunc.html">aggregate</a> or <a href="windowfunctions.html">window functions</a>.
</ol>

<p>To put it another way, a recursive common table expression must
look like the following:

<p><b><a href="syntax/recursive-cte.html">recursive-cte:</a></b>
<button id='x1667' onclick='hideorshow("x1667","x1668")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1668' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram recursive-cte" src="images/syntax/recursive-cte.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/cte-table-name.html">cte-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1669' onclick='hideorshow("x1669","x1670")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1670' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram cte-table-name" src="images/syntax/cte-table-name.gif" />
</div>
</div>


<p>Call the table named by the <a href="syntax/cte-table-name.html">cte-table-name</a> in a recursive
common table expression the "recursive table".







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</script>
</div>
<div class=nosearch><h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1><p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p><h2>WITH clause</h2></div><p><b><a href="syntax/with-clause.html">with-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1817' onclick='hideorshow("x1817","x1818")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1818' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram with-clause" src="images/syntax/with-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/cte-table-name.html">cte-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1819' onclick='hideorshow("x1819","x1820")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1820' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram cte-table-name" src="images/syntax/cte-table-name.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/select-stmt.html">select-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x1821' onclick='hideorshow("x1821","x1822")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1822' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/common-table-expression.html">common-table-expression:</a></b>
<button id='x1823' onclick='hideorshow("x1823","x1824")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1824' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/compound-operator.html">compound-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1825' onclick='hideorshow("x1825","x1826")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1826' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/expr.html">expr:</a></b>
<button id='x1827' onclick='hideorshow("x1827","x1828")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1828' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="images/syntax/expr.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/filter-clause.html">filter-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1829' onclick='hideorshow("x1829","x1830")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1830' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram filter-clause" src="images/syntax/filter-clause.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/literal-value.html">literal-value:</a></b>
<button id='x1831' onclick='hideorshow("x1831","x1832")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1832' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/over-clause.html">over-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1833' onclick='hideorshow("x1833","x1834")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1834' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram over-clause" src="images/syntax/over-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/frame-spec.html">frame-spec:</a></b>
<button id='x1835' onclick='hideorshow("x1835","x1836")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1836' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram frame-spec" src="images/syntax/frame-spec.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/raise-function.html">raise-function:</a></b>

<button id='x1837' onclick='hideorshow("x1837","x1838")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1838' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/type-name.html">type-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1839' onclick='hideorshow("x1839","x1840")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1840' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="images/syntax/type-name.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x1841' onclick='hideorshow("x1841","x1842")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1842' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-clause.html">join-clause:</a></b>
<button id='x1843' onclick='hideorshow("x1843","x1844")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1844' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-constraint.html">join-constraint:</a></b>
<button id='x1845' onclick='hideorshow("x1845","x1846")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1846' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/join-operator.html">join-operator:</a></b>
<button id='x1847' onclick='hideorshow("x1847","x1848")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1848' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif" />
</div>
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/ordering-term.html">ordering-term:</a></b>
<button id='x1849' onclick='hideorshow("x1849","x1850")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1850' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/result-column.html">result-column:</a></b>
<button id='x1851' onclick='hideorshow("x1851","x1852")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1852' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="images/syntax/result-column.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/table-or-subquery.html">table-or-subquery:</a></b>
<button id='x1853' onclick='hideorshow("x1853","x1854")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1854' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif" />
</div>
<p><b><a href="syntax/window-defn.html">window-defn:</a></b>
<button id='x1855' onclick='hideorshow("x1855","x1856")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1856' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram window-defn" src="images/syntax/window-defn.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/frame-spec.html">frame-spec:</a></b>
<button id='x1857' onclick='hideorshow("x1857","x1858")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1858' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram frame-spec" src="images/syntax/frame-spec.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>


................................................................................
     <a href="lang_aggfunc.html">aggregate</a> or <a href="windowfunctions.html">window functions</a>.
</ol>

<p>To put it another way, a recursive common table expression must
look like the following:

<p><b><a href="syntax/recursive-cte.html">recursive-cte:</a></b>
<button id='x1859' onclick='hideorshow("x1859","x1860")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x1860' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram recursive-cte" src="images/syntax/recursive-cte.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/cte-table-name.html">cte-table-name:</a></b>
<button id='x1861' onclick='hideorshow("x1861","x1862")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x1862' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram cte-table-name" src="images/syntax/cte-table-name.gif" />
</div>
</div>


<p>Call the table named by the <a href="syntax/cte-table-name.html">cte-table-name</a> in a recursive
common table expression the "recursive table".

Changes to Doc/Extra/Core/pragma.html.

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<p>The PRAGMA statement is an SQL extension specific to SQLite and used to 
modify the operation of the SQLite library or to query the SQLite library for 
internal (non-table) data. The PRAGMA statement is issued using the same
interface as other SQLite commands (e.g. <a href="lang_select.html">SELECT</a>, <a href="lang_insert.html">INSERT</a>) but is
different in the following important respects:
</p>
<ul>


<li>Specific pragma statements may be removed and others added in future
    releases of SQLite. There is no guarantee of backwards compatibility.
<li>No error messages are generated if an unknown pragma is issued.
    Unknown pragmas are simply ignored. This means if there is a typo in 
    a pragma statement the library does not inform the user of the fact.
<li>Some pragmas take effect during the SQL compilation stage, not the
    execution stage. This means if using the C-language <a href="c3ref/prepare.html">sqlite3_prepare()</a>, 
................................................................................
    <a href="c3ref/step.html">sqlite3_step()</a>, <a href="c3ref/finalize.html">sqlite3_finalize()</a> API (or similar in a wrapper 
    interface), the pragma may run during the <a href="c3ref/prepare.html">sqlite3_prepare()</a> call,
    not during the <a href="c3ref/step.html">sqlite3_step()</a> call as normal SQL statements do.
    Or the pragma might run during sqlite3_step() just like normal
    SQL statements.  Whether or not the pragma runs during sqlite3_prepare()
    or sqlite3_step() depends on the pragma and on the specific release
    of SQLite.
<li>The pragma command is specific to SQLite and is
    not compatible with any other SQL database engine.



</ul>

<p>The C-language API for SQLite provides the <a href="c3ref/c_fcntl_begin_atomic_write.html#sqlitefcntlpragma">SQLITE_FCNTL_PRAGMA</a>
<a href="c3ref/file_control.html">file control</a> which gives <a href="vfs.html">VFS</a> implementations the
opportunity to add new PRAGMA statements or to override the meaning of
built-in PRAGMA statements.</p>


<hr /><a name="syntax"></a>
<h2>PRAGMA command syntax</h2>
<p><b><a href="syntax/pragma-stmt.html">pragma-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x2035' onclick='hideorshow("x2035","x2036")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x2036' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram pragma-stmt" src="images/syntax/pragma-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/pragma-value.html">pragma-value:</a></b>
<button id='x2037' onclick='hideorshow("x2037","x2038")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x2038' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram pragma-value" src="images/syntax/pragma-value.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x2039' onclick='hideorshow("x2039","x2040")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2040' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>


<p>
................................................................................
<hr /><a name="toc"></a>
<h2>List Of PRAGMAs</h2>
<style>
#listtab34 tr td {vertical-align:top;}
</style>
<table id='listtab34' width='100%'></table>
<script>
var listitems34 = [{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_locking_mode","x":"EXCLUSIVE locking mode","s":0},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_application_id","x":"application_id","s":0},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_auto_vacuum","x":"auto_vacuum","s":0},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_automatic_index","x":"automatic_index","s":0},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_busy_timeout","x":"busy_timeout","s":0},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_cache_size","x":"cache_size","s":0},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_cache_spill","x":"cache_spill","s":0},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_case_sensitive_like","x":"case_sensitive_like","s":0},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_cell_size_check","x":"cell_size_check","s":0},
................................................................................
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_data_store_directory","x":"data_store_directory","s":3},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_data_version","x":"data_version","s":0},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_database_list","x":"database_list","s":0},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_default_cache_size","x":"default_cache_size","s":3},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_defer_foreign_keys","x":"defer_foreign_keys","s":0},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_empty_result_callbacks","x":"empty_result_callbacks","s":3},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_encoding","x":"encoding","s":0},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_locking_mode","x":"exclusive locking mode","s":0},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_foreign_key_check","x":"foreign_key_check","s":0},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_foreign_key_list","x":"foreign_key_list","s":0},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_foreign_keys","x":"foreign_keys","s":0},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_freelist_count","x":"freelist_count","s":0},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_full_column_names","x":"full_column_names","s":3},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_fullfsync","x":"fullfsync","s":0},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_function_list","x":"function_list","s":4},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_ignore_check_constraints","x":"ignore_check_constraints","s":0},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_incremental_vacuum","x":"incremental_vacuum","s":0},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_index_info","x":"index_info","s":0},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_index_list","x":"index_list","s":0},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_index_xinfo","x":"index_xinfo","s":0},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_integrity_check","x":"integrity_check","s":0},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_journal_mode","x":"journal_mode","s":0},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_journal_size_limit","x":"journal_size_limit","s":0},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_legacy_alter_table","x":"legacy_alter_table","s":0},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_legacy_file_format","x":"legacy_file_format","s":0},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_locking_mode","x":"locking_mode","s":0},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_max_page_count","x":"max_page_count","s":0},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_mmap_size","x":"mmap_size","s":0},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_module_list","x":"module_list","s":4},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_optimize","x":"optimize","s":0},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_page_count","x":"page_count","s":0},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_page_size","x":"page_size","s":0},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_parser_trace","x":"parser_trace","s":4},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_journal_mode","x":"persistent journal mode","s":0},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_pragma_list","x":"pragma_list","s":4},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_query_only","x":"query_only","s":0},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_quick_check","x":"quick_check","s":0},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_read_uncommitted","x":"read_uncommitted","s":0},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_recursive_triggers","x":"recursive_triggers","s":0},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_reverse_unordered_selects","x":"reverse_unordered_selects","s":0},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_schema_version","x":"schema_version","s":5},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_secure_delete","x":"secure_delete","s":0},
................................................................................
    use of this pragma at the earliest opportunity.  This pragma may be omitted
    from the build when SQLite is compiled using <a href="compile.html#omit_deprecated">SQLITE_OMIT_DEPRECATED</a>.
    </p>
  
<a name="pragma_encoding"></a>
<h _id=pragma_encoding style="display:none"> PRAGMA encoding</h><hr>
   <p><b>PRAGMA encoding;
       <br>PRAGMA encoding = "UTF-8";
       <br>PRAGMA encoding = "UTF-16";
       <br>PRAGMA encoding = "UTF-16le";
       <br>PRAGMA encoding = "UTF-16be";</b></p>
    <p>In first form, if the main database has already been
    created, then this pragma returns the text encoding used by the
    main database, one of "UTF-8", "UTF-16le" (little-endian UTF-16
    encoding) or "UTF-16be" (big-endian UTF-16 encoding).  If the main
    database has not already been created, then the value returned is the
    text encoding that will be used to create the main database, if 
    it is created by this session.</p>

    <p>The second through fifth forms of this pragma
    set the encoding that the main database will be created with if
    it is created by this session. The string "UTF-16" is interpreted
    as "UTF-16 encoding using native machine byte-ordering".  It is not
    possible to change the text encoding of a database after it has been
    created and any attempt to do so will be silently ignored.</p>

    <p>Once an encoding has been set for a database, it cannot be changed.</p>

    <p>Databases created by the <a href="lang_attach.html">ATTACH</a> command always use the same encoding
................................................................................

    <p>See also <a href="pragma.html#pragma_checkpoint_fullfsync">checkpoint_fullfsync</a>.</p>
<a name="pragma_function_list"></a>
<h _id=pragma_function_list style="display:none"> PRAGMA function_list</h><hr>
    <p><b>PRAGMA function_list;</b>
    <p>This pragma returns a list of SQL functions
    known to the database connection.

     <p style='background-color: #f0e0ff;'>
    This pragma is only available if SQLite is built using the
    <a href="compile.html#introspection_pragmas">-DSQLITE_INTROSPECTION_PRAGMAS</a> compile-time option.
  
<a name="pragma_ignore_check_constraints"></a>
<h _id=pragma_ignore_check_constraints style="display:none"> PRAGMA ignore_check_constraints</h><hr>
    <p><b>PRAGMA ignore_check_constraints  = </b><i>boolean</i><b>;</b></p>

    <p>This pragma enables or disables the enforcement of CHECK constraints.
    The default setting is off, meaning that CHECK constraints are
    enforced by default.</p>
................................................................................
    index-columns are not shown by the index_info pragma, but they are
    listed by the <a href="pragma.html#pragma_index_xinfo">index_xinfo pragma</a>.</p>

    <p>Output columns from the index_info pragma are as follows:
    <ol>
    <li>The rank of the column within the index.  (0 means left-most.)
    <li>The rank of the column within the table being indexed.


    <li>The name of the column being indexed.

    </ol>







<a name="pragma_index_list"></a>
<h _id=pragma_index_list style="display:none"> PRAGMA index_list</h><hr>
    <p><b>PRAGMA </b><i>schema.</i><b>index_list(</b><i>table-name</i><b>);</b></p>
    <p>This pragma returns one row for each index associated with the
    given table.
    <p>Output columns from the index_list pragma are as follows:
    <ol>
................................................................................
    locate the table entry that corresponds to each index entry.)

    <p>Output columns from the index_xinfo pragma are as follows:
    <ol>
    <li>The rank of the column within the index. (0 means left-most.
         Key columns come before auxiliary columns.)
    <li>The rank of the column within the table being indexed, or -1 if
         the index-column is the <a href="lang_createtable.html#rowid">rowid</a> of the table being indexed.

    <li>The name of the column being indexed, or NULL if the index-column
         is the <a href="lang_createtable.html#rowid">rowid</a> of the table being indexed.

    <li>1 if the index-column is sorted in reverse (DESC) order by the
         index and 0 otherwise.
    <li>The name for the <a href="datatype3.html#collation">collating sequence</a>
         used to compare values in the index-column.
    <li>1 if the index-column is a key column and 0 if the index-column
         is an auxiliary column.
    </ol>







<a name="pragma_integrity_check"></a>
<h _id=pragma_integrity_check style="display:none"> PRAGMA integrity_check</h><hr>
    <p><b>PRAGMA </b><i>schema.</i><b>integrity_check;
      <br>PRAGMA </b><i>schema.</i><b>integrity_check(</b><i>N</i><b>)</b></p>
    <p>This pragma does an integrity check of the entire database.  The
    integrity_check pragma
    looks for out-of-order records, missing pages, malformed records, missing
................................................................................
       and there are other SQL statements running concurrently on the same
       <a href="c3ref/sqlite3.html">database connection</a>.</p>
<a name="pragma_module_list"></a>
<h _id=pragma_module_list style="display:none"> PRAGMA module_list</h><hr>
    <p><b>PRAGMA module_list;</b>
    <p>This pragma returns a list of 
    <a href="vtab.html">virtual table</a> modules registered with the database connection.

     <p style='background-color: #f0e0ff;'>
    This pragma is only available if SQLite is built using the
    <a href="compile.html#introspection_pragmas">-DSQLITE_INTROSPECTION_PRAGMAS</a> compile-time option.
  
<a name="pragma_optimize"></a>
<h _id=pragma_optimize style="display:none"> PRAGMA optimize</h><hr>
  <p><b>PRAGMA optimize;
       <br>PRAGMA optimize(</b><i>MASK</i><b>);
       <br>PRAGMA </b><i>schema</i><b>.optimize;
       <br>PRAGMA </b><i>schema</i><b>.optimize(</b><i>MASK</i><b>);</b></p>
  <p>Attempt to optimize the database.  All schemas are optimized in the 
................................................................................
    is used.</p>
  
<a name="pragma_pragma_list"></a>
<h _id=pragma_pragma_list style="display:none"> PRAGMA pragma_list</h><hr>
    <p><b>PRAGMA pragma_list;</b>
    <p>This pragma returns a list of PRAGMA commands
    known to the database connection.

     <p style='background-color: #f0e0ff;'>
    This pragma is only available if SQLite is built using the
    <a href="compile.html#introspection_pragmas">-DSQLITE_INTROSPECTION_PRAGMAS</a> compile-time option.
  
<a name="pragma_query_only"></a>
<h _id=pragma_query_only style="display:none"> PRAGMA query_only</h><hr>
    <p><b>PRAGMA query_only;
      <br>PRAGMA query_only = </b><i>boolean</i><b>;</b></p>

    <p>The query_only pragma prevents all changes to database files when
    enabled.</p>







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<p>The PRAGMA statement is an SQL extension specific to SQLite and used to 
modify the operation of the SQLite library or to query the SQLite library for 
internal (non-table) data. The PRAGMA statement is issued using the same
interface as other SQLite commands (e.g. <a href="lang_select.html">SELECT</a>, <a href="lang_insert.html">INSERT</a>) but is
different in the following important respects:
</p>
<ul>
<li>The pragma command is specific to SQLite and is
    not compatible with any other SQL database engine.
<li>Specific pragma statements may be removed and others added in future
    releases of SQLite. There is no guarantee of backwards compatibility.
<li>No error messages are generated if an unknown pragma is issued.
    Unknown pragmas are simply ignored. This means if there is a typo in 
    a pragma statement the library does not inform the user of the fact.
<li>Some pragmas take effect during the SQL compilation stage, not the
    execution stage. This means if using the C-language <a href="c3ref/prepare.html">sqlite3_prepare()</a>, 
................................................................................
    <a href="c3ref/step.html">sqlite3_step()</a>, <a href="c3ref/finalize.html">sqlite3_finalize()</a> API (or similar in a wrapper 
    interface), the pragma may run during the <a href="c3ref/prepare.html">sqlite3_prepare()</a> call,
    not during the <a href="c3ref/step.html">sqlite3_step()</a> call as normal SQL statements do.
    Or the pragma might run during sqlite3_step() just like normal
    SQL statements.  Whether or not the pragma runs during sqlite3_prepare()
    or sqlite3_step() depends on the pragma and on the specific release
    of SQLite.
<li>The <a href="lang_explain.html">EXPLAIN</a> and <a href="eqp.html">EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN</a> prefixes to SQL statements
    only affect the behavior of the statement during <a href="c3ref/step.html">sqlite3_step()</a>.
    That means that PRAGMA statements that take effect during
    <a href="c3ref/prepare.html">sqlite3_prepare()</a> will behave the same way regardless of whether or
    not they are prefaced by "EXPLAIN".
</ul>

<p>The C-language API for SQLite provides the <a href="c3ref/c_fcntl_begin_atomic_write.html#sqlitefcntlpragma">SQLITE_FCNTL_PRAGMA</a>
<a href="c3ref/file_control.html">file control</a> which gives <a href="vfs.html">VFS</a> implementations the
opportunity to add new PRAGMA statements or to override the meaning of
built-in PRAGMA statements.</p>


<hr /><a name="syntax"></a>
<h2>PRAGMA command syntax</h2>
<p><b><a href="syntax/pragma-stmt.html">pragma-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x2251' onclick='hideorshow("x2251","x2252")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x2252' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram pragma-stmt" src="images/syntax/pragma-stmt.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/pragma-value.html">pragma-value:</a></b>
<button id='x2253' onclick='hideorshow("x2253","x2254")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x2254' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram pragma-value" src="images/syntax/pragma-value.gif" />
<p><b><a href="syntax/signed-number.html">signed-number:</a></b>
<button id='x2255' onclick='hideorshow("x2255","x2256")'>show</button></p>
 <div id='x2256' style='display:none;' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif" />
</div>
</div>
</div>


<p>
................................................................................
<hr /><a name="toc"></a>
<h2>List Of PRAGMAs</h2>
<style>
#listtab34 tr td {vertical-align:top;}
</style>
<table id='listtab34' width='100%'></table>
<script>

var listitems34 = [{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_application_id","x":"application_id","s":0},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_auto_vacuum","x":"auto_vacuum","s":0},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_automatic_index","x":"automatic_index","s":0},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_busy_timeout","x":"busy_timeout","s":0},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_cache_size","x":"cache_size","s":0},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_cache_spill","x":"cache_spill","s":0},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_case_sensitive_like","x":"case_sensitive_like","s":0},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_cell_size_check","x":"cell_size_check","s":0},
................................................................................
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_data_store_directory","x":"data_store_directory","s":3},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_data_version","x":"data_version","s":0},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_database_list","x":"database_list","s":0},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_default_cache_size","x":"default_cache_size","s":3},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_defer_foreign_keys","x":"defer_foreign_keys","s":0},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_empty_result_callbacks","x":"empty_result_callbacks","s":3},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_encoding","x":"encoding","s":0},

{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_foreign_key_check","x":"foreign_key_check","s":0},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_foreign_key_list","x":"foreign_key_list","s":0},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_foreign_keys","x":"foreign_keys","s":0},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_freelist_count","x":"freelist_count","s":0},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_full_column_names","x":"full_column_names","s":3},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_fullfsync","x":"fullfsync","s":0},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_function_list","x":"function_list","s":0},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_ignore_check_constraints","x":"ignore_check_constraints","s":0},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_incremental_vacuum","x":"incremental_vacuum","s":0},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_index_info","x":"index_info","s":0},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_index_list","x":"index_list","s":0},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_index_xinfo","x":"index_xinfo","s":0},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_integrity_check","x":"integrity_check","s":0},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_journal_mode","x":"journal_mode","s":0},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_journal_size_limit","x":"journal_size_limit","s":0},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_legacy_alter_table","x":"legacy_alter_table","s":0},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_legacy_file_format","x":"legacy_file_format","s":0},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_locking_mode","x":"locking_mode","s":0},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_max_page_count","x":"max_page_count","s":0},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_mmap_size","x":"mmap_size","s":0},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_module_list","x":"module_list","s":0},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_optimize","x":"optimize","s":0},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_page_count","x":"page_count","s":0},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_page_size","x":"page_size","s":0},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_parser_trace","x":"parser_trace","s":4},

{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_pragma_list","x":"pragma_list","s":0},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_query_only","x":"query_only","s":0},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_quick_check","x":"quick_check","s":0},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_read_uncommitted","x":"read_uncommitted","s":0},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_recursive_triggers","x":"recursive_triggers","s":0},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_reverse_unordered_selects","x":"reverse_unordered_selects","s":0},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_schema_version","x":"schema_version","s":5},
{"u":"pragma.html#pragma_secure_delete","x":"secure_delete","s":0},
................................................................................
    use of this pragma at the earliest opportunity.  This pragma may be omitted
    from the build when SQLite is compiled using <a href="compile.html#omit_deprecated">SQLITE_OMIT_DEPRECATED</a>.
    </p>
  
<a name="pragma_encoding"></a>
<h _id=pragma_encoding style="display:none"> PRAGMA encoding</h><hr>
   <p><b>PRAGMA encoding;
       <br>PRAGMA encoding = 'UTF-8';
       <br>PRAGMA encoding = 'UTF-16';
       <br>PRAGMA encoding = 'UTF-16le';
       <br>PRAGMA encoding = 'UTF-16be';</b></p>
    <p>In first form, if the main database has already been
    created, then this pragma returns the text encoding used by the
    main database, one of 'UTF-8', 'UTF-16le' (little-endian UTF-16
    encoding) or 'UTF-16be' (big-endian UTF-16 encoding).  If the main
    database has not already been created, then the value returned is the
    text encoding that will be used to create the main database, if 
    it is created by this session.</p>

    <p>The second through fifth forms of this pragma
    set the encoding that the main database will be created with if
    it is created by this session. The string 'UTF-16' is interpreted
    as "UTF-16 encoding using native machine byte-ordering".  It is not
    possible to change the text encoding of a database after it has been
    created and any attempt to do so will be silently ignored.</p>

    <p>Once an encoding has been set for a database, it cannot be changed.</p>

    <p>Databases created by the <a href="lang_attach.html">ATTACH</a> command always use the same encoding
................................................................................

    <p>See also <a href="pragma.html#pragma_checkpoint_fullfsync">checkpoint_fullfsync</a>.</p>
<a name="pragma_function_list"></a>
<h _id=pragma_function_list style="display:none"> PRAGMA function_list</h><hr>
    <p><b>PRAGMA function_list;</b>
    <p>This pragma returns a list of SQL functions
    known to the database connection.





<a name="pragma_ignore_check_constraints"></a>
<h _id=pragma_ignore_check_constraints style="display:none"> PRAGMA ignore_check_constraints</h><hr>
    <p><b>PRAGMA ignore_check_constraints  = </b><i>boolean</i><b>;</b></p>

    <p>This pragma enables or disables the enforcement of CHECK constraints.
    The default setting is off, meaning that CHECK constraints are
    enforced by default.</p>
................................................................................
    index-columns are not shown by the index_info pragma, but they are
    listed by the <a href="pragma.html#pragma_index_xinfo">index_xinfo pragma</a>.</p>

    <p>Output columns from the index_info pragma are as follows:
    <ol>
    <li>The rank of the column within the index.  (0 means left-most.)
    <li>The rank of the column within the table being indexed.
        A value of -1 means <a href="lang_createtable.html#rowid">rowid</a> and a value of -2 means that an
        <a href="expridx.html">expression</a> is being used.
    <li>The name of the column being indexed.  This columns is NULL
        if the column is the <a href="lang_createtable.html#rowid">rowid</a> or an <a href="expridx.html">expression</a>.
    </ol>

    <p>If there is no index named <i>index-name</i> but there is a
    <a href="withoutrowid.html">WITHOUT ROWID</a> table with that name, then (as of
    SQLite <a href="releaselog/3_30_0.html">version 3.30.0</a> on 2019-10-04) this pragma returns the
    PRIMARY KEY columns of the WITHOUT ROWID table as they are used
    in the records of the underlying b-tree, which is to say with
    duplicate columns removed.
<a name="pragma_index_list"></a>
<h _id=pragma_index_list style="display:none"> PRAGMA index_list</h><hr>
    <p><b>PRAGMA </b><i>schema.</i><b>index_list(</b><i>table-name</i><b>);</b></p>
    <p>This pragma returns one row for each index associated with the
    given table.
    <p>Output columns from the index_list pragma are as follows:
    <ol>
................................................................................
    locate the table entry that corresponds to each index entry.)

    <p>Output columns from the index_xinfo pragma are as follows:
    <ol>
    <li>The rank of the column within the index. (0 means left-most.
         Key columns come before auxiliary columns.)
    <li>The rank of the column within the table being indexed, or -1 if
         the index-column is the <a href="lang_createtable.html#rowid">rowid</a> of the table being indexed and -2
         if the <a href="expridx.html">index is on an expression</a>.
    <li>The name of the column being indexed, or NULL if the index-column
         is the <a href="lang_createtable.html#rowid">rowid</a> of the table being indexed or an
         <a href="expridx.html">expression</a>.
    <li>1 if the index-column is sorted in reverse (DESC) order by the
         index and 0 otherwise.
    <li>The name for the <a href="datatype3.html#collation">collating sequence</a>
         used to compare values in the index-column.
    <li>1 if the index-column is a key column and 0 if the index-column
         is an auxiliary column.
    </ol>

    <p>If there is no index named <i>index-name</i> but there is a
    <a href="withoutrowid.html">WITHOUT ROWID</a> table with that name, then (as of
    SQLite <a href="releaselog/3_30_0.html">version 3.30.0</a> on 2019-10-04) this pragma returns the
    columns of the WITHOUT ROWID table as they are used
    in the records of the underlying b-tree, which is to say with
    de-duplicated PRIMARY KEY columns first followed by data columns.
<a name="pragma_integrity_check"></a>
<h _id=pragma_integrity_check style="display:none"> PRAGMA integrity_check</h><hr>
    <p><b>PRAGMA </b><i>schema.</i><b>integrity_check;
      <br>PRAGMA </b><i>schema.</i><b>integrity_check(</b><i>N</i><b>)</b></p>
    <p>This pragma does an integrity check of the entire database.  The
    integrity_check pragma
    looks for out-of-order records, missing pages, malformed records, missing
................................................................................
       and there are other SQL statements running concurrently on the same
       <a href="c3ref/sqlite3.html">database connection</a>.</p>
<a name="pragma_module_list"></a>
<h _id=pragma_module_list style="display:none"> PRAGMA module_list</h><hr>
    <p><b>PRAGMA module_list;</b>
    <p>This pragma returns a list of 
    <a href="vtab.html">virtual table</a> modules registered with the database connection.





<a name="pragma_optimize"></a>
<h _id=pragma_optimize style="display:none"> PRAGMA optimize</h><hr>
  <p><b>PRAGMA optimize;
       <br>PRAGMA optimize(</b><i>MASK</i><b>);
       <br>PRAGMA </b><i>schema</i><b>.optimize;
       <br>PRAGMA </b><i>schema</i><b>.optimize(</b><i>MASK</i><b>);</b></p>
  <p>Attempt to optimize the database.  All schemas are optimized in the 
................................................................................
    is used.</p>
  
<a name="pragma_pragma_list"></a>
<h _id=pragma_pragma_list style="display:none"> PRAGMA pragma_list</h><hr>
    <p><b>PRAGMA pragma_list;</b>
    <p>This pragma returns a list of PRAGMA commands
    known to the database connection.





<a name="pragma_query_only"></a>
<h _id=pragma_query_only style="display:none"> PRAGMA query_only</h><hr>
    <p><b>PRAGMA query_only;
      <br>PRAGMA query_only = </b><i>boolean</i><b>;</b></p>

    <p>The query_only pragma prevents all changes to database files when
    enabled.</p>

Changes to Doc/Extra/Core/syntax.html.

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<h1 align="center">List of SQLite Syntax Diagrams</h1>

<style>
#listtab42 tr td {vertical-align:top;}
</style>
<table id='listtab42' width='100%'></table>
<script>

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{"u":"syntax/recursive-cte.html","x":"recursive-cte","s":0},
{"u":"syntax/reindex-stmt.html","x":"reindex-stmt","s":0},
{"u":"syntax/release-stmt.html","x":"release-stmt","s":0},
{"u":"syntax/result-column.html","x":"result-column","s":0},
{"u":"syntax/rollback-stmt.html","x":"rollback-stmt","s":0},
{"u":"syntax/savepoint-stmt.html","x":"savepoint-stmt","s":0},
{"u":"syntax/select-core.html","x":"select-core","s":0},
{"u":"syntax/select-stmt.html","x":"select-stmt","s":0},
{"u":"syntax/signed-number.html","x":"signed-number","s":0},

{"u":"syntax/simple-select-stmt.html","x":"simple-select-stmt","s":0},
{"u":"syntax/sql-stmt.html","x":"sql-stmt","s":0},
{"u":"syntax/sql-stmt-list.html","x":"sql-stmt-list","s":0},
{"u":"syntax/table-constraint.html","x":"table-constraint","s":0},
{"u":"syntax/table-or-subquery.html","x":"table-or-subquery","s":0},
{"u":"syntax/type-name.html","x":"type-name","s":0},
{"u":"syntax/update-stmt.html","x":"update-stmt","s":0},







>
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<h1 align="center">List of SQLite Syntax Diagrams</h1>

<style>
#listtab42 tr td {vertical-align:top;}
</style>
<table id='listtab42' width='100%'></table>
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................................................................................
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{"u":"syntax/frame-spec.html","x":"frame-spec","s":0},

{"u":"syntax/indexed-column.html","x":"indexed-column","s":0},
{"u":"syntax/insert-stmt.html","x":"insert-stmt","s":0},
{"u":"syntax/join-clause.html","x":"join-clause","s":0},
{"u":"syntax/join-constraint.html","x":"join-constraint","s":0},
{"u":"syntax/join-operator.html","x":"join-operator","s":0},
{"u":"syntax/literal-value.html","x":"literal-value","s":0},
{"u":"syntax/numeric-literal.html","x":"numeric-literal","s":0},
{"u":"syntax/ordering-term.html","x":"ordering-term","s":0},
{"u":"syntax/over-clause.html","x":"over-clause","s":0},
{"u":"syntax/pragma-stmt.html","x":"pragma-stmt","s":0},
{"u":"syntax/pragma-value.html","x":"pragma-value","s":0},
{"u":"syntax/qualified-table-name.html","x":"qualified-table-name","s":0},
{"u":"syntax/raise-function.html","x":"raise-function","s":0},
{"u":"syntax/recursive-cte.html","x":"recursive-cte","s":0},
{"u":"syntax/reindex-stmt.html","x":"reindex-stmt","s":0},
{"u":"syntax/release-stmt.html","x":"release-stmt","s":0},
{"u":"syntax/result-column.html","x":"result-column","s":0},
{"u":"syntax/rollback-stmt.html","x":"rollback-stmt","s":0},
{"u":"syntax/savepoint-stmt.html","x":"savepoint-stmt","s":0},
{"u":"syntax/select-core.html","x":"select-core","s":0},
{"u":"syntax/select-stmt.html","x":"select-stmt","s":0},
{"u":"syntax/signed-number.html","x":"signed-number","s":0},
{"u":"syntax/simple-function-invocation.html","x":"simple-function-invocation","s":0},
{"u":"syntax/simple-select-stmt.html","x":"simple-select-stmt","s":0},
{"u":"syntax/sql-stmt.html","x":"sql-stmt","s":0},
{"u":"syntax/sql-stmt-list.html","x":"sql-stmt-list","s":0},
{"u":"syntax/table-constraint.html","x":"table-constraint","s":0},
{"u":"syntax/table-or-subquery.html","x":"table-or-subquery","s":0},
{"u":"syntax/type-name.html","x":"type-name","s":0},
{"u":"syntax/update-stmt.html","x":"update-stmt","s":0},

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<h1 align='center'>common-table-expression</h1>
<div class='imgcontainer'>
<img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="../images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif"></img><br>

Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./compound-select-stmt.html'>compound-select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./factored-select-stmt.html'>factored-select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./select-stmt.html'>select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./simple-select-stmt.html'>simple-select-stmt</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./select-stmt.html'>select-stmt</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_UPSERT.html'>lang_UPSERT.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_altertable.html'>lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_attach.html'>lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createindex.html'>lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtable.html'>lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtrigger.html'>lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createview.html'>lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_delete.html'>lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_expr.html'>lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_insert.html'>lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_select.html'>lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_update.html'>lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_with.html'>lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../partialindex.html'>partialindex.html</a>
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<h1 align='center'>common-table-expression</h1>
<div class='imgcontainer'>
<img alt="syntax diagram common-table-expression" src="../images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif"></img><br>

Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./compound-select-stmt.html'>compound-select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./factored-select-stmt.html'>factored-select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./select-stmt.html'>select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./simple-select-stmt.html'>simple-select-stmt</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./select-stmt.html'>select-stmt</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_UPSERT.html'>lang_UPSERT.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_aggfunc.html'>lang_aggfunc.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_altertable.html'>lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_attach.html'>lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createindex.html'>lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtable.html'>lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtrigger.html'>lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createview.html'>lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_delete.html'>lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_expr.html'>lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_insert.html'>lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_select.html'>lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_update.html'>lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_with.html'>lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../partialindex.html'>partialindex.html</a>
</div>


Changes to Doc/Extra/Core/syntax/compound-operator.html.

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<h1 align='center'>compound-operator</h1>
<div class='imgcontainer'>
<img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="../images/syntax/compound-operator.gif"></img><br>

Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./factored-select-stmt.html'>factored-select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./select-stmt.html'>select-stmt</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_UPSERT.html'>lang_UPSERT.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_altertable.html'>lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_attach.html'>lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createindex.html'>lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtable.html'>lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtrigger.html'>lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createview.html'>lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_delete.html'>lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_expr.html'>lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_insert.html'>lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_select.html'>lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_update.html'>lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_with.html'>lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../partialindex.html'>partialindex.html</a>
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<h1 align='center'>compound-operator</h1>
<div class='imgcontainer'>
<img alt="syntax diagram compound-operator" src="../images/syntax/compound-operator.gif"></img><br>

Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./factored-select-stmt.html'>factored-select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./select-stmt.html'>select-stmt</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_UPSERT.html'>lang_UPSERT.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_aggfunc.html'>lang_aggfunc.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_altertable.html'>lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_attach.html'>lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createindex.html'>lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtable.html'>lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtrigger.html'>lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createview.html'>lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_delete.html'>lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_expr.html'>lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_insert.html'>lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_select.html'>lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_update.html'>lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_with.html'>lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../partialindex.html'>partialindex.html</a>
</div>


Changes to Doc/Extra/Core/syntax/expr.html.

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</div>
<h1 align='center'>expr</h1>
<div class='imgcontainer'>
<img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="../images/syntax/expr.gif"></img><br>

Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./attach-stmt.html'>attach-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./column-constraint.html'>column-constraint</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./compound-select-stmt.html'>compound-select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./create-index-stmt.html'>create-index-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./create-trigger-stmt.html'>create-trigger-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./delete-stmt.html'>delete-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./delete-stmt-limited.html'>delete-stmt-limited</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./factored-select-stmt.html'>factored-select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./filter.html'>filter</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./frame-spec.html'>frame-spec</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./function-invocation.html'>function-invocation</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./indexed-column.html'>indexed-column</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./insert-stmt.html'>insert-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./join-constraint.html'>join-constraint</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./ordering-term.html'>ordering-term</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./result-column.html'>result-column</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./select-core.html'>select-core</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./select-stmt.html'>select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./simple-select-stmt.html'>simple-select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./table-constraint.html'>table-constraint</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./table-or-subquery.html'>table-or-subquery</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./update-stmt.html'>update-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./update-stmt-limited.html'>update-stmt-limited</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./upsert-clause.html'>upsert-clause</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./window-defn.html'>window-defn</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./window-function-invocation.html'>window-function-invocation</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./filter.html'>filter</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./literal-value.html'>literal-value</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./raise-function.html'>raise-function</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./select-stmt.html'>select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./type-name.html'>type-name</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./window-defn.html'>window-defn</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_UPSERT.html'>lang_UPSERT.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_altertable.html'>lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_attach.html'>lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createindex.html'>lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtable.html'>lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtrigger.html'>lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createview.html'>lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_delete.html'>lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_expr.html'>lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_insert.html'>lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_select.html'>lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_update.html'>lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_with.html'>lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../partialindex.html'>partialindex.html</a>
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<h1 align='center'>expr</h1>
<div class='imgcontainer'>
<img alt="syntax diagram expr" src="../images/syntax/expr.gif"></img><br>

Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./aggregate-function-invocation.html'>aggregate-function-invocation</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./attach-stmt.html'>attach-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./column-constraint.html'>column-constraint</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./compound-select-stmt.html'>compound-select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./create-index-stmt.html'>create-index-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./create-trigger-stmt.html'>create-trigger-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./delete-stmt.html'>delete-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./delete-stmt-limited.html'>delete-stmt-limited</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./factored-select-stmt.html'>factored-select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./filter-clause.html'>filter-clause</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./frame-spec.html'>frame-spec</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./indexed-column.html'>indexed-column</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./insert-stmt.html'>insert-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./join-constraint.html'>join-constraint</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./ordering-term.html'>ordering-term</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./over-clause.html'>over-clause</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./result-column.html'>result-column</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./select-core.html'>select-core</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./select-stmt.html'>select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./simple-function-invocation.html'>simple-function-invocation</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./simple-select-stmt.html'>simple-select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./table-constraint.html'>table-constraint</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./table-or-subquery.html'>table-or-subquery</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./update-stmt.html'>update-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./update-stmt-limited.html'>update-stmt-limited</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./upsert-clause.html'>upsert-clause</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./window-defn.html'>window-defn</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./window-function-invocation.html'>window-function-invocation</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./filter-clause.html'>filter-clause</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./literal-value.html'>literal-value</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./over-clause.html'>over-clause</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./raise-function.html'>raise-function</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./select-stmt.html'>select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./type-name.html'>type-name</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_UPSERT.html'>lang_UPSERT.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_aggfunc.html'>lang_aggfunc.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_altertable.html'>lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_attach.html'>lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createindex.html'>lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtable.html'>lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtrigger.html'>lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createview.html'>lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_delete.html'>lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_expr.html'>lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_insert.html'>lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_select.html'>lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_update.html'>lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_with.html'>lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../partialindex.html'>partialindex.html</a>
</div>


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<h1 align='center'>join-clause</h1>
<div class='imgcontainer'>
<img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="../images/syntax/join-clause.gif"></img><br>

Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./select-core.html'>select-core</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./select-stmt.html'>select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./table-or-subquery.html'>table-or-subquery</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./join-constraint.html'>join-constraint</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./join-operator.html'>join-operator</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./table-or-subquery.html'>table-or-subquery</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_UPSERT.html'>lang_UPSERT.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_altertable.html'>lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_attach.html'>lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createindex.html'>lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtable.html'>lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtrigger.html'>lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createview.html'>lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_delete.html'>lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_expr.html'>lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_insert.html'>lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_select.html'>lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_update.html'>lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_with.html'>lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../partialindex.html'>partialindex.html</a>
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<h1 align='center'>join-clause</h1>
<div class='imgcontainer'>
<img alt="syntax diagram join-clause" src="../images/syntax/join-clause.gif"></img><br>

Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./select-core.html'>select-core</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./select-stmt.html'>select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./table-or-subquery.html'>table-or-subquery</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./join-constraint.html'>join-constraint</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./join-operator.html'>join-operator</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./table-or-subquery.html'>table-or-subquery</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_UPSERT.html'>lang_UPSERT.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_aggfunc.html'>lang_aggfunc.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_altertable.html'>lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_attach.html'>lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createindex.html'>lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtable.html'>lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtrigger.html'>lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createview.html'>lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_delete.html'>lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_expr.html'>lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_insert.html'>lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_select.html'>lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_update.html'>lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_with.html'>lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../partialindex.html'>partialindex.html</a>
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<h1 align='center'>join-constraint</h1>
<div class='imgcontainer'>
<img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="../images/syntax/join-constraint.gif"></img><br>

Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./join-clause.html'>join-clause</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./expr.html'>expr</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_UPSERT.html'>lang_UPSERT.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_altertable.html'>lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_attach.html'>lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createindex.html'>lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtable.html'>lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtrigger.html'>lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createview.html'>lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_delete.html'>lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_expr.html'>lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_insert.html'>lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_select.html'>lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_update.html'>lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_with.html'>lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../partialindex.html'>partialindex.html</a>
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<h1 align='center'>join-constraint</h1>
<div class='imgcontainer'>
<img alt="syntax diagram join-constraint" src="../images/syntax/join-constraint.gif"></img><br>

Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./join-clause.html'>join-clause</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./expr.html'>expr</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_UPSERT.html'>lang_UPSERT.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_aggfunc.html'>lang_aggfunc.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_altertable.html'>lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_attach.html'>lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createindex.html'>lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtable.html'>lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtrigger.html'>lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createview.html'>lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_delete.html'>lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_expr.html'>lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_insert.html'>lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_select.html'>lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_update.html'>lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_with.html'>lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../partialindex.html'>partialindex.html</a>
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<h1 align='center'>join-operator</h1>
<div class='imgcontainer'>
<img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="../images/syntax/join-operator.gif"></img><br>

Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./join-clause.html'>join-clause</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_UPSERT.html'>lang_UPSERT.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_altertable.html'>lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_attach.html'>lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createindex.html'>lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtable.html'>lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtrigger.html'>lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createview.html'>lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_delete.html'>lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_expr.html'>lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_insert.html'>lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_select.html'>lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_update.html'>lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_with.html'>lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../partialindex.html'>partialindex.html</a>
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<h1 align='center'>join-operator</h1>
<div class='imgcontainer'>
<img alt="syntax diagram join-operator" src="../images/syntax/join-operator.gif"></img><br>

Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./join-clause.html'>join-clause</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_UPSERT.html'>lang_UPSERT.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_aggfunc.html'>lang_aggfunc.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_altertable.html'>lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_attach.html'>lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createindex.html'>lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtable.html'>lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtrigger.html'>lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createview.html'>lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_delete.html'>lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_expr.html'>lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_insert.html'>lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_select.html'>lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_update.html'>lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_with.html'>lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../partialindex.html'>partialindex.html</a>
</div>


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<h1 align='center'>literal-value</h1>
<div class='imgcontainer'>
<img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="../images/syntax/literal-value.gif"></img><br>

Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./column-constraint.html'>column-constraint</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./expr.html'>expr</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_UPSERT.html'>lang_UPSERT.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_altertable.html'>lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_attach.html'>lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createindex.html'>lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtable.html'>lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtrigger.html'>lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createview.html'>lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_delete.html'>lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_expr.html'>lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_insert.html'>lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_select.html'>lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_update.html'>lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_with.html'>lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../partialindex.html'>partialindex.html</a>
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<h1 align='center'>literal-value</h1>
<div class='imgcontainer'>
<img alt="syntax diagram literal-value" src="../images/syntax/literal-value.gif"></img><br>

Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./column-constraint.html'>column-constraint</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./expr.html'>expr</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_UPSERT.html'>lang_UPSERT.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_aggfunc.html'>lang_aggfunc.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_altertable.html'>lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_attach.html'>lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createindex.html'>lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtable.html'>lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtrigger.html'>lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createview.html'>lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_delete.html'>lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_expr.html'>lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_insert.html'>lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_select.html'>lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_update.html'>lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_with.html'>lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../partialindex.html'>partialindex.html</a>
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<h1 align='center'>ordering-term</h1>
<div class='imgcontainer'>
<img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="../images/syntax/ordering-term.gif"></img><br>

Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./compound-select-stmt.html'>compound-select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./delete-stmt-limited.html'>delete-stmt-limited</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./factored-select-stmt.html'>factored-select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./select-stmt.html'>select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./simple-select-stmt.html'>simple-select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./update-stmt-limited.html'>update-stmt-limited</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./window-defn.html'>window-defn</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./expr.html'>expr</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_UPSERT.html'>lang_UPSERT.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_altertable.html'>lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_attach.html'>lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createindex.html'>lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtable.html'>lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtrigger.html'>lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createview.html'>lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_delete.html'>lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_expr.html'>lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_insert.html'>lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_select.html'>lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_update.html'>lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_with.html'>lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../partialindex.html'>partialindex.html</a>
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<h1 align='center'>ordering-term</h1>
<div class='imgcontainer'>
<img alt="syntax diagram ordering-term" src="../images/syntax/ordering-term.gif"></img><br>

Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./compound-select-stmt.html'>compound-select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./delete-stmt-limited.html'>delete-stmt-limited</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./factored-select-stmt.html'>factored-select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./over-clause.html'>over-clause</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./select-stmt.html'>select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./simple-select-stmt.html'>simple-select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./update-stmt-limited.html'>update-stmt-limited</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./window-defn.html'>window-defn</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./expr.html'>expr</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_UPSERT.html'>lang_UPSERT.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_aggfunc.html'>lang_aggfunc.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_altertable.html'>lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_attach.html'>lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createindex.html'>lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtable.html'>lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtrigger.html'>lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createview.html'>lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_delete.html'>lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_expr.html'>lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_insert.html'>lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_select.html'>lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_update.html'>lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_with.html'>lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../partialindex.html'>partialindex.html</a>
</div>


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<h1 align='center'>raise-function</h1>
<div class='imgcontainer'>
<img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="../images/syntax/raise-function.gif"></img><br>

Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./expr.html'>expr</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_UPSERT.html'>lang_UPSERT.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_altertable.html'>lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_attach.html'>lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createindex.html'>lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtable.html'>lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtrigger.html'>lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createview.html'>lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_delete.html'>lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_expr.html'>lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_insert.html'>lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_select.html'>lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_update.html'>lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_with.html'>lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../partialindex.html'>partialindex.html</a>
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<h1 align='center'>raise-function</h1>
<div class='imgcontainer'>
<img alt="syntax diagram raise-function" src="../images/syntax/raise-function.gif"></img><br>

Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./expr.html'>expr</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_UPSERT.html'>lang_UPSERT.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_aggfunc.html'>lang_aggfunc.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_altertable.html'>lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_attach.html'>lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createindex.html'>lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtable.html'>lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtrigger.html'>lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createview.html'>lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_delete.html'>lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_expr.html'>lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_insert.html'>lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_select.html'>lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_update.html'>lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_with.html'>lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../partialindex.html'>partialindex.html</a>
</div>


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<h1 align='center'>result-column</h1>
<div class='imgcontainer'>
<img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="../images/syntax/result-column.gif"></img><br>

Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./select-core.html'>select-core</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./select-stmt.html'>select-stmt</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./expr.html'>expr</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_UPSERT.html'>lang_UPSERT.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_altertable.html'>lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_attach.html'>lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createindex.html'>lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtable.html'>lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtrigger.html'>lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createview.html'>lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_delete.html'>lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_expr.html'>lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_insert.html'>lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_select.html'>lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_update.html'>lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_with.html'>lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../partialindex.html'>partialindex.html</a>
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<h1 align='center'>result-column</h1>
<div class='imgcontainer'>
<img alt="syntax diagram result-column" src="../images/syntax/result-column.gif"></img><br>

Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./select-core.html'>select-core</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./select-stmt.html'>select-stmt</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./expr.html'>expr</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_UPSERT.html'>lang_UPSERT.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_aggfunc.html'>lang_aggfunc.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_altertable.html'>lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_attach.html'>lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createindex.html'>lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtable.html'>lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtrigger.html'>lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createview.html'>lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_delete.html'>lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_expr.html'>lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_insert.html'>lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_select.html'>lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_update.html'>lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_with.html'>lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../partialindex.html'>partialindex.html</a>
</div>


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<h1 align='center'>select-stmt</h1>
<div class='imgcontainer'>
<img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="../images/syntax/select-stmt.gif"></img><br>

Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./common-table-expression.html'>common-table-expression</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./create-table-stmt.html'>create-table-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./create-trigger-stmt.html'>create-trigger-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./create-view-stmt.html'>create-view-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./expr.html'>expr</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./insert-stmt.html'>insert-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./sql-stmt.html'>sql-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./table-or-subquery.html'>table-or-subquery</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./with-clause.html'>with-clause</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./common-table-expression.html'>common-table-expression</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./compound-operator.html'>compound-operator</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./expr.html'>expr</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./join-clause.html'>join-clause</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./ordering-term.html'>ordering-term</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./result-column.html'>result-column</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./table-or-subquery.html'>table-or-subquery</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./window-defn.html'>window-defn</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_UPSERT.html'>lang_UPSERT.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_altertable.html'>lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_attach.html'>lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createindex.html'>lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtable.html'>lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtrigger.html'>lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createview.html'>lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_delete.html'>lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_expr.html'>lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_insert.html'>lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_select.html'>lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_update.html'>lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_with.html'>lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../partialindex.html'>partialindex.html</a>
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<h1 align='center'>select-stmt</h1>
<div class='imgcontainer'>
<img alt="syntax diagram select-stmt" src="../images/syntax/select-stmt.gif"></img><br>

Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./common-table-expression.html'>common-table-expression</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./create-table-stmt.html'>create-table-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./create-trigger-stmt.html'>create-trigger-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./create-view-stmt.html'>create-view-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./expr.html'>expr</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./insert-stmt.html'>insert-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./sql-stmt.html'>sql-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./table-or-subquery.html'>table-or-subquery</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./with-clause.html'>with-clause</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./common-table-expression.html'>common-table-expression</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./compound-operator.html'>compound-operator</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./expr.html'>expr</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./join-clause.html'>join-clause</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./ordering-term.html'>ordering-term</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./result-column.html'>result-column</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./table-or-subquery.html'>table-or-subquery</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./window-defn.html'>window-defn</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_UPSERT.html'>lang_UPSERT.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_aggfunc.html'>lang_aggfunc.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_altertable.html'>lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_attach.html'>lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createindex.html'>lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtable.html'>lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtrigger.html'>lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createview.html'>lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_delete.html'>lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_expr.html'>lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_insert.html'>lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_select.html'>lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_update.html'>lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_with.html'>lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../partialindex.html'>partialindex.html</a>
</div>


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<h1 align='center'>signed-number</h1>
<div class='imgcontainer'>
<img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="../images/syntax/signed-number.gif"></img><br>

Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./column-constraint.html'>column-constraint</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./pragma-value.html'>pragma-value</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./type-name.html'>type-name</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_UPSERT.html'>lang_UPSERT.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_altertable.html'>lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_attach.html'>lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createindex.html'>lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtable.html'>lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtrigger.html'>lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createview.html'>lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_delete.html'>lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_expr.html'>lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_insert.html'>lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_select.html'>lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_update.html'>lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_with.html'>lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../partialindex.html'>partialindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../pragma.html'>pragma.html</a>
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<h1 align='center'>signed-number</h1>
<div class='imgcontainer'>
<img alt="syntax diagram signed-number" src="../images/syntax/signed-number.gif"></img><br>

Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./column-constraint.html'>column-constraint</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./pragma-value.html'>pragma-value</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./type-name.html'>type-name</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_UPSERT.html'>lang_UPSERT.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_aggfunc.html'>lang_aggfunc.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_altertable.html'>lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_attach.html'>lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createindex.html'>lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtable.html'>lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtrigger.html'>lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createview.html'>lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_delete.html'>lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_expr.html'>lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_insert.html'>lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_select.html'>lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_update.html'>lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_with.html'>lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../partialindex.html'>partialindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../pragma.html'>pragma.html</a>
</div>


Changes to Doc/Extra/Core/syntax/table-or-subquery.html.

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<h1 align='center'>table-or-subquery</h1>
<div class='imgcontainer'>
<img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="../images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif"></img><br>

Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./join-clause.html'>join-clause</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./select-core.html'>select-core</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./select-stmt.html'>select-stmt</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./expr.html'>expr</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./join-clause.html'>join-clause</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./select-stmt.html'>select-stmt</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_UPSERT.html'>lang_UPSERT.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_altertable.html'>lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_attach.html'>lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createindex.html'>lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtable.html'>lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtrigger.html'>lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createview.html'>lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_delete.html'>lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_expr.html'>lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_insert.html'>lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_select.html'>lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_update.html'>lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_with.html'>lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../partialindex.html'>partialindex.html</a>
</div>









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<h1 align='center'>table-or-subquery</h1>
<div class='imgcontainer'>
<img alt="syntax diagram table-or-subquery" src="../images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif"></img><br>

Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./join-clause.html'>join-clause</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./select-core.html'>select-core</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./select-stmt.html'>select-stmt</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./expr.html'>expr</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./join-clause.html'>join-clause</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./select-stmt.html'>select-stmt</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_UPSERT.html'>lang_UPSERT.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_aggfunc.html'>lang_aggfunc.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_altertable.html'>lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_attach.html'>lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createindex.html'>lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtable.html'>lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtrigger.html'>lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createview.html'>lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_delete.html'>lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_expr.html'>lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_insert.html'>lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_select.html'>lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_update.html'>lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_with.html'>lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../partialindex.html'>partialindex.html</a>
</div>


Changes to Doc/Extra/Core/syntax/type-name.html.

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</div>
<h1 align='center'>type-name</h1>
<div class='imgcontainer'>
<img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="../images/syntax/type-name.gif"></img><br>

Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./column-def.html'>column-def</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./expr.html'>expr</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./signed-number.html'>signed-number</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_UPSERT.html'>lang_UPSERT.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_altertable.html'>lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_attach.html'>lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createindex.html'>lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtable.html'>lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtrigger.html'>lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createview.html'>lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_delete.html'>lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_expr.html'>lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_insert.html'>lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_select.html'>lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_update.html'>lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_with.html'>lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../partialindex.html'>partialindex.html</a>
</div>









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<h1 align='center'>type-name</h1>
<div class='imgcontainer'>
<img alt="syntax diagram type-name" src="../images/syntax/type-name.gif"></img><br>

Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./column-def.html'>column-def</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./expr.html'>expr</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='./signed-number.html'>signed-number</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_UPSERT.html'>lang_UPSERT.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_aggfunc.html'>lang_aggfunc.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_altertable.html'>lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_attach.html'>lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createindex.html'>lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtable.html'>lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createtrigger.html'>lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_createview.html'>lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_delete.html'>lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_expr.html'>lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_insert.html'>lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_select.html'>lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_update.html'>lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../lang_with.html'>lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href='../partialindex.html'>partialindex.html</a>
</div>


Changes to Doc/Extra/Core/syntaxdiagrams.html.

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See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_altertable.html">lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_altertable.html#altertabaddcol">lang_altertable.html#altertabaddcol</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtable.html">lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtable.html#tablecoldef">lang_createtable.html#tablecoldef</a>
</div>

<a name="type-name"></a><h4>type-name:</h4><div class='imgcontainer'>
<img src="images/syntax/type-name.gif"></img><br></br>
Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#column-def">column-def</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#expr">expr</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#signed-number">signed-number</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_UPSERT.html">lang_UPSERT.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_altertable.html">lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_attach.html">lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createindex.html">lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtable.html">lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtrigger.html">lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createview.html">lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_delete.html">lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_expr.html">lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_insert.html">lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html">lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#compound">lang_select.html#compound</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#simpleselect">lang_select.html#simpleselect</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_update.html">lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_with.html">lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="partialindex.html">partialindex.html</a>
</div>

<a name="column-constraint"></a><h4>column-constraint:</h4><div class='imgcontainer'>
<img src="images/syntax/column-constraint.gif"></img><br></br>
Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#column-def">column-def</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#conflict-clause">conflict-clause</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#expr">expr</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#foreign-key-clause">foreign-key-clause</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#literal-value">literal-value</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#signed-number">signed-number</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_altertable.html">lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtable.html">lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtable.html#tablecoldef">lang_createtable.html#tablecoldef</a>
</div>

<a name="signed-number"></a><h4>signed-number:</h4><div class='imgcontainer'>
<img src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif"></img><br></br>
Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#column-constraint">column-constraint</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#pragma-value">pragma-value</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#type-name">type-name</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_UPSERT.html">lang_UPSERT.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_altertable.html">lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_attach.html">lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createindex.html">lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtable.html">lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtrigger.html">lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createview.html">lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_delete.html">lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_expr.html">lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_insert.html">lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html">lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#compound">lang_select.html#compound</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#simpleselect">lang_select.html#simpleselect</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_update.html">lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_with.html">lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="partialindex.html">partialindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="pragma.html#syntax">pragma.html#syntax</a>
</div>

<a name="table-constraint"></a><h4>table-constraint:</h4><div class='imgcontainer'>
<img src="images/syntax/table-constraint.gif"></img><br></br>
Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#create-table-stmt">create-table-stmt</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#conflict-clause">conflict-clause</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#expr">expr</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#foreign-key-clause">foreign-key-clause</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#indexed-column">indexed-column</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtable.html">lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtable.html#primkeyconst">lang_createtable.html#primkeyconst</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtable.html#tablecoldef">lang_createtable.html#tablecoldef</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtable.html#uniqueconst">lang_createtable.html#uniqueconst</a>
................................................................................
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_with.html#recursivecte">lang_with.html#recursivecte</a>
</div>

<a name="common-table-expression"></a><h4>common-table-expression:</h4><div class='imgcontainer'>
<img src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif"></img><br></br>
Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#compound-select-stmt">compound-select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#factored-select-stmt">factored-select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#select-stmt">select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#simple-select-stmt">simple-select-stmt</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#select-stmt">select-stmt</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_UPSERT.html">lang_UPSERT.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_altertable.html">lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_attach.html">lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createindex.html">lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtable.html">lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtrigger.html">lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createview.html">lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_delete.html">lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_expr.html">lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_insert.html">lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html">lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#compound">lang_select.html#compound</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#simpleselect">lang_select.html#simpleselect</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_update.html">lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_with.html">lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="partialindex.html">partialindex.html</a>
</div>

<a name="delete-stmt"></a><h4>delete-stmt:</h4><div class='imgcontainer'>
<img src="images/syntax/delete-stmt.gif"></img><br></br>
Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#create-trigger-stmt">create-trigger-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#sql-stmt">sql-stmt</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#expr">expr</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#qualified-table-name">qualified-table-name</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#with-clause">with-clause</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtrigger.html">lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_delete.html">lang_delete.html</a>
................................................................................
<img src="images/syntax/drop-view-stmt.gif"></img><br></br>
Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#sql-stmt">sql-stmt</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_dropview.html">lang_dropview.html</a>
</div>

<a name="expr"></a><h4>expr:</h4><div class='imgcontainer'>
<img src="images/syntax/expr.gif"></img><br></br>
Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#attach-stmt">attach-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#column-constraint">column-constraint</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#compound-select-stmt">compound-select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#create-index-stmt">create-index-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#create-trigger-stmt">create-trigger-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#delete-stmt">delete-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#delete-stmt-limited">delete-stmt-limited</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#factored-select-stmt">factored-select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#filter">filter</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#frame-spec">frame-spec</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#function-invocation">function-invocation</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#indexed-column">indexed-column</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#insert-stmt">insert-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#join-constraint">join-constraint</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#ordering-term">ordering-term</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#result-column">result-column</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#select-core">select-core</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#select-stmt">select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#simple-select-stmt">simple-select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#table-constraint">table-constraint</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#table-or-subquery">table-or-subquery</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#update-stmt">update-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#update-stmt-limited">update-stmt-limited</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#upsert-clause">upsert-clause</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#window-defn">window-defn</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#window-function-invocation">window-function-invocation</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#filter">filter</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#literal-value">literal-value</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#raise-function">raise-function</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#select-stmt">select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#type-name">type-name</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#window-defn">window-defn</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_UPSERT.html">lang_UPSERT.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_altertable.html">lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_attach.html">lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createindex.html">lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtable.html">lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtrigger.html">lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createview.html">lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_delete.html">lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_expr.html">lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_insert.html">lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html">lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#compound">lang_select.html#compound</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#simpleselect">lang_select.html#simpleselect</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_update.html">lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_with.html">lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="partialindex.html">partialindex.html</a>
</div>

<a name="raise-function"></a><h4>raise-function:</h4><div class='imgcontainer'>
<img src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif"></img><br></br>
Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#expr">expr</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_UPSERT.html">lang_UPSERT.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_altertable.html">lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_attach.html">lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createindex.html">lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtable.html">lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtrigger.html">lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtrigger.html#raise">lang_createtrigger.html#raise</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createview.html">lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_delete.html">lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_expr.html">lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_insert.html">lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html">lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#compound">lang_select.html#compound</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#simpleselect">lang_select.html#simpleselect</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_update.html">lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_with.html">lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="partialindex.html">partialindex.html</a>
</div>

<a name="literal-value"></a><h4>literal-value:</h4><div class='imgcontainer'>
<img src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif"></img><br></br>
Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#column-constraint">column-constraint</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#expr">expr</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_UPSERT.html">lang_UPSERT.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_altertable.html">lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_attach.html">lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createindex.html">lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtable.html">lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtrigger.html">lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createview.html">lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_delete.html">lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_expr.html">lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_insert.html">lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html">lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#compound">lang_select.html#compound</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#simpleselect">lang_select.html#simpleselect</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_update.html">lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_with.html">lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="partialindex.html">partialindex.html</a>
</div>

<a name="numeric-literal"></a><h4>numeric-literal:</h4><div class='imgcontainer'>
<img src="images/syntax/numeric-literal.gif"></img><br></br><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_expr.html#litvalue">lang_expr.html#litvalue</a>
</div>

................................................................................
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_reindex.html">lang_reindex.html</a>
</div>

<a name="select-stmt"></a><h4>select-stmt:</h4><div class='imgcontainer'>
<img src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif"></img><br></br>
Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#common-table-expression">common-table-expression</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#create-table-stmt">create-table-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#create-trigger-stmt">create-trigger-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#create-view-stmt">create-view-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#expr">expr</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#insert-stmt">insert-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#sql-stmt">sql-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#table-or-subquery">table-or-subquery</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#with-clause">with-clause</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#common-table-expression">common-table-expression</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#compound-operator">compound-operator</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#expr">expr</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#join-clause">join-clause</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#ordering-term">ordering-term</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#result-column">result-column</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#table-or-subquery">table-or-subquery</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#window-defn">window-defn</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_UPSERT.html">lang_UPSERT.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_altertable.html">lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_attach.html">lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createindex.html">lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtable.html">lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtrigger.html">lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createview.html">lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_delete.html">lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_expr.html">lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_insert.html">lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html">lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#compound">lang_select.html#compound</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#simpleselect">lang_select.html#simpleselect</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_update.html">lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_with.html">lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_with.html#recursivecte">lang_with.html#recursivecte</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="partialindex.html">partialindex.html</a>
</div>

<a name="join-clause"></a><h4>join-clause:</h4><div class='imgcontainer'>
<img src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif"></img><br></br>
Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#select-core">select-core</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#select-stmt">select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#table-or-subquery">table-or-subquery</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#join-constraint">join-constraint</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#join-operator">join-operator</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#table-or-subquery">table-or-subquery</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_UPSERT.html">lang_UPSERT.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_altertable.html">lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_attach.html">lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createindex.html">lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtable.html">lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtrigger.html">lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createview.html">lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_delete.html">lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_expr.html">lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_insert.html">lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html">lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#compound">lang_select.html#compound</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#simpleselect">lang_select.html#simpleselect</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_update.html">lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_with.html">lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="partialindex.html">partialindex.html</a>
</div>

<a name="select-core"></a><h4>select-core:</h4><div class='imgcontainer'>
<img src="images/syntax/select-core.gif"></img><br></br>
Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#compound-select-stmt">compound-select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#factored-select-stmt">factored-select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#simple-select-stmt">simple-select-stmt</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#expr">expr</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#join-clause">join-clause</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#result-column">result-column</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#table-or-subquery">table-or-subquery</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#window-defn">window-defn</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html">lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#compound">lang_select.html#compound</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#simpleselect">lang_select.html#simpleselect</a>
................................................................................
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#compound">lang_select.html#compound</a>
</div>

<a name="table-or-subquery"></a><h4>table-or-subquery:</h4><div class='imgcontainer'>
<img src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif"></img><br></br>
Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#join-clause">join-clause</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#select-core">select-core</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#select-stmt">select-stmt</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#expr">expr</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#join-clause">join-clause</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#select-stmt">select-stmt</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_UPSERT.html">lang_UPSERT.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_altertable.html">lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_attach.html">lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createindex.html">lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtable.html">lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtrigger.html">lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createview.html">lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_delete.html">lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_expr.html">lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_insert.html">lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html">lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#compound">lang_select.html#compound</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#simpleselect">lang_select.html#simpleselect</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_update.html">lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_with.html">lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="partialindex.html">partialindex.html</a>
</div>

<a name="result-column"></a><h4>result-column:</h4><div class='imgcontainer'>
<img src="images/syntax/result-column.gif"></img><br></br>
Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#select-core">select-core</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#select-stmt">select-stmt</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#expr">expr</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_UPSERT.html">lang_UPSERT.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_altertable.html">lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_attach.html">lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createindex.html">lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtable.html">lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtrigger.html">lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createview.html">lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_delete.html">lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_expr.html">lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_insert.html">lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html">lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#compound">lang_select.html#compound</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#simpleselect">lang_select.html#simpleselect</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_update.html">lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_with.html">lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="partialindex.html">partialindex.html</a>
</div>

<a name="join-operator"></a><h4>join-operator:</h4><div class='imgcontainer'>
<img src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif"></img><br></br>
Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#join-clause">join-clause</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_UPSERT.html">lang_UPSERT.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_altertable.html">lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_attach.html">lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createindex.html">lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtable.html">lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtrigger.html">lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createview.html">lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_delete.html">lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_expr.html">lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_insert.html">lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html">lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#compound">lang_select.html#compound</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#fromclause">lang_select.html#fromclause</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#simpleselect">lang_select.html#simpleselect</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_update.html">lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_with.html">lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="partialindex.html">partialindex.html</a>
</div>

<a name="join-constraint"></a><h4>join-constraint:</h4><div class='imgcontainer'>
<img src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif"></img><br></br>
Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#join-clause">join-clause</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#expr">expr</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_UPSERT.html">lang_UPSERT.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_altertable.html">lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_attach.html">lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createindex.html">lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtable.html">lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtrigger.html">lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createview.html">lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_delete.html">lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_expr.html">lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_insert.html">lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html">lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#compound">lang_select.html#compound</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#fromclause">lang_select.html#fromclause</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#simpleselect">lang_select.html#simpleselect</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_update.html">lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_with.html">lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="partialindex.html">partialindex.html</a>
</div>

<a name="ordering-term"></a><h4>ordering-term:</h4><div class='imgcontainer'>
<img src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif"></img><br></br>
Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#compound-select-stmt">compound-select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#delete-stmt-limited">delete-stmt-limited</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#factored-select-stmt">factored-select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#select-stmt">select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#simple-select-stmt">simple-select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#update-stmt-limited">update-stmt-limited</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#window-defn">window-defn</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#expr">expr</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_UPSERT.html">lang_UPSERT.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_altertable.html">lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_attach.html">lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createindex.html">lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtable.html">lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtrigger.html">lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createview.html">lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_delete.html">lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_expr.html">lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_insert.html">lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html">lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#compound">lang_select.html#compound</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#simpleselect">lang_select.html#simpleselect</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_update.html">lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_with.html">lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="partialindex.html">partialindex.html</a>
</div>

<a name="compound-operator"></a><h4>compound-operator:</h4><div class='imgcontainer'>
<img src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif"></img><br></br>
Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#factored-select-stmt">factored-select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#select-stmt">select-stmt</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_UPSERT.html">lang_UPSERT.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_altertable.html">lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_attach.html">lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createindex.html">lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtable.html">lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtrigger.html">lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createview.html">lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_delete.html">lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_expr.html">lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_insert.html">lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html">lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#compound">lang_select.html#compound</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#simpleselect">lang_select.html#simpleselect</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_update.html">lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_with.html">lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_with.html#recursivecte">lang_with.html#recursivecte</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="partialindex.html">partialindex.html</a>
</div>

<a name="update-stmt"></a><h4>update-stmt:</h4><div class='imgcontainer'>
<img src="images/syntax/update-stmt.gif"></img><br></br>
Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#create-trigger-stmt">create-trigger-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#sql-stmt">sql-stmt</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#column-name-list">column-name-list</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#expr">expr</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#qualified-table-name">qualified-table-name</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#with-clause">with-clause</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtrigger.html">lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_update.html">lang_update.html</a>
................................................................................
</div>

<a name="comment-syntax"></a><h4>comment-syntax:</h4><div class='imgcontainer'>
<img src="images/syntax/comment-syntax.gif"></img><br></br><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_comment.html">lang_comment.html</a>
</div>

<a name="filter"></a><h4>filter:</h4><div class='imgcontainer'>
<img src="images/syntax/filter.gif"></img><br></br>
Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#expr">expr</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#window-function-invocation">window-function-invocation</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#expr">expr</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_UPSERT.html">lang_UPSERT.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_altertable.html">lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_attach.html">lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createindex.html">lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtable.html">lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtrigger.html">lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createview.html">lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_delete.html">lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_expr.html">lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_insert.html">lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html">lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#compound">lang_select.html#compound</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#simpleselect">lang_select.html#simpleselect</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_update.html">lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_with.html">lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="partialindex.html">partialindex.html</a>
</div>

<a name="window-defn"></a><h4>window-defn:</h4><div class='imgcontainer'>
<img src="images/syntax/window-defn.gif"></img><br></br>
Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#expr">expr</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#select-core">select-core</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#select-stmt">select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#window-function-invocation">window-function-invocation</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#expr">expr</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#frame-spec">frame-spec</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#ordering-term">ordering-term</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_UPSERT.html">lang_UPSERT.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_altertable.html">lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_attach.html">lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createindex.html">lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtable.html">lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtrigger.html">lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createview.html">lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_delete.html">lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_expr.html">lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_insert.html">lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html">lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#compound">lang_select.html#compound</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#simpleselect">lang_select.html#simpleselect</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_update.html">lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_with.html">lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="partialindex.html">partialindex.html</a>







</div>

<a name="frame-spec"></a><h4>frame-spec:</h4><div class='imgcontainer'>
<img src="images/syntax/frame-spec.gif"></img><br></br>
Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#window-defn">window-defn</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#expr">expr</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_UPSERT.html">lang_UPSERT.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_altertable.html">lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_attach.html">lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createindex.html">lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtable.html">lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtrigger.html">lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createview.html">lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_delete.html">lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_expr.html">lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_insert.html">lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html">lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#compound">lang_select.html#compound</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#simpleselect">lang_select.html#simpleselect</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_update.html">lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_with.html">lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="partialindex.html">partialindex.html</a>
</div>

<a name="function-invocation"></a><h4>function-invocation:</h4><div class='imgcontainer'>
<img src="images/syntax/function-invocation.gif"></img><br></br><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#expr">expr</a>







</div>

<a name="window-function-invocation"></a><h4>window-function-invocation:</h4><div class='imgcontainer'>
<img src="images/syntax/window-function-invocation.gif"></img><br></br><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#expr">expr</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#filter">filter</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#window-defn">window-defn</a>

</div>









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See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_altertable.html">lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_altertable.html#altertabaddcol">lang_altertable.html#altertabaddcol</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtable.html">lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtable.html#tablecoldef">lang_createtable.html#tablecoldef</a>
</div>

<a name="type-name"></a><h4>type-name:</h4><div class='imgcontainer'>
<img src="images/syntax/type-name.gif"></img><br></br>
Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#column-def">column-def</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#expr">expr</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#signed-number">signed-number</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_UPSERT.html">lang_UPSERT.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_aggfunc.html">lang_aggfunc.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_altertable.html">lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_attach.html">lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createindex.html">lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtable.html">lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtrigger.html">lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createview.html">lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_delete.html">lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_expr.html">lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_insert.html">lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html">lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#compound">lang_select.html#compound</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#simpleselect">lang_select.html#simpleselect</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_update.html">lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_with.html">lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="partialindex.html">partialindex.html</a>
</div>

<a name="column-constraint"></a><h4>column-constraint:</h4><div class='imgcontainer'>
<img src="images/syntax/column-constraint.gif"></img><br></br>
Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#column-def">column-def</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#conflict-clause">conflict-clause</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#expr">expr</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#foreign-key-clause">foreign-key-clause</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#literal-value">literal-value</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#signed-number">signed-number</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_altertable.html">lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtable.html">lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtable.html#tablecoldef">lang_createtable.html#tablecoldef</a>
</div>

<a name="signed-number"></a><h4>signed-number:</h4><div class='imgcontainer'>
<img src="images/syntax/signed-number.gif"></img><br></br>
Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#column-constraint">column-constraint</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#pragma-value">pragma-value</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#type-name">type-name</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_UPSERT.html">lang_UPSERT.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_aggfunc.html">lang_aggfunc.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_altertable.html">lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_attach.html">lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createindex.html">lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtable.html">lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtrigger.html">lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createview.html">lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_delete.html">lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_expr.html">lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_insert.html">lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html">lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#compound">lang_select.html#compound</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#simpleselect">lang_select.html#simpleselect</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_update.html">lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_with.html">lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="partialindex.html">partialindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="pragma.html#syntax">pragma.html#syntax</a>
</div>

<a name="table-constraint"></a><h4>table-constraint:</h4><div class='imgcontainer'>
<img src="images/syntax/table-constraint.gif"></img><br></br>
Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#create-table-stmt">create-table-stmt</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#conflict-clause">conflict-clause</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#expr">expr</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#foreign-key-clause">foreign-key-clause</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#indexed-column">indexed-column</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtable.html">lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtable.html#primkeyconst">lang_createtable.html#primkeyconst</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtable.html#tablecoldef">lang_createtable.html#tablecoldef</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtable.html#uniqueconst">lang_createtable.html#uniqueconst</a>
................................................................................
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_with.html#recursivecte">lang_with.html#recursivecte</a>
</div>

<a name="common-table-expression"></a><h4>common-table-expression:</h4><div class='imgcontainer'>
<img src="images/syntax/common-table-expression.gif"></img><br></br>
Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#compound-select-stmt">compound-select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#factored-select-stmt">factored-select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#select-stmt">select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#simple-select-stmt">simple-select-stmt</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#select-stmt">select-stmt</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_UPSERT.html">lang_UPSERT.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_aggfunc.html">lang_aggfunc.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_altertable.html">lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_attach.html">lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createindex.html">lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtable.html">lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtrigger.html">lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createview.html">lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_delete.html">lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_expr.html">lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_insert.html">lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html">lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#compound">lang_select.html#compound</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#simpleselect">lang_select.html#simpleselect</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_update.html">lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_with.html">lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="partialindex.html">partialindex.html</a>
</div>

<a name="delete-stmt"></a><h4>delete-stmt:</h4><div class='imgcontainer'>
<img src="images/syntax/delete-stmt.gif"></img><br></br>
Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#create-trigger-stmt">create-trigger-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#sql-stmt">sql-stmt</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#expr">expr</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#qualified-table-name">qualified-table-name</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#with-clause">with-clause</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtrigger.html">lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_delete.html">lang_delete.html</a>
................................................................................
<img src="images/syntax/drop-view-stmt.gif"></img><br></br>
Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#sql-stmt">sql-stmt</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_dropview.html">lang_dropview.html</a>
</div>

<a name="expr"></a><h4>expr:</h4><div class='imgcontainer'>
<img src="images/syntax/expr.gif"></img><br></br>
Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#aggregate-function-invocation">aggregate-function-invocation</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#attach-stmt">attach-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#column-constraint">column-constraint</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#compound-select-stmt">compound-select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#create-index-stmt">create-index-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#create-trigger-stmt">create-trigger-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#delete-stmt">delete-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#delete-stmt-limited">delete-stmt-limited</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#factored-select-stmt">factored-select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#filter-clause">filter-clause</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#frame-spec">frame-spec</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#indexed-column">indexed-column</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#insert-stmt">insert-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#join-constraint">join-constraint</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#ordering-term">ordering-term</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#over-clause">over-clause</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#result-column">result-column</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#select-core">select-core</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#select-stmt">select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#simple-function-invocation">simple-function-invocation</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#simple-select-stmt">simple-select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#table-constraint">table-constraint</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#table-or-subquery">table-or-subquery</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#update-stmt">update-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#update-stmt-limited">update-stmt-limited</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#upsert-clause">upsert-clause</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#window-defn">window-defn</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#window-function-invocation">window-function-invocation</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#filter-clause">filter-clause</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#literal-value">literal-value</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#over-clause">over-clause</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#raise-function">raise-function</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#select-stmt">select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#type-name">type-name</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_UPSERT.html">lang_UPSERT.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_aggfunc.html">lang_aggfunc.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_altertable.html">lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_attach.html">lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createindex.html">lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtable.html">lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtrigger.html">lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createview.html">lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_delete.html">lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_expr.html">lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_insert.html">lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html">lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#compound">lang_select.html#compound</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#simpleselect">lang_select.html#simpleselect</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_update.html">lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_with.html">lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="partialindex.html">partialindex.html</a>
</div>

<a name="raise-function"></a><h4>raise-function:</h4><div class='imgcontainer'>
<img src="images/syntax/raise-function.gif"></img><br></br>
Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#expr">expr</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_UPSERT.html">lang_UPSERT.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_aggfunc.html">lang_aggfunc.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_altertable.html">lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_attach.html">lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createindex.html">lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtable.html">lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtrigger.html">lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtrigger.html#raise">lang_createtrigger.html#raise</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createview.html">lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_delete.html">lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_expr.html">lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_insert.html">lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html">lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#compound">lang_select.html#compound</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#simpleselect">lang_select.html#simpleselect</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_update.html">lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_with.html">lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="partialindex.html">partialindex.html</a>
</div>

<a name="literal-value"></a><h4>literal-value:</h4><div class='imgcontainer'>
<img src="images/syntax/literal-value.gif"></img><br></br>
Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#column-constraint">column-constraint</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#expr">expr</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_UPSERT.html">lang_UPSERT.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_aggfunc.html">lang_aggfunc.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_altertable.html">lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_attach.html">lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createindex.html">lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtable.html">lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtrigger.html">lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createview.html">lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_delete.html">lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_expr.html">lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_insert.html">lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html">lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#compound">lang_select.html#compound</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#simpleselect">lang_select.html#simpleselect</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_update.html">lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_with.html">lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="partialindex.html">partialindex.html</a>
</div>

<a name="numeric-literal"></a><h4>numeric-literal:</h4><div class='imgcontainer'>
<img src="images/syntax/numeric-literal.gif"></img><br></br><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_expr.html#litvalue">lang_expr.html#litvalue</a>
</div>

................................................................................
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_reindex.html">lang_reindex.html</a>
</div>

<a name="select-stmt"></a><h4>select-stmt:</h4><div class='imgcontainer'>
<img src="images/syntax/select-stmt.gif"></img><br></br>
Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#common-table-expression">common-table-expression</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#create-table-stmt">create-table-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#create-trigger-stmt">create-trigger-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#create-view-stmt">create-view-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#expr">expr</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#insert-stmt">insert-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#sql-stmt">sql-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#table-or-subquery">table-or-subquery</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#with-clause">with-clause</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#common-table-expression">common-table-expression</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#compound-operator">compound-operator</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#expr">expr</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#join-clause">join-clause</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#ordering-term">ordering-term</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#result-column">result-column</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#table-or-subquery">table-or-subquery</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#window-defn">window-defn</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_UPSERT.html">lang_UPSERT.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_aggfunc.html">lang_aggfunc.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_altertable.html">lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_attach.html">lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createindex.html">lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtable.html">lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtrigger.html">lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createview.html">lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_delete.html">lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_expr.html">lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_insert.html">lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html">lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#compound">lang_select.html#compound</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#simpleselect">lang_select.html#simpleselect</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_update.html">lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_with.html">lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_with.html#recursivecte">lang_with.html#recursivecte</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="partialindex.html">partialindex.html</a>
</div>

<a name="join-clause"></a><h4>join-clause:</h4><div class='imgcontainer'>
<img src="images/syntax/join-clause.gif"></img><br></br>
Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#select-core">select-core</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#select-stmt">select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#table-or-subquery">table-or-subquery</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#join-constraint">join-constraint</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#join-operator">join-operator</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#table-or-subquery">table-or-subquery</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_UPSERT.html">lang_UPSERT.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_aggfunc.html">lang_aggfunc.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_altertable.html">lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_attach.html">lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createindex.html">lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtable.html">lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtrigger.html">lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createview.html">lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_delete.html">lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_expr.html">lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_insert.html">lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html">lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#compound">lang_select.html#compound</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#simpleselect">lang_select.html#simpleselect</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_update.html">lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_with.html">lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="partialindex.html">partialindex.html</a>
</div>

<a name="select-core"></a><h4>select-core:</h4><div class='imgcontainer'>
<img src="images/syntax/select-core.gif"></img><br></br>
Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#compound-select-stmt">compound-select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#factored-select-stmt">factored-select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#simple-select-stmt">simple-select-stmt</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#expr">expr</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#join-clause">join-clause</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#result-column">result-column</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#table-or-subquery">table-or-subquery</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#window-defn">window-defn</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html">lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#compound">lang_select.html#compound</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#simpleselect">lang_select.html#simpleselect</a>
................................................................................
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#compound">lang_select.html#compound</a>
</div>

<a name="table-or-subquery"></a><h4>table-or-subquery:</h4><div class='imgcontainer'>
<img src="images/syntax/table-or-subquery.gif"></img><br></br>
Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#join-clause">join-clause</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#select-core">select-core</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#select-stmt">select-stmt</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#expr">expr</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#join-clause">join-clause</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#select-stmt">select-stmt</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_UPSERT.html">lang_UPSERT.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_aggfunc.html">lang_aggfunc.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_altertable.html">lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_attach.html">lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createindex.html">lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtable.html">lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtrigger.html">lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createview.html">lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_delete.html">lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_expr.html">lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_insert.html">lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html">lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#compound">lang_select.html#compound</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#simpleselect">lang_select.html#simpleselect</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_update.html">lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_with.html">lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="partialindex.html">partialindex.html</a>
</div>

<a name="result-column"></a><h4>result-column:</h4><div class='imgcontainer'>
<img src="images/syntax/result-column.gif"></img><br></br>
Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#select-core">select-core</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#select-stmt">select-stmt</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#expr">expr</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_UPSERT.html">lang_UPSERT.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_aggfunc.html">lang_aggfunc.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_altertable.html">lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_attach.html">lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createindex.html">lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtable.html">lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtrigger.html">lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createview.html">lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_delete.html">lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_expr.html">lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_insert.html">lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html">lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#compound">lang_select.html#compound</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#simpleselect">lang_select.html#simpleselect</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_update.html">lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_with.html">lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="partialindex.html">partialindex.html</a>
</div>

<a name="join-operator"></a><h4>join-operator:</h4><div class='imgcontainer'>
<img src="images/syntax/join-operator.gif"></img><br></br>
Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#join-clause">join-clause</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_UPSERT.html">lang_UPSERT.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_aggfunc.html">lang_aggfunc.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_altertable.html">lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_attach.html">lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createindex.html">lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtable.html">lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtrigger.html">lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createview.html">lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_delete.html">lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_expr.html">lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_insert.html">lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html">lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#compound">lang_select.html#compound</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#fromclause">lang_select.html#fromclause</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#simpleselect">lang_select.html#simpleselect</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_update.html">lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_with.html">lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="partialindex.html">partialindex.html</a>
</div>

<a name="join-constraint"></a><h4>join-constraint:</h4><div class='imgcontainer'>
<img src="images/syntax/join-constraint.gif"></img><br></br>
Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#join-clause">join-clause</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#expr">expr</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_UPSERT.html">lang_UPSERT.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_aggfunc.html">lang_aggfunc.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_altertable.html">lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_attach.html">lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createindex.html">lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtable.html">lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtrigger.html">lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createview.html">lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_delete.html">lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_expr.html">lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_insert.html">lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html">lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#compound">lang_select.html#compound</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#fromclause">lang_select.html#fromclause</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#simpleselect">lang_select.html#simpleselect</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_update.html">lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_with.html">lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="partialindex.html">partialindex.html</a>
</div>

<a name="ordering-term"></a><h4>ordering-term:</h4><div class='imgcontainer'>
<img src="images/syntax/ordering-term.gif"></img><br></br>
Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#compound-select-stmt">compound-select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#delete-stmt-limited">delete-stmt-limited</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#factored-select-stmt">factored-select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#over-clause">over-clause</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#select-stmt">select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#simple-select-stmt">simple-select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#update-stmt-limited">update-stmt-limited</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#window-defn">window-defn</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#expr">expr</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_UPSERT.html">lang_UPSERT.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_aggfunc.html">lang_aggfunc.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_altertable.html">lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_attach.html">lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createindex.html">lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtable.html">lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtrigger.html">lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createview.html">lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_delete.html">lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_expr.html">lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_insert.html">lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html">lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#compound">lang_select.html#compound</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#simpleselect">lang_select.html#simpleselect</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_update.html">lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_with.html">lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="partialindex.html">partialindex.html</a>
</div>

<a name="compound-operator"></a><h4>compound-operator:</h4><div class='imgcontainer'>
<img src="images/syntax/compound-operator.gif"></img><br></br>
Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#factored-select-stmt">factored-select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#select-stmt">select-stmt</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_UPSERT.html">lang_UPSERT.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_aggfunc.html">lang_aggfunc.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_altertable.html">lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_attach.html">lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createindex.html">lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtable.html">lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtrigger.html">lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createview.html">lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_delete.html">lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_expr.html">lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_insert.html">lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html">lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#compound">lang_select.html#compound</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#simpleselect">lang_select.html#simpleselect</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_update.html">lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_with.html">lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_with.html#recursivecte">lang_with.html#recursivecte</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="partialindex.html">partialindex.html</a>
</div>

<a name="update-stmt"></a><h4>update-stmt:</h4><div class='imgcontainer'>
<img src="images/syntax/update-stmt.gif"></img><br></br>
Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#create-trigger-stmt">create-trigger-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#sql-stmt">sql-stmt</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#column-name-list">column-name-list</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#expr">expr</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#qualified-table-name">qualified-table-name</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#with-clause">with-clause</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtrigger.html">lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_update.html">lang_update.html</a>
................................................................................
</div>

<a name="comment-syntax"></a><h4>comment-syntax:</h4><div class='imgcontainer'>
<img src="images/syntax/comment-syntax.gif"></img><br></br><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_comment.html">lang_comment.html</a>
</div>

<a name="filter-clause"></a><h4>filter-clause:</h4><div class='imgcontainer'>
<img src="images/syntax/filter-clause.gif"></img><br></br>
Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#aggregate-function-invocation">aggregate-function-invocation</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#expr">expr</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#window-function-invocation">window-function-invocation</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#expr">expr</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_UPSERT.html">lang_UPSERT.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_aggfunc.html">lang_aggfunc.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_altertable.html">lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_attach.html">lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createindex.html">lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtable.html">lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtrigger.html">lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createview.html">lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_delete.html">lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_expr.html">lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_insert.html">lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html">lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#compound">lang_select.html#compound</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#simpleselect">lang_select.html#simpleselect</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_update.html">lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_with.html">lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="partialindex.html">partialindex.html</a>
</div>

<a name="window-defn"></a><h4>window-defn:</h4><div class='imgcontainer'>
<img src="images/syntax/window-defn.gif"></img><br></br>
Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#select-core">select-core</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#select-stmt">select-stmt</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#window-function-invocation">window-function-invocation</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#expr">expr</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#frame-spec">frame-spec</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#ordering-term">ordering-term</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_UPSERT.html">lang_UPSERT.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_aggfunc.html">lang_aggfunc.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_altertable.html">lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_attach.html">lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createindex.html">lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtable.html">lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtrigger.html">lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createview.html">lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_delete.html">lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_expr.html">lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_insert.html">lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html">lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#compound">lang_select.html#compound</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#simpleselect">lang_select.html#simpleselect</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_update.html">lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_with.html">lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="partialindex.html">partialindex.html</a>
</div>

<a name="over-clause"></a><h4>over-clause:</h4><div class='imgcontainer'>
<img src="images/syntax/over-clause.gif"></img><br></br>
Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#expr">expr</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#expr">expr</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#frame-spec">frame-spec</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#ordering-term">ordering-term</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_UPSERT.html">lang_UPSERT.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_aggfunc.html">lang_aggfunc.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_altertable.html">lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_attach.html">lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createindex.html">lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtable.html">lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtrigger.html">lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createview.html">lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_delete.html">lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_expr.html">lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_insert.html">lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html">lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#compound">lang_select.html#compound</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#simpleselect">lang_select.html#simpleselect</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_update.html">lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_with.html">lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="partialindex.html">partialindex.html</a>
</div>

<a name="frame-spec"></a><h4>frame-spec:</h4><div class='imgcontainer'>
<img src="images/syntax/frame-spec.gif"></img><br></br>
Used by:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#over-clause">over-clause</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#window-defn">window-defn</a><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#expr">expr</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_UPSERT.html">lang_UPSERT.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_aggfunc.html">lang_aggfunc.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_altertable.html">lang_altertable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_attach.html">lang_attach.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createindex.html">lang_createindex.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtable.html">lang_createtable.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createtrigger.html">lang_createtrigger.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_createview.html">lang_createview.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_delete.html">lang_delete.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_expr.html">lang_expr.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_insert.html">lang_insert.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html">lang_select.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#compound">lang_select.html#compound</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_select.html#simpleselect">lang_select.html#simpleselect</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_update.html">lang_update.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_with.html">lang_with.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="partialindex.html">partialindex.html</a>
</div>

<a name="simple-function-invocation"></a><h4>simple-function-invocation:</h4><div class='imgcontainer'>
<img src="images/syntax/simple-function-invocation.gif"></img><br></br><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#expr">expr</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_expr.html#booleanexpr">lang_expr.html#booleanexpr</a>
</div>

<a name="aggregate-function-invocation"></a><h4>aggregate-function-invocation:</h4><div class='imgcontainer'>
<img src="images/syntax/aggregate-function-invocation.gif"></img><br></br><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#expr">expr</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#filter-clause">filter-clause</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_aggfunc.html">lang_aggfunc.html</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_expr.html#booleanexpr">lang_expr.html#booleanexpr</a>
</div>

<a name="window-function-invocation"></a><h4>window-function-invocation:</h4><div class='imgcontainer'>
<img src="images/syntax/window-function-invocation.gif"></img><br></br><br></br>
References:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#expr">expr</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#filter-clause">filter-clause</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#window-defn">window-defn</a><br></br>
See also:&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="lang_expr.html#booleanexpr">lang_expr.html#booleanexpr</a>
</div>


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</p><h2 id="usage"><span>1.1. </span>Usage</h2>

<p>A virtual table is created using a <a href="lang_createvtab.html">CREATE VIRTUAL TABLE</a> statement.

<p><b><a href="syntax/create-virtual-table-stmt.html">create-virtual-table-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x2041' onclick='hideorshow("x2041","x2042")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x2042' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram create-virtual-table-stmt" src="images/syntax/create-virtual-table-stmt.gif" />
</div>


</p><p>The CREATE VIRTUAL TABLE statement creates a new table
called <span class='yyterm'>table-name</span> derived from the class
class <span class='yyterm'>module-name</span>.  The <span class='yyterm'>module-name</span>







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</p><h2 id="usage"><span>1.1. </span>Usage</h2>

<p>A virtual table is created using a <a href="lang_createvtab.html">CREATE VIRTUAL TABLE</a> statement.

<p><b><a href="syntax/create-virtual-table-stmt.html">create-virtual-table-stmt:</a></b>
<button id='x2257' onclick='hideorshow("x2257","x2258")'>hide</button></p>
 <div id='x2258' class='imgcontainer'>
 <img alt="syntax diagram create-virtual-table-stmt" src="images/syntax/create-virtual-table-stmt.gif" />
</div>


</p><p>The CREATE VIRTUAL TABLE statement creates a new table
called <span class='yyterm'>table-name</span> derived from the class
class <span class='yyterm'>module-name</span>.  The <span class='yyterm'>module-name</span>

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if {[info exists argv] && \
    [lsearch -exact -- $argv --verbose] != -1} then {
  set verbose true
} else {
  set verbose false
}








foreach fileName $fileNames {
  set uri [file join $rootUri $fileName]

  if {[lsearch -exact -- $specialFileNames $fileName] != -1} then {
    set directory [file join \
        $rootDirectory Special Core [file dirname $fileName]]







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if {[info exists argv] && \
    [lsearch -exact -- $argv --verbose] != -1} then {
  set verbose true
} else {
  set verbose false
}

if {[info exists ::eagle_platform(frameworkVersion)] && \
    [package vcompare $::eagle_platform(frameworkVersion) \
        4.0.30319.42000] >= 0} then {
  object invoke System.Net.ServicePointManager SecurityProtocol \
      {Ssl3 Tls Tls12 Tls11}
}

foreach fileName $fileNames {
  set uri [file join $rootUri $fileName]

  if {[lsearch -exact -- $specialFileNames $fileName] != -1} then {
    set directory [file join \
        $rootDirectory Special Core [file dirname $fileName]]