System.Data.SQLite
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Overview
Comment:Update SQLite core library to the latest trunk code.
Downloads: Tarball | ZIP archive | SQL archive
Timelines: family | ancestors | descendants | both | trunk
Files: files | file ages | folders
SHA1: 2a96ac5513b6097009038562afa0531e413c592e
User & Date: mistachkin 2012-12-11 07:15:17
Context
2012-12-13
01:06
Update SQLite core library to the 3.7.15 release. check-in: 900e514d6a user: mistachkin tags: trunk
2012-12-11
07:15
Update SQLite core library to the latest trunk code. check-in: 2a96ac5513 user: mistachkin tags: trunk
2012-12-10
00:22
Prevent the .NET Framework 3.5 settings file from being used for the Visual Studio 2005 and 2008 projects. check-in: fb6f1976f7 user: mistachkin tags: trunk
Changes
Hide Diffs Unified Diffs Ignore Whitespace Patch

Changes to SQLite.Interop/src/core/sqlite3.c.

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**
** See also: [sqlite3_libversion()],
** [sqlite3_libversion_number()], [sqlite3_sourceid()],
** [sqlite_version()] and [sqlite_source_id()].
*/
#define SQLITE_VERSION        "3.7.15"
#define SQLITE_VERSION_NUMBER 3007015
#define SQLITE_SOURCE_ID      "2012-12-06 04:33:13 d507648d820cfea70e17f3d21c35c932a2d20367"

/*
** CAPI3REF: Run-Time Library Version Numbers
** KEYWORDS: sqlite3_version, sqlite3_sourceid
**
** These interfaces provide the same information as the [SQLITE_VERSION],
** [SQLITE_VERSION_NUMBER], and [SQLITE_SOURCE_ID] C preprocessor macros
................................................................................
** VFS has handled the PRAGMA itself and the parser generates a no-op
** prepared statement.  ^If the [SQLITE_FCNTL_PRAGMA] file control returns
** any result code other than [SQLITE_OK] or [SQLITE_NOTFOUND], that means
** that the VFS encountered an error while handling the [PRAGMA] and the
** compilation of the PRAGMA fails with an error.  ^The [SQLITE_FCNTL_PRAGMA]
** file control occurs at the beginning of pragma statement analysis and so
** it is able to override built-in [PRAGMA] statements.
** </ul>
**
** <li>[[SQLITE_FCNTL_BUSYHANDLER]]
** ^This file-control may be invoked by SQLite on the database file handle
** shortly after it is opened in order to provide a custom VFS with access
** to the connections busy-handler callback. The argument is of type (void **)
** - an array of two (void *) values. The first (void *) actually points
** to a function of type (int (*)(void *)). In order to invoke the connections
** busy-handler, this function should be invoked with the second (void *) in
** the array as the only argument. If it returns non-zero, then the operation
** should be retried. If it returns zero, the custom VFS should abandon the
** current operation.










*/
#define SQLITE_FCNTL_LOCKSTATE               1
#define SQLITE_GET_LOCKPROXYFILE             2
#define SQLITE_SET_LOCKPROXYFILE             3
#define SQLITE_LAST_ERRNO                    4
#define SQLITE_FCNTL_SIZE_HINT               5
#define SQLITE_FCNTL_CHUNK_SIZE              6
................................................................................
#define SQLITE_FCNTL_WIN32_AV_RETRY          9
#define SQLITE_FCNTL_PERSIST_WAL            10
#define SQLITE_FCNTL_OVERWRITE              11
#define SQLITE_FCNTL_VFSNAME                12
#define SQLITE_FCNTL_POWERSAFE_OVERWRITE    13
#define SQLITE_FCNTL_PRAGMA                 14
#define SQLITE_FCNTL_BUSYHANDLER            15


/*
** CAPI3REF: Mutex Handle
**
** The mutex module within SQLite defines [sqlite3_mutex] to be an
** abstract type for a mutex object.  The SQLite core never looks
** at the internal representation of an [sqlite3_mutex].  It only
................................................................................

  Expr *pLeft;           /* Left subnode */
  Expr *pRight;          /* Right subnode */
  union {
    ExprList *pList;     /* Function arguments or in "<expr> IN (<expr-list)" */
    Select *pSelect;     /* Used for sub-selects and "<expr> IN (<select>)" */
  } x;
  CollSeq *pColl;        /* The collation type of the column or 0 */

  /* If the EP_Reduced flag is set in the Expr.flags mask, then no
  ** space is allocated for the fields below this point. An attempt to
  ** access them will result in a segfault or malfunction.
  *********************************************************************/

#if SQLITE_MAX_EXPR_DEPTH>0
................................................................................
#define EP_Agg        0x0002  /* Contains one or more aggregate functions */
#define EP_Resolved   0x0004  /* IDs have been resolved to COLUMNs */
#define EP_Error      0x0008  /* Expression contains one or more errors */
#define EP_Distinct   0x0010  /* Aggregate function with DISTINCT keyword */
#define EP_VarSelect  0x0020  /* pSelect is correlated, not constant */
#define EP_DblQuoted  0x0040  /* token.z was originally in "..." */
#define EP_InfixFunc  0x0080  /* True for an infix function: LIKE, GLOB, etc */
#define EP_ExpCollate 0x0100  /* Collating sequence specified explicitly */
#define EP_FixedDest  0x0200  /* Result needed in a specific register */
#define EP_IntValue   0x0400  /* Integer value contained in u.iValue */
#define EP_xIsSelect  0x0800  /* x.pSelect is valid (otherwise x.pList is) */
#define EP_Hint       0x1000  /* Not used */
#define EP_Reduced    0x2000  /* Expr struct is EXPR_REDUCEDSIZE bytes only */
#define EP_TokenOnly  0x4000  /* Expr struct is EXPR_TOKENONLYSIZE bytes only */
#define EP_Static     0x8000  /* Held in memory not obtained from malloc() */
................................................................................
#define OPFLAG_APPEND        0x08    /* This is likely to be an append */
#define OPFLAG_USESEEKRESULT 0x10    /* Try to avoid a seek in BtreeInsert() */
#define OPFLAG_CLEARCACHE    0x20    /* Clear pseudo-table cache in OP_Column */
#define OPFLAG_LENGTHARG     0x40    /* OP_Column only used for length() */
#define OPFLAG_TYPEOFARG     0x80    /* OP_Column only used for typeof() */
#define OPFLAG_BULKCSR       0x01    /* OP_Open** used to open bulk cursor */
#define OPFLAG_P2ISREG       0x02    /* P2 to OP_Open** is a register number */


/*
 * Each trigger present in the database schema is stored as an instance of
 * struct Trigger. 
 *
 * Pointers to instances of struct Trigger are stored in two ways.
 * 1. In the "trigHash" hash table (part of the sqlite3* that represents the 
................................................................................
SQLITE_PRIVATE u8 sqlite3HexToInt(int h);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3TwoPartName(Parse *, Token *, Token *, Token **);
SQLITE_PRIVATE const char *sqlite3ErrStr(int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ReadSchema(Parse *pParse);
SQLITE_PRIVATE CollSeq *sqlite3FindCollSeq(sqlite3*,u8 enc, const char*,int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE CollSeq *sqlite3LocateCollSeq(Parse *pParse, const char*zName);
SQLITE_PRIVATE CollSeq *sqlite3ExprCollSeq(Parse *pParse, Expr *pExpr);

SQLITE_PRIVATE Expr *sqlite3ExprSetColl(Expr*, CollSeq*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE Expr *sqlite3ExprSetCollByToken(Parse *pParse, Expr*, Token*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3CheckCollSeq(Parse *, CollSeq *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3CheckObjectName(Parse *, const char *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeSetChanges(sqlite3 *, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3AddInt64(i64*,i64);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3SubInt64(i64*,i64);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3MulInt64(i64*,i64);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3AbsInt32(int);
................................................................................
  }else if( (*pArg)==0 ){
    pFile->ctrlFlags &= ~mask;
  }else{
    pFile->ctrlFlags |= mask;
  }
}




/*
** Information and control of an open file handle.
*/
static int unixFileControl(sqlite3_file *id, int op, void *pArg){
  unixFile *pFile = (unixFile*)id;
  switch( op ){
    case SQLITE_FCNTL_LOCKSTATE: {
................................................................................
    case SQLITE_FCNTL_POWERSAFE_OVERWRITE: {
      unixModeBit(pFile, UNIXFILE_PSOW, (int*)pArg);
      return SQLITE_OK;
    }
    case SQLITE_FCNTL_VFSNAME: {
      *(char**)pArg = sqlite3_mprintf("%s", pFile->pVfs->zName);
      return SQLITE_OK;








    }
#ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
    /* The pager calls this method to signal that it has done
    ** a rollback and that the database is therefore unchanged and
    ** it hence it is OK for the transaction change counter to be
    ** unchanged.
    */
................................................................................
  }else if( (*pArg)==0 ){
    pFile->ctrlFlags &= ~mask;
  }else{
    pFile->ctrlFlags |= mask;
  }
}




/*
** Control and query of the open file handle.
*/
static int winFileControl(sqlite3_file *id, int op, void *pArg){
  winFile *pFile = (winFile*)id;
  switch( op ){
    case SQLITE_FCNTL_LOCKSTATE: {
................................................................................
      }
      if( a[1]>0 ){
        win32IoerrRetryDelay = a[1];
      }else{
        a[1] = win32IoerrRetryDelay;
      }
      return SQLITE_OK;








    }
  }
  return SQLITE_NOTFOUND;
}

/*
** Return the sector size in bytes of the underlying block device for
................................................................................
      int i, j;
      KeyInfo *pKeyInfo = pOp->p4.pKeyInfo;
      assert( pKeyInfo->aSortOrder!=0 );
      sqlite3_snprintf(nTemp, zTemp, "keyinfo(%d", pKeyInfo->nField);
      i = sqlite3Strlen30(zTemp);
      for(j=0; j<pKeyInfo->nField; j++){
        CollSeq *pColl = pKeyInfo->aColl[j];
        if( pColl ){
          int n = sqlite3Strlen30(pColl->zName);
          if( i+n>nTemp-6 ){
            memcpy(&zTemp[i],",...",4);
            break;
          }
          zTemp[i++] = ',';
          if( pKeyInfo->aSortOrder[j] ){
            zTemp[i++] = '-';
          }
          memcpy(&zTemp[i], pColl->zName,n+1);
          i += n;
        }else if( i+4<nTemp-6 ){
          memcpy(&zTemp[i],",nil",4);
          i += 4;
        }
      }
      zTemp[i++] = ')';
      zTemp[i] = 0;
      assert( i<nTemp );
      break;
    }
    case P4_COLLSEQ: {
................................................................................
#endif

#ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
/*
** Print the value of a register for tracing purposes:
*/
static void memTracePrint(FILE *out, Mem *p){


  if( p->flags & MEM_Null ){
    fprintf(out, " NULL");
  }else if( (p->flags & (MEM_Int|MEM_Str))==(MEM_Int|MEM_Str) ){
    fprintf(out, " si:%lld", p->u.i);
  }else if( p->flags & MEM_Int ){
    fprintf(out, " i:%lld", p->u.i);
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_FLOATING_POINT
  }else if( p->flags & MEM_Real ){
................................................................................
      Mem *pMem;
      int i;
    } af;
    struct OP_Concat_stack_vars {
      i64 nByte;
    } ag;
    struct OP_Remainder_stack_vars {

      int flags;      /* Combined MEM_* flags from both inputs */
      i64 iA;         /* Integer value of left operand */
      i64 iB;         /* Integer value of right operand */
      double rA;      /* Real value of left operand */
      double rB;      /* Real value of right operand */
    } ah;
    struct OP_Function_stack_vars {
................................................................................
  u.ae.n = pOp->p3;
  pIn1 = &aMem[pOp->p1];
  pOut = &aMem[pOp->p2];
  assert( pOut!=pIn1 );
  while( 1 ){
    sqlite3VdbeMemShallowCopy(pOut, pIn1, MEM_Ephem);
    Deephemeralize(pOut);



    REGISTER_TRACE(pOp->p2+pOp->p3-u.ae.n, pOut);
    if( (u.ae.n--)==0 ) break;
    pOut++;
    pIn1++;
  }
  break;
}
................................................................................
*/
case OP_Add:                   /* same as TK_PLUS, in1, in2, out3 */
case OP_Subtract:              /* same as TK_MINUS, in1, in2, out3 */
case OP_Multiply:              /* same as TK_STAR, in1, in2, out3 */
case OP_Divide:                /* same as TK_SLASH, in1, in2, out3 */
case OP_Remainder: {           /* same as TK_REM, in1, in2, out3 */
#if 0  /* local variables moved into u.ah */

  int flags;      /* Combined MEM_* flags from both inputs */
  i64 iA;         /* Integer value of left operand */
  i64 iB;         /* Integer value of right operand */
  double rA;      /* Real value of left operand */
  double rB;      /* Real value of right operand */
#endif /* local variables moved into u.ah */

................................................................................
  applyNumericAffinity(pIn2);
  pOut = &aMem[pOp->p3];
  u.ah.flags = pIn1->flags | pIn2->flags;
  if( (u.ah.flags & MEM_Null)!=0 ) goto arithmetic_result_is_null;
  if( (pIn1->flags & pIn2->flags & MEM_Int)==MEM_Int ){
    u.ah.iA = pIn1->u.i;
    u.ah.iB = pIn2->u.i;

    switch( pOp->opcode ){
      case OP_Add:       if( sqlite3AddInt64(&u.ah.iB,u.ah.iA) ) goto fp_math;  break;
      case OP_Subtract:  if( sqlite3SubInt64(&u.ah.iB,u.ah.iA) ) goto fp_math;  break;
      case OP_Multiply:  if( sqlite3MulInt64(&u.ah.iB,u.ah.iA) ) goto fp_math;  break;
      case OP_Divide: {
        if( u.ah.iA==0 ) goto arithmetic_result_is_null;
        if( u.ah.iA==-1 && u.ah.iB==SMALLEST_INT64 ) goto fp_math;
................................................................................
        u.ah.iB %= u.ah.iA;
        break;
      }
    }
    pOut->u.i = u.ah.iB;
    MemSetTypeFlag(pOut, MEM_Int);
  }else{

fp_math:
    u.ah.rA = sqlite3VdbeRealValue(pIn1);
    u.ah.rB = sqlite3VdbeRealValue(pIn2);
    switch( pOp->opcode ){
      case OP_Add:         u.ah.rB += u.ah.rA;       break;
      case OP_Subtract:    u.ah.rB -= u.ah.rA;       break;
      case OP_Multiply:    u.ah.rB *= u.ah.rA;       break;
................................................................................
    MemSetTypeFlag(pOut, MEM_Int);
#else
    if( sqlite3IsNaN(u.ah.rB) ){
      goto arithmetic_result_is_null;
    }
    pOut->r = u.ah.rB;
    MemSetTypeFlag(pOut, MEM_Real);
    if( (u.ah.flags & MEM_Real)==0 ){
      sqlite3VdbeIntegerAffinity(pOut);
    }
#endif
  }
  break;

arithmetic_result_is_null:
................................................................................
}

/* Opcode: Permutation * * * P4 *
**
** Set the permutation used by the OP_Compare operator to be the array
** of integers in P4.
**
** The permutation is only valid until the next OP_Permutation, OP_Compare,
** OP_Halt, or OP_ResultRow.  Typically the OP_Permutation should occur
** immediately prior to the OP_Compare.
*/
case OP_Permutation: {
  assert( pOp->p4type==P4_INTARRAY );
  assert( pOp->p4.ai );
  aPermute = pOp->p4.ai;
  break;
}

/* Opcode: Compare P1 P2 P3 P4 *
**
** Compare two vectors of registers in reg(P1)..reg(P1+P3-1) (call this
** vector "A") and in reg(P2)..reg(P2+P3-1) ("B").  Save the result of
** the comparison for use by the next OP_Jump instruct.





**
** P4 is a KeyInfo structure that defines collating sequences and sort
** orders for the comparison.  The permutation applies to registers
** only.  The KeyInfo elements are used sequentially.
**
** The comparison is a sort comparison, so NULLs compare equal,
** NULLs are less than numbers, numbers are less than strings,
................................................................................
  int p2;
  const KeyInfo *pKeyInfo;
  int idx;
  CollSeq *pColl;    /* Collating sequence to use on this term */
  int bRev;          /* True for DESCENDING sort order */
#endif /* local variables moved into u.al */


  u.al.n = pOp->p3;
  u.al.pKeyInfo = pOp->p4.pKeyInfo;
  assert( u.al.n>0 );
  assert( u.al.pKeyInfo!=0 );
  u.al.p1 = pOp->p1;
  u.al.p2 = pOp->p2;
#if SQLITE_DEBUG
................................................................................
  break;
}

/* Opcode: Once P1 P2 * * *
**
** Check if OP_Once flag P1 is set. If so, jump to instruction P2. Otherwise,
** set the flag and fall through to the next instruction.
**
** See also: JumpOnce
*/
case OP_Once: {             /* jump */
  assert( pOp->p1<p->nOnceFlag );
  if( p->aOnceFlag[pOp->p1] ){
    pc = pOp->p2-1;
  }else{
    p->aOnceFlag[pOp->p1] = 1;
................................................................................
** Is equivalent to:
**
**     SELECT random()%5 AS x, count(*) FROM tab GROUP BY random()%5
**
** The result of random()%5 in the GROUP BY clause is probably different
** from the result in the result-set.  We might fix this someday.  Or
** then again, we might not...









**
** The nSubquery parameter specifies how many levels of subquery the
** alias is removed from the original expression.  The usually value is
** zero but it might be more if the alias is contained within a subquery
** of the original expression.  The Expr.op2 field of TK_AGG_FUNCTION
** structures must be increased by the nSubquery amount.
*/
................................................................................
  sqlite3 *db;           /* The database connection */

  assert( iCol>=0 && iCol<pEList->nExpr );
  pOrig = pEList->a[iCol].pExpr;
  assert( pOrig!=0 );
  assert( pOrig->flags & EP_Resolved );
  db = pParse->db;
  if( pOrig->op!=TK_COLUMN && zType[0]!='G' ){
    pDup = sqlite3ExprDup(db, pOrig, 0);


    incrAggFunctionDepth(pDup, nSubquery);
    pDup = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_AS, pDup, 0, 0);
    if( pDup==0 ) return;
    if( pEList->a[iCol].iAlias==0 ){
      pEList->a[iCol].iAlias = (u16)(++pParse->nAlias);
    }
    pDup->iTable = pEList->a[iCol].iAlias;
  }else if( ExprHasProperty(pOrig, EP_IntValue) || pOrig->u.zToken==0 ){
    pDup = sqlite3ExprDup(db, pOrig, 0);
    if( pDup==0 ) return;
  }else{
    char *zToken = pOrig->u.zToken;
    assert( zToken!=0 );
    pOrig->u.zToken = 0;
    pDup = sqlite3ExprDup(db, pOrig, 0);
    pOrig->u.zToken = zToken;
    if( pDup==0 ) return;
    assert( (pDup->flags & (EP_Reduced|EP_TokenOnly))==0 );
    pDup->flags2 |= EP2_MallocedToken;
    pDup->u.zToken = sqlite3DbStrDup(db, zToken);
  }
  if( pExpr->flags & EP_ExpCollate ){
    pDup->pColl = pExpr->pColl;
    pDup->flags |= EP_ExpCollate;


  }

  /* Before calling sqlite3ExprDelete(), set the EP_Static flag. This 
  ** prevents ExprDelete() from deleting the Expr structure itself,
  ** allowing it to be repopulated by the memcpy() on the following line.



  */
  ExprSetProperty(pExpr, EP_Static);
  sqlite3ExprDelete(db, pExpr);
  memcpy(pExpr, pDup, sizeof(*pExpr));





  sqlite3DbFree(db, pDup);
}


/*
** Return TRUE if the name zCol occurs anywhere in the USING clause.
**
................................................................................
    moreToDo = 0;
    pEList = pSelect->pEList;
    assert( pEList!=0 );
    for(i=0, pItem=pOrderBy->a; i<pOrderBy->nExpr; i++, pItem++){
      int iCol = -1;
      Expr *pE, *pDup;
      if( pItem->done ) continue;
      pE = pItem->pExpr;
      if( sqlite3ExprIsInteger(pE, &iCol) ){
        if( iCol<=0 || iCol>pEList->nExpr ){
          resolveOutOfRangeError(pParse, "ORDER", i+1, pEList->nExpr);
          return 1;
        }
      }else{
        iCol = resolveAsName(pParse, pEList, pE);
................................................................................
            assert(pDup);
            iCol = resolveOrderByTermToExprList(pParse, pSelect, pDup);
          }
          sqlite3ExprDelete(db, pDup);
        }
      }
      if( iCol>0 ){
        CollSeq *pColl = pE->pColl;
        int flags = pE->flags & EP_ExpCollate;
        sqlite3ExprDelete(db, pE);
        pItem->pExpr = pE = sqlite3Expr(db, TK_INTEGER, 0);
        if( pE==0 ) return 1;
        pE->pColl = pColl;
        pE->flags |= EP_IntValue | flags;
        pE->u.iValue = iCol;








        pItem->iOrderByCol = (u16)iCol;
        pItem->done = 1;
      }else{
        moreToDo = 1;
      }
    }
    pSelect = pSelect->pNext;
................................................................................
      /* If an AS-name match is found, mark this ORDER BY column as being
      ** a copy of the iCol-th result-set column.  The subsequent call to
      ** sqlite3ResolveOrderGroupBy() will convert the expression to a
      ** copy of the iCol-th result-set expression. */
      pItem->iOrderByCol = (u16)iCol;
      continue;
    }
    if( sqlite3ExprIsInteger(pE, &iCol) ){
      /* The ORDER BY term is an integer constant.  Again, set the column
      ** number so that sqlite3ResolveOrderGroupBy() will convert the
      ** order-by term to a copy of the result-set expression */
      if( iCol<1 ){
        resolveOutOfRangeError(pParse, zType, i+1, nResult);
        return 1;
      }
      pItem->iOrderByCol = (u16)iCol;
      continue;
    }

................................................................................
**
** CREATE TABLE t1(a);
** SELECT * FROM t1 WHERE a;
** SELECT a AS b FROM t1 WHERE b;
** SELECT * FROM t1 WHERE (select a from t1);
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE char sqlite3ExprAffinity(Expr *pExpr){


  int op = pExpr->op;
  if( op==TK_SELECT ){
    assert( pExpr->flags&EP_xIsSelect );
    return sqlite3ExprAffinity(pExpr->x.pSelect->pEList->a[0].pExpr);
  }
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_CAST
  if( op==TK_CAST ){
    assert( !ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_IntValue) );
................................................................................
    assert( pExpr->pTab && j<pExpr->pTab->nCol );
    return pExpr->pTab->aCol[j].affinity;
  }
  return pExpr->affinity;
}

/*
** Set the explicit collating sequence for an expression to the
** collating sequence supplied in the second argument.




*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE Expr *sqlite3ExprSetColl(Expr *pExpr, CollSeq *pColl){
  if( pExpr && pColl ){
    pExpr->pColl = pColl;




    pExpr->flags |= EP_ExpCollate;

  }

  return pExpr;
}








/*
** Set the collating sequence for expression pExpr to be the collating
** sequence named by pToken.   Return a pointer to the revised expression.
** The collating sequence is marked as "explicit" using the EP_ExpCollate
** flag.  An explicit collating sequence will override implicit
** collating sequences.


*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE Expr *sqlite3ExprSetCollByToken(Parse *pParse, Expr *pExpr, Token *pCollName){
  char *zColl = 0;            /* Dequoted name of collation sequence */
  CollSeq *pColl;
  sqlite3 *db = pParse->db;
  zColl = sqlite3NameFromToken(db, pCollName);
  pColl = sqlite3LocateCollSeq(pParse, zColl);
  sqlite3ExprSetColl(pExpr, pColl);
  sqlite3DbFree(db, zColl);



  return pExpr;
}

/*
** Return the default collation sequence for the expression pExpr. If
** there is no default collation type, return 0.






*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE CollSeq *sqlite3ExprCollSeq(Parse *pParse, Expr *pExpr){

  CollSeq *pColl = 0;
  Expr *p = pExpr;
  while( p ){
    int op;

    pColl = p->pColl;










    if( pColl ) break;
    op = p->op;

    if( p->pTab!=0 && (

        op==TK_AGG_COLUMN || op==TK_COLUMN || op==TK_REGISTER || op==TK_TRIGGER
    )){
      /* op==TK_REGISTER && p->pTab!=0 happens when pExpr was originally
      ** a TK_COLUMN but was previously evaluated and cached in a register */
      const char *zColl;
      int j = p->iColumn;
      if( j>=0 ){
        sqlite3 *db = pParse->db;
        zColl = p->pTab->aCol[j].zColl;
        pColl = sqlite3FindCollSeq(db, ENC(db), zColl, 0);
        pExpr->pColl = pColl;
      }
      break;
    }
    if( op!=TK_CAST && op!=TK_UPLUS ){






      break;
    }
    p = p->pLeft;
  }
  if( sqlite3CheckCollSeq(pParse, pColl) ){ 
    pColl = 0;
  }
  return pColl;
}

................................................................................
SQLITE_PRIVATE CollSeq *sqlite3BinaryCompareCollSeq(
  Parse *pParse, 
  Expr *pLeft, 
  Expr *pRight
){
  CollSeq *pColl;
  assert( pLeft );
  if( pLeft->flags & EP_ExpCollate ){
    assert( pLeft->pColl );
    pColl = pLeft->pColl;
  }else if( pRight && pRight->flags & EP_ExpCollate ){
    assert( pRight->pColl );
    pColl = pRight->pColl;

  }else{
    pColl = sqlite3ExprCollSeq(pParse, pLeft);
    if( !pColl ){
      pColl = sqlite3ExprCollSeq(pParse, pRight);
    }
  }
  return pColl;
................................................................................
  if( pRoot==0 ){
    assert( db->mallocFailed );
    sqlite3ExprDelete(db, pLeft);
    sqlite3ExprDelete(db, pRight);
  }else{
    if( pRight ){
      pRoot->pRight = pRight;
      if( pRight->flags & EP_ExpCollate ){
        pRoot->flags |= EP_ExpCollate;
        pRoot->pColl = pRight->pColl;
      }
    }
    if( pLeft ){
      pRoot->pLeft = pLeft;
      if( pLeft->flags & EP_ExpCollate ){
        pRoot->flags |= EP_ExpCollate;
        pRoot->pColl = pLeft->pColl;
      }
    }
    exprSetHeight(pRoot);
  }
}

/*
** Allocate a Expr node which joins as many as two subtrees.
................................................................................
  if( 0==(flags&EXPRDUP_REDUCE) ){
    nSize = EXPR_FULLSIZE;
  }else{
    assert( !ExprHasAnyProperty(p, EP_TokenOnly|EP_Reduced) );
    assert( !ExprHasProperty(p, EP_FromJoin) ); 
    assert( (p->flags2 & EP2_MallocedToken)==0 );
    assert( (p->flags2 & EP2_Irreducible)==0 );
    if( p->pLeft || p->pRight || p->pColl || p->x.pList ){
      nSize = EXPR_REDUCEDSIZE | EP_Reduced;
    }else{
      nSize = EXPR_TOKENONLYSIZE | EP_TokenOnly;
    }
  }
  return nSize;
}
................................................................................
      testcase( regFree2==0 );
      codeCompare(pParse, pLeft, pRight, OP_Le, r1, r2, r4, SQLITE_STOREP2);
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_And, r3, r4, target);
      sqlite3ReleaseTempReg(pParse, r3);
      sqlite3ReleaseTempReg(pParse, r4);
      break;
    }

    case TK_UPLUS: {
      inReg = sqlite3ExprCodeTarget(pParse, pExpr->pLeft, target);
      break;
    }

    case TK_TRIGGER: {
      /* If the opcode is TK_TRIGGER, then the expression is a reference
................................................................................

    case TK_UMINUS:  zUniOp = "UMINUS"; break;
    case TK_UPLUS:   zUniOp = "UPLUS";  break;
    case TK_BITNOT:  zUniOp = "BITNOT"; break;
    case TK_NOT:     zUniOp = "NOT";    break;
    case TK_ISNULL:  zUniOp = "ISNULL"; break;
    case TK_NOTNULL: zUniOp = "NOTNULL"; break;







    case TK_AGG_FUNCTION:
    case TK_CONST_FUNC:
    case TK_FUNCTION: {
      ExprList *pFarg;       /* List of function arguments */
      if( ExprHasAnyProperty(pExpr, EP_TokenOnly) ){
        pFarg = 0;
................................................................................
static int evalConstExpr(Walker *pWalker, Expr *pExpr){
  Parse *pParse = pWalker->pParse;
  switch( pExpr->op ){
    case TK_IN:
    case TK_REGISTER: {
      return WRC_Prune;
    }



    case TK_FUNCTION:
    case TK_AGG_FUNCTION:
    case TK_CONST_FUNC: {
      /* The arguments to a function have a fixed destination.
      ** Mark them this way to avoid generated unneeded OP_SCopy
      ** instructions. 
      */
................................................................................
        }
      }
      break;
    }
  }
  if( isAppropriateForFactoring(pExpr) ){
    int r1 = ++pParse->nMem;
    int r2;
    r2 = sqlite3ExprCodeTarget(pParse, pExpr, r1);

    if( NEVER(r1!=r2) ) sqlite3ReleaseTempReg(pParse, r1);


    pExpr->op2 = pExpr->op;
    pExpr->op = TK_REGISTER;
    pExpr->iTable = r2;
    return WRC_Prune;
  }
  return WRC_Continue;
}
................................................................................
  }
  assert( !ExprHasAnyProperty(pA, EP_TokenOnly|EP_Reduced) );
  assert( !ExprHasAnyProperty(pB, EP_TokenOnly|EP_Reduced) );
  if( ExprHasProperty(pA, EP_xIsSelect) || ExprHasProperty(pB, EP_xIsSelect) ){
    return 2;
  }
  if( (pA->flags & EP_Distinct)!=(pB->flags & EP_Distinct) ) return 2;
  if( pA->op!=pB->op ) return 2;








  if( sqlite3ExprCompare(pA->pLeft, pB->pLeft) ) return 2;
  if( sqlite3ExprCompare(pA->pRight, pB->pRight) ) return 2;
  if( sqlite3ExprListCompare(pA->x.pList, pB->x.pList) ) return 2;
  if( pA->iTable!=pB->iTable || pA->iColumn!=pB->iColumn ) return 2;
  if( ExprHasProperty(pA, EP_IntValue) ){
    if( !ExprHasProperty(pB, EP_IntValue) || pA->u.iValue!=pB->u.iValue ){
      return 2;
    }
  }else if( pA->op!=TK_COLUMN && ALWAYS(pA->op!=TK_AGG_COLUMN) && pA->u.zToken){
    if( ExprHasProperty(pB, EP_IntValue) || NEVER(pB->u.zToken==0) ) return 2;
    if( strcmp(pA->u.zToken,pB->u.zToken)!=0 ){
      return 2;
    }
  }
  if( (pA->flags & EP_ExpCollate)!=(pB->flags & EP_ExpCollate) ) return 1;
  if( (pA->flags & EP_ExpCollate)!=0 && pA->pColl!=pB->pColl ) return 2;
  return 0;
}

/*
** Compare two ExprList objects.  Return 0 if they are identical and 
** non-zero if they differ in any way.
**
................................................................................
** Note that if an error occurred, it might be the case that
** no VDBE code was generated.
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3FinishCoding(Parse *pParse){
  sqlite3 *db;
  Vdbe *v;


  db = pParse->db;
  if( db->mallocFailed ) return;
  if( pParse->nested ) return;
  if( pParse->nErr ) return;

  /* Begin by generating some termination code at the end of the
  ** vdbe program
................................................................................

  /* Figure out how many bytes of space are required to store explicitly
  ** specified collation sequence names.
  */
  for(i=0; i<pList->nExpr; i++){
    Expr *pExpr = pList->a[i].pExpr;
    if( pExpr ){
      CollSeq *pColl = pExpr->pColl;
      /* Either pColl!=0 or there was an OOM failure.  But if an OOM
      ** failure we have quit before reaching this point. */
      if( ALWAYS(pColl) ){
        nExtra += (1 + sqlite3Strlen30(pColl->zName));
      }
    }
  }

  /* 
  ** Allocate the index structure. 
................................................................................
  ** same column more than once cannot be an error because that would 
  ** break backwards compatibility - it needs to be a warning.
  */
  for(i=0, pListItem=pList->a; i<pList->nExpr; i++, pListItem++){
    const char *zColName = pListItem->zName;
    Column *pTabCol;
    int requestedSortOrder;

    char *zColl;                   /* Collation sequence name */

    for(j=0, pTabCol=pTab->aCol; j<pTab->nCol; j++, pTabCol++){
      if( sqlite3StrICmp(zColName, pTabCol->zName)==0 ) break;
    }
    if( j>=pTab->nCol ){
      sqlite3ErrorMsg(pParse, "table %s has no column named %s",
        pTab->zName, zColName);
      pParse->checkSchema = 1;
      goto exit_create_index;
    }
    pIndex->aiColumn[i] = j;
    /* Justification of the ALWAYS(pListItem->pExpr->pColl):  Because of
    ** the way the "idxlist" non-terminal is constructed by the parser,
    ** if pListItem->pExpr is not null then either pListItem->pExpr->pColl
    ** must exist or else there must have been an OOM error.  But if there
    ** was an OOM error, we would never reach this point. */
    if( pListItem->pExpr && ALWAYS(pListItem->pExpr->pColl) ){


      int nColl;
      zColl = pListItem->pExpr->pColl->zName;
      nColl = sqlite3Strlen30(zColl) + 1;
      assert( nExtra>=nColl );
      memcpy(zExtra, zColl, nColl);
      zColl = zExtra;
      zExtra += nColl;
      nExtra -= nColl;
    }else{
................................................................................
** If iDb<0 then code the OP_Goto only - don't set flag to verify the
** schema on any databases.  This can be used to position the OP_Goto
** early in the code, before we know if any database tables will be used.
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3CodeVerifySchema(Parse *pParse, int iDb){
  Parse *pToplevel = sqlite3ParseToplevel(pParse);










  if( pToplevel->cookieGoto==0 ){
    Vdbe *v = sqlite3GetVdbe(pToplevel);
    if( v==0 ) return;  /* This only happens if there was a prior error */
    pToplevel->cookieGoto = sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Goto, 0, 0)+1;
  }
  if( iDb>=0 ){
    sqlite3 *db = pToplevel->db;
................................................................................

    pLeft = sqlite3Expr(db, TK_REGISTER, 0);
    if( pLeft ){
      /* Set the collation sequence and affinity of the LHS of each TK_EQ
      ** expression to the parent key column defaults.  */
      if( pIdx ){
        Column *pCol;

        iCol = pIdx->aiColumn[i];
        pCol = &pTab->aCol[iCol];
        if( pTab->iPKey==iCol ) iCol = -1;
        pLeft->iTable = regData+iCol+1;
        pLeft->affinity = pCol->affinity;
        pLeft->pColl = sqlite3LocateCollSeq(pParse, pCol->zColl);


      }else{
        pLeft->iTable = regData;
        pLeft->affinity = SQLITE_AFF_INTEGER;
      }
    }
    iCol = aiCol ? aiCol[i] : pFKey->aCol[0].iFrom;
    assert( iCol>=0 );
................................................................................
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_CHECK
  if( pTab->pCheck && (db->flags & SQLITE_IgnoreChecks)==0 ){
    ExprList *pCheck = pTab->pCheck;
    pParse->ckBase = regData;
    onError = overrideError!=OE_Default ? overrideError : OE_Abort;
    for(i=0; i<pCheck->nExpr; i++){
      int allOk = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(v);
      Expr *pDup = sqlite3ExprDup(db, pCheck->a[i].pExpr, 0);
      if( !db->mallocFailed ){
        assert( pDup!=0 );
        sqlite3ExprIfTrue(pParse, pDup, allOk, SQLITE_JUMPIFNULL);
        if( onError==OE_Ignore ){
          sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Goto, 0, ignoreDest);
        }else{
          char *zConsName = pCheck->a[i].zName;
          if( onError==OE_Replace ) onError = OE_Abort; /* IMP: R-15569-63625 */
          if( zConsName ){
            zConsName = sqlite3MPrintf(db, "constraint %s failed", zConsName);
          }else{
            zConsName = 0;
          }
          sqlite3HaltConstraint(pParse, onError, zConsName, P4_DYNAMIC);
        }
        sqlite3VdbeResolveLabel(v, allOk);
      }
      sqlite3ExprDelete(db, pDup);
    }
  }
#endif /* !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_CHECK) */

  /* If we have an INTEGER PRIMARY KEY, make sure the primary key
  ** of the new record does not previously exist.  Except, if this
  ** is an UPDATE and the primary key is not changing, that is OK.
................................................................................
  }
  *pnCol = nCol;
  *paCol = aCol;

  for(i=0, pCol=aCol; i<nCol; i++, pCol++){
    /* Get an appropriate name for the column
    */
    p = pEList->a[i].pExpr;
    assert( p->pRight==0 || ExprHasProperty(p->pRight, EP_IntValue)
               || p->pRight->u.zToken==0 || p->pRight->u.zToken[0]!=0 );
    if( (zName = pEList->a[i].zName)!=0 ){
      /* If the column contains an "AS <name>" phrase, use <name> as the name */
      zName = sqlite3DbStrDup(db, zName);
    }else{
      Expr *pColExpr = p;  /* The expression that is the result column name */
................................................................................
    if( pKeyMerge ){
      pKeyMerge->aSortOrder = (u8*)&pKeyMerge->aColl[nOrderBy];
      pKeyMerge->nField = (u16)nOrderBy;
      pKeyMerge->enc = ENC(db);
      for(i=0; i<nOrderBy; i++){
        CollSeq *pColl;
        Expr *pTerm = pOrderBy->a[i].pExpr;
        if( pTerm->flags & EP_ExpCollate ){
          pColl = pTerm->pColl;
        }else{
          pColl = multiSelectCollSeq(pParse, p, aPermute[i]);
          pTerm->flags |= EP_ExpCollate;
          pTerm->pColl = pColl;

        }
        pKeyMerge->aColl[i] = pColl;
        pKeyMerge->aSortOrder[i] = pOrderBy->a[i].sortOrder;
      }
    }
  }else{
    pKeyMerge = 0;
................................................................................

  /* Implement the main merge loop
  */
  sqlite3VdbeResolveLabel(v, labelCmpr);
  sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_Permutation, 0, 0, 0, (char*)aPermute, P4_INTARRAY);
  sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_Compare, destA.iSdst, destB.iSdst, nOrderBy,
                         (char*)pKeyMerge, P4_KEYINFO_HANDOFF);

  sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_Jump, addrAltB, addrAeqB, addrAgtB);

  /* Release temporary registers
  */
  if( regPrev ){
    sqlite3ReleaseTempRange(pParse, regPrev, nOrderBy+1);
  }
................................................................................
    if( pExpr->iColumn<0 ){
      pExpr->op = TK_NULL;
    }else{
      Expr *pNew;
      assert( pEList!=0 && pExpr->iColumn<pEList->nExpr );
      assert( pExpr->pLeft==0 && pExpr->pRight==0 );
      pNew = sqlite3ExprDup(db, pEList->a[pExpr->iColumn].pExpr, 0);
      if( pNew && pExpr->pColl ){
        pNew->pColl = pExpr->pColl;
      }
      sqlite3ExprDelete(db, pExpr);
      pExpr = pNew;
    }
  }else{
    pExpr->pLeft = substExpr(db, pExpr->pLeft, iTable, pEList);
    pExpr->pRight = substExpr(db, pExpr->pRight, iTable, pEList);
    if( ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_xIsSelect) ){
................................................................................
      /* Implement a co-routine that will return a single row of the result
      ** set on each invocation.
      */
      int addrTop;
      int addrEof;
      pItem->regReturn = ++pParse->nMem;
      addrEof = ++pParse->nMem;









      sqlite3VdbeAddOp0(v, OP_Goto);
      addrTop = sqlite3VdbeAddOp1(v, OP_OpenPseudo, pItem->iCursor);
      sqlite3VdbeChangeP5(v, 1);
      VdbeComment((v, "coroutine for %s", pItem->pTab->zName));
      pItem->addrFillSub = addrTop;
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Integer, 0, addrEof);
      sqlite3VdbeChangeP5(v, 1);
................................................................................
    **     INSERT OR REPLACE INTO t2 VALUES(new.a, new.b);
    **   END;
    **
    **   INSERT INTO t1 ... ;            -- insert into t2 uses REPLACE policy
    **   INSERT OR IGNORE INTO t1 ... ;  -- insert into t2 uses IGNORE policy
    */
    pParse->eOrconf = (orconf==OE_Default)?pStep->orconf:(u8)orconf;










    switch( pStep->op ){
      case TK_UPDATE: {
        sqlite3Update(pParse, 
          targetSrcList(pParse, pStep),
          sqlite3ExprListDup(db, pStep->pExprList, 0), 
          sqlite3ExprDup(db, pStep->pWhere, 0), 
................................................................................
*/
#define SWAP(TYPE,A,B) {TYPE t=A; A=B; B=t;}

/*
** Commute a comparison operator.  Expressions of the form "X op Y"
** are converted into "Y op X".
**
** If a collation sequence is associated with either the left or right

** side of the comparison, it remains associated with the same side after
** the commutation. So "Y collate NOCASE op X" becomes 
** "X collate NOCASE op Y". This is because any collation sequence on
** the left hand side of a comparison overrides any collation sequence 
** attached to the right. For the same reason the EP_ExpCollate flag
** is not commuted.
*/
static void exprCommute(Parse *pParse, Expr *pExpr){
  u16 expRight = (pExpr->pRight->flags & EP_ExpCollate);
  u16 expLeft = (pExpr->pLeft->flags & EP_ExpCollate);
  assert( allowedOp(pExpr->op) && pExpr->op!=TK_IN );
  pExpr->pRight->pColl = sqlite3ExprCollSeq(pParse, pExpr->pRight);





  pExpr->pLeft->pColl = sqlite3ExprCollSeq(pParse, pExpr->pLeft);
  SWAP(CollSeq*,pExpr->pRight->pColl,pExpr->pLeft->pColl);
  pExpr->pRight->flags = (pExpr->pRight->flags & ~EP_ExpCollate) | expLeft;



  pExpr->pLeft->flags = (pExpr->pLeft->flags & ~EP_ExpCollate) | expRight;


  SWAP(Expr*,pExpr->pRight,pExpr->pLeft);
  if( pExpr->op>=TK_GT ){
    assert( TK_LT==TK_GT+2 );
    assert( TK_GE==TK_LE+2 );
    assert( TK_GT>TK_EQ );
    assert( TK_GT<TK_LE );
    assert( pExpr->op>=TK_GT && pExpr->op<=TK_GE );
................................................................................
  
          /* Figure out the collation sequence required from an index for
          ** it to be useful for optimising expression pX. Store this
          ** value in variable pColl.
          */
          assert(pX->pLeft);
          pColl = sqlite3BinaryCompareCollSeq(pParse, pX->pLeft, pX->pRight);
          assert(pColl || pParse->nErr);
  
          for(j=0; pIdx->aiColumn[j]!=iColumn; j++){
            if( NEVER(j>=pIdx->nColumn) ) return 0;
          }
          if( pColl && sqlite3StrICmp(pColl->zName, pIdx->azColl[j]) ) continue;
        }
        return pTerm;
      }
    }
  }
  return 0;
}
................................................................................
  sqlite3 *db = pParse->db;        /* Database connection */

  if( db->mallocFailed ){
    return;
  }
  pTerm = &pWC->a[idxTerm];
  pMaskSet = pWC->pMaskSet;
  pExpr = pTerm->pExpr;
  prereqLeft = exprTableUsage(pMaskSet, pExpr->pLeft);
  op = pExpr->op;
  if( op==TK_IN ){
    assert( pExpr->pRight==0 );
    if( ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_xIsSelect) ){
      pTerm->prereqRight = exprSelectTableUsage(pMaskSet, pExpr->x.pSelect);
    }else{
................................................................................
                       ** on left table of a LEFT JOIN.  Ticket #3015 */
  }
  pTerm->prereqAll = prereqAll;
  pTerm->leftCursor = -1;
  pTerm->iParent = -1;
  pTerm->eOperator = 0;
  if( allowedOp(op) && (pTerm->prereqRight & prereqLeft)==0 ){
    Expr *pLeft = pExpr->pLeft;
    Expr *pRight = pExpr->pRight;
    if( pLeft->op==TK_COLUMN ){
      pTerm->leftCursor = pLeft->iTable;
      pTerm->u.leftColumn = pLeft->iColumn;
      pTerm->eOperator = operatorMask(op);
    }
    if( pRight && pRight->op==TK_COLUMN ){
      WhereTerm *pNew;
................................................................................
        pTerm->nChild = 1;
        pTerm->wtFlags |= TERM_COPIED;
      }else{
        pDup = pExpr;
        pNew = pTerm;
      }
      exprCommute(pParse, pDup);
      pLeft = pDup->pLeft;
      pNew->leftCursor = pLeft->iTable;
      pNew->u.leftColumn = pLeft->iColumn;
      testcase( (prereqLeft | extraRight) != prereqLeft );
      pNew->prereqRight = prereqLeft | extraRight;
      pNew->prereqAll = prereqAll;
      pNew->eOperator = operatorMask(pDup->op);
    }
................................................................................
  ){
    Expr *pLeft;       /* LHS of LIKE/GLOB operator */
    Expr *pStr2;       /* Copy of pStr1 - RHS of LIKE/GLOB operator */
    Expr *pNewExpr1;
    Expr *pNewExpr2;
    int idxNew1;
    int idxNew2;
    CollSeq *pColl;    /* Collating sequence to use */

    pLeft = pExpr->x.pList->a[1].pExpr;
    pStr2 = sqlite3ExprDup(db, pStr1, 0);
    if( !db->mallocFailed ){
      u8 c, *pC;       /* Last character before the first wildcard */
      pC = (u8*)&pStr2->u.zToken[sqlite3Strlen30(pStr2->u.zToken)-1];
      c = *pC;
................................................................................
        if( c=='A'-1 ) isComplete = 0;   /* EV: R-64339-08207 */


        c = sqlite3UpperToLower[c];
      }
      *pC = c + 1;
    }
    pColl = sqlite3FindCollSeq(db, SQLITE_UTF8, noCase ? "NOCASE" : "BINARY",0);


    pNewExpr1 = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_GE, 
                     sqlite3ExprSetColl(sqlite3ExprDup(db,pLeft,0), pColl),

                     pStr1, 0);
    idxNew1 = whereClauseInsert(pWC, pNewExpr1, TERM_VIRTUAL|TERM_DYNAMIC);
    testcase( idxNew1==0 );
    exprAnalyze(pSrc, pWC, idxNew1);

    pNewExpr2 = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_LT,
                     sqlite3ExprSetColl(sqlite3ExprDup(db,pLeft,0), pColl),

                     pStr2, 0);
    idxNew2 = whereClauseInsert(pWC, pNewExpr2, TERM_VIRTUAL|TERM_DYNAMIC);
    testcase( idxNew2==0 );
    exprAnalyze(pSrc, pWC, idxNew2);
    pTerm = &pWC->a[idxTerm];
    if( isComplete ){
      pWC->a[idxNew1].iParent = idxTerm;
      pWC->a[idxNew2].iParent = idxTerm;
................................................................................
  Index *pIdx,                    /* Index to match column of */
  int iCol                        /* Column of index to match */
){
  int i;
  const char *zColl = pIdx->azColl[iCol];

  for(i=0; i<pList->nExpr; i++){
    Expr *p = pList->a[i].pExpr;
    if( p->op==TK_COLUMN
     && p->iColumn==pIdx->aiColumn[iCol]
     && p->iTable==iBase
    ){
      CollSeq *pColl = sqlite3ExprCollSeq(pParse, p);
      if( ALWAYS(pColl) && 0==sqlite3StrICmp(pColl->zName, zColl) ){
        return i;
      }
    }
  }

  return -1;
................................................................................
  ** can be ignored. If it does not, and the column does not belong to the
  ** same table as index pIdx, return early. Finally, if there is no
  ** matching "col=X" expression and the column is on the same table as pIdx,
  ** set the corresponding bit in variable mask.
  */
  for(i=0; i<pDistinct->nExpr; i++){
    WhereTerm *pTerm;
    Expr *p = pDistinct->a[i].pExpr;
    if( p->op!=TK_COLUMN ) return 0;
    pTerm = findTerm(pWC, p->iTable, p->iColumn, ~(Bitmask)0, WO_EQ, 0);
    if( pTerm ){
      Expr *pX = pTerm->pExpr;
      CollSeq *p1 = sqlite3BinaryCompareCollSeq(pParse, pX->pLeft, pX->pRight);
      CollSeq *p2 = sqlite3ExprCollSeq(pParse, p);
      if( p1==p2 ) continue;
................................................................................
  pTab = pTabList->a[0].pTab;

  /* If any of the expressions is an IPK column on table iBase, then return 
  ** true. Note: The (p->iTable==iBase) part of this test may be false if the
  ** current SELECT is a correlated sub-query.
  */
  for(i=0; i<pDistinct->nExpr; i++){
    Expr *p = pDistinct->a[i].pExpr;
    if( p->op==TK_COLUMN && p->iTable==iBase && p->iColumn<0 ) return 1;
  }

  /* Loop through all indices on the table, checking each to see if it makes
  ** the DISTINCT qualifier redundant. It does so if:
  **
  **   1. The index is itself UNIQUE, and
................................................................................
    int isMatch;            /* ORDER BY term matches the index term */
    const char *zColl;      /* Name of collating sequence for i-th index term */
    WhereTerm *pConstraint; /* A constraint in the WHERE clause */

    /* If the next term of the ORDER BY clause refers to anything other than
    ** a column in the "base" table, then this index will not be of any
    ** further use in handling the ORDER BY. */
    pOBExpr = pOBItem->pExpr;
    if( pOBExpr->op!=TK_COLUMN || pOBExpr->iTable!=base ){
      break;
    }

    /* Find column number and collating sequence for the next entry
    ** in the index */
    if( pIdx->zName && i<pIdx->nColumn ){
................................................................................
    }

    /* Check to see if the column number and collating sequence of the
    ** index match the column number and collating sequence of the ORDER BY
    ** clause entry.  Set isMatch to 1 if they both match. */
    if( pOBExpr->iColumn==iColumn ){
      if( zColl ){
        pColl = sqlite3ExprCollSeq(pParse, pOBExpr);
        if( !pColl ) pColl = db->pDfltColl;
        isMatch = sqlite3StrICmp(pColl->zName, zColl)==0;
      }else{
        isMatch = 1;
      }
    }else{
      isMatch = 0;
................................................................................
  Index *pIdx;                /* Copy of pProbe, or zero for IPK index */
  int eqTermMask;             /* Current mask of valid equality operators */
  int idxEqTermMask;          /* Index mask of valid equality operators */
  Index sPk;                  /* A fake index object for the primary key */
  tRowcnt aiRowEstPk[2];      /* The aiRowEst[] value for the sPk index */
  int aiColumnPk = -1;        /* The aColumn[] value for the sPk index */
  int wsFlagMask;             /* Allowed flags in p->cost.plan.wsFlag */






  /* Initialize the cost to a worst-case value */
  memset(&p->cost, 0, sizeof(p->cost));
  p->cost.rCost = SQLITE_BIG_DBL;

  /* If the pSrc table is the right table of a LEFT JOIN then we may not
  ** use an index to satisfy IS NULL constraints on that table.  This is
................................................................................
    pProbe = &sPk;
    wsFlagMask = ~(
        WHERE_COLUMN_IN|WHERE_COLUMN_EQ|WHERE_COLUMN_NULL|WHERE_COLUMN_RANGE
    );
    eqTermMask = WO_EQ|WO_IN;
    pIdx = 0;
  }












  /* Loop over all indices looking for the best one to use
  */
  for(; pProbe; pIdx=pProbe=pProbe->pNext){
    const tRowcnt * const aiRowEst = pProbe->aiRowEst;
    WhereCost pc;               /* Cost of using pProbe */
    double log10N = (double)1;  /* base-10 logarithm of nRow (inexact) */
................................................................................
    **             SELECT a, b    FROM tbl WHERE a = 1;
    **             SELECT a, b, c FROM tbl WHERE a = 1;
    */
    int bInEst = 0;               /* True if "x IN (SELECT...)" seen */
    int nInMul = 1;               /* Number of distinct equalities to lookup */
    double rangeDiv = (double)1;  /* Estimated reduction in search space */
    int nBound = 0;               /* Number of range constraints seen */
    int bSort;                    /* True if external sort required */
    int bDist;                    /* True if index cannot help with DISTINCT */
    int bLookup = 0;              /* True if not a covering index */
    int nPriorSat;                /* ORDER BY terms satisfied by outer loops */
    int nOrderBy;                 /* Number of ORDER BY terms */
    WhereTerm *pTerm;             /* A single term of the WHERE clause */
#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT3
    WhereTerm *pFirstTerm = 0;    /* First term matching the index */
#endif

    WHERETRACE((
      "   %s(%s):\n",
      pSrc->pTab->zName, (pIdx ? pIdx->zName : "ipk")
    ));
    memset(&pc, 0, sizeof(pc));
    nOrderBy = p->pOrderBy ? p->pOrderBy->nExpr : 0;
    if( p->i ){
      nPriorSat = pc.plan.nOBSat = p->aLevel[p->i-1].plan.nOBSat;
      bSort = nPriorSat<nOrderBy;
      bDist = 0;
    }else{
      nPriorSat = pc.plan.nOBSat = 0;
      bSort = nOrderBy>0;
      bDist = p->pDistinct!=0;
    }

    /* Determine the values of pc.plan.nEq and nInMul */
    for(pc.plan.nEq=0; pc.plan.nEq<pProbe->nColumn; pc.plan.nEq++){
      int j = pProbe->aiColumn[pc.plan.nEq];
      pTerm = findTerm(pWC, iCur, j, p->notReady, eqTermMask, pIdx);
      if( pTerm==0 ) break;
      pc.plan.wsFlags |= (WHERE_COLUMN_EQ|WHERE_ROWID_EQ);
................................................................................
  spanExpr(&yygotominor.yy342, pParse, TK_VARIABLE, &yymsp[0].minor.yy0);
  sqlite3ExprAssignVarNumber(pParse, yygotominor.yy342.pExpr);
  spanSet(&yygotominor.yy342, &yymsp[0].minor.yy0, &yymsp[0].minor.yy0);
}
        break;
      case 194: /* expr ::= expr COLLATE ids */
{
  yygotominor.yy342.pExpr = sqlite3ExprSetCollByToken(pParse, yymsp[-2].minor.yy342.pExpr, &yymsp[0].minor.yy0);
  yygotominor.yy342.zStart = yymsp[-2].minor.yy342.zStart;
  yygotominor.yy342.zEnd = &yymsp[0].minor.yy0.z[yymsp[0].minor.yy0.n];
}
        break;
      case 195: /* expr ::= CAST LP expr AS typetoken RP */
{
  yygotominor.yy342.pExpr = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_CAST, yymsp[-3].minor.yy342.pExpr, 0, &yymsp[-1].minor.yy0);
................................................................................
{yygotominor.yy392 = OE_Abort;}
        break;
      case 244: /* uniqueflag ::= */
{yygotominor.yy392 = OE_None;}
        break;
      case 247: /* idxlist ::= idxlist COMMA nm collate sortorder */
{
  Expr *p = 0;
  if( yymsp[-1].minor.yy0.n>0 ){
    p = sqlite3Expr(pParse->db, TK_COLUMN, 0);
    sqlite3ExprSetCollByToken(pParse, p, &yymsp[-1].minor.yy0);
  }
  yygotominor.yy442 = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,yymsp[-4].minor.yy442, p);
  sqlite3ExprListSetName(pParse,yygotominor.yy442,&yymsp[-2].minor.yy0,1);
  sqlite3ExprListCheckLength(pParse, yygotominor.yy442, "index");
  if( yygotominor.yy442 ) yygotominor.yy442->a[yygotominor.yy442->nExpr-1].sortOrder = (u8)yymsp[0].minor.yy392;
}
        break;
      case 248: /* idxlist ::= nm collate sortorder */
{
  Expr *p = 0;
  if( yymsp[-1].minor.yy0.n>0 ){
    p = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_COLUMN, 0, 0, 0);
    sqlite3ExprSetCollByToken(pParse, p, &yymsp[-1].minor.yy0);
  }
  yygotominor.yy442 = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,0, p);
  sqlite3ExprListSetName(pParse, yygotominor.yy442, &yymsp[-2].minor.yy0, 1);
  sqlite3ExprListCheckLength(pParse, yygotominor.yy442, "index");
  if( yygotominor.yy442 ) yygotominor.yy442->a[yygotominor.yy442->nExpr-1].sortOrder = (u8)yymsp[0].minor.yy392;
}
        break;
      case 249: /* collate ::= */







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671
672
673
674
675
676
677
678
679
680
681
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683
684
685
....
1419
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1426
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....
1456
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1465
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1467
1468
1469
1470
.....
10745
10746
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10748
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10751

10752
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10754
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.....
10780
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.....
11397
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11410
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.....
12089
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.....
26453
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.....
26492
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.....
32790
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.....
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59430
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.....
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.....
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.....
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.....
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.....
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.....
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.....
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.....
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.....
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.....
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.....
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.....
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.....
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.....
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.....
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.....
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.....
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.....
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.....
89878
89879
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89883
89884



89885
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89898


89899
89900
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.....
95618
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95625
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.....
96616
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96628
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.....
96825
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.....
96893
96894
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96897
96898
96899



96900
96901
96902
96903
96904
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96906
.....
98232
98233
98234
98235
98236
98237
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98239
98240
98241
98242
98243
98244
98245
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98247
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98254
.....
99917
99918
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99935
99936
99937
99938
99939
......
103012
103013
103014
103015
103016
103017
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103019
103020
103021
103022
103023
103024
103025
103026
103027
103028
103029
103030
103031
103032
103033
103034
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103036
103037
103038


103039
103040
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103042
103043
103044
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103048
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103050
103051
......
103114
103115
103116
103117
103118
103119
103120
103121
103122
103123
103124
103125
103126
103127
103128
103129
103130
103131
103132
103133
......
103637
103638
103639
103640
103641
103642
103643
103644
103645
103646
103647
103648
103649
103650
103651
......
103664
103665
103666
103667
103668
103669
103670
103671
103672
103673
103674
103675
103676
103677
103678
103679
......
103693
103694
103695
103696
103697
103698
103699
103700
103701
103702
103703
103704
103705
103706
103707
......
103772
103773
103774
103775
103776
103777
103778
103779
103780
103781
103782
103783
103784
103785
103786
......
103794
103795
103796
103797
103798
103799
103800
103801
103802
103803
103804

103805
103806
103807
103808
103809
103810
103811

103812
103813
103814
103815
103816
103817
103818
103819
103820
......
103924
103925
103926
103927
103928
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103933
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103936
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103943
......
103976
103977
103978
103979
103980
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103982
103983
103984
103985
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103990
......
104028
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......
105314
105315
105316
105317
105318
105319
105320
105321
105322
105323
105324
105325
105326
105327
105328
......
105340
105341
105342
105343
105344
105345
105346
105347
105348
105349
105350
105351
105352
105353
105354
......
105481
105482
105483
105484
105485
105486
105487
105488
105489
105490
105491
105492
105493
105494
105495
105496
105497
105498
105499
......
105534
105535
105536
105537
105538
105539
105540
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105555
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105557
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......
105623
105624
105625
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105628
105629
105630
105631
105632


105633
105634
105635
105636
105637
105638
105639
105640
105641
105642






105643



105644
105645
105646
105647
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105649
105650
......
110670
110671
110672
110673
110674
110675
110676
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110684
......
110929
110930
110931
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110933
110934
110935

110936



110937
110938
110939
110940
110941
110942
110943
110944

110945



110946
110947
110948
110949
110950
110951
110952
**
** See also: [sqlite3_libversion()],
** [sqlite3_libversion_number()], [sqlite3_sourceid()],
** [sqlite_version()] and [sqlite_source_id()].
*/
#define SQLITE_VERSION        "3.7.15"
#define SQLITE_VERSION_NUMBER 3007015
#define SQLITE_SOURCE_ID      "2012-12-10 22:19:14 bd7aeeb691fee69dd6a562138a7aba8e8e192272"

/*
** CAPI3REF: Run-Time Library Version Numbers
** KEYWORDS: sqlite3_version, sqlite3_sourceid
**
** These interfaces provide the same information as the [SQLITE_VERSION],
** [SQLITE_VERSION_NUMBER], and [SQLITE_SOURCE_ID] C preprocessor macros
................................................................................
** VFS has handled the PRAGMA itself and the parser generates a no-op
** prepared statement.  ^If the [SQLITE_FCNTL_PRAGMA] file control returns
** any result code other than [SQLITE_OK] or [SQLITE_NOTFOUND], that means
** that the VFS encountered an error while handling the [PRAGMA] and the
** compilation of the PRAGMA fails with an error.  ^The [SQLITE_FCNTL_PRAGMA]
** file control occurs at the beginning of pragma statement analysis and so
** it is able to override built-in [PRAGMA] statements.

**
** <li>[[SQLITE_FCNTL_BUSYHANDLER]]
** ^This file-control may be invoked by SQLite on the database file handle
** shortly after it is opened in order to provide a custom VFS with access
** to the connections busy-handler callback. The argument is of type (void **)
** - an array of two (void *) values. The first (void *) actually points
** to a function of type (int (*)(void *)). In order to invoke the connections
** busy-handler, this function should be invoked with the second (void *) in
** the array as the only argument. If it returns non-zero, then the operation
** should be retried. If it returns zero, the custom VFS should abandon the
** current operation.
**
** <li>[[SQLITE_FCNTL_TEMPFILENAME]]
** ^Application can invoke this file-control to have SQLite generate a
** temporary filename using the same algorithm that is followed to generate
** temporary filenames for TEMP tables and other internal uses.  The
** argument should be a char** which will be filled with the filename
** written into memory obtained from [sqlite3_malloc()].  The caller should
** invoke [sqlite3_free()] on the result to avoid a memory leak.
**
** </ul>
*/
#define SQLITE_FCNTL_LOCKSTATE               1
#define SQLITE_GET_LOCKPROXYFILE             2
#define SQLITE_SET_LOCKPROXYFILE             3
#define SQLITE_LAST_ERRNO                    4
#define SQLITE_FCNTL_SIZE_HINT               5
#define SQLITE_FCNTL_CHUNK_SIZE              6
................................................................................
#define SQLITE_FCNTL_WIN32_AV_RETRY          9
#define SQLITE_FCNTL_PERSIST_WAL            10
#define SQLITE_FCNTL_OVERWRITE              11
#define SQLITE_FCNTL_VFSNAME                12
#define SQLITE_FCNTL_POWERSAFE_OVERWRITE    13
#define SQLITE_FCNTL_PRAGMA                 14
#define SQLITE_FCNTL_BUSYHANDLER            15
#define SQLITE_FCNTL_TEMPFILENAME           16

/*
** CAPI3REF: Mutex Handle
**
** The mutex module within SQLite defines [sqlite3_mutex] to be an
** abstract type for a mutex object.  The SQLite core never looks
** at the internal representation of an [sqlite3_mutex].  It only
................................................................................

  Expr *pLeft;           /* Left subnode */
  Expr *pRight;          /* Right subnode */
  union {
    ExprList *pList;     /* Function arguments or in "<expr> IN (<expr-list)" */
    Select *pSelect;     /* Used for sub-selects and "<expr> IN (<select>)" */
  } x;


  /* If the EP_Reduced flag is set in the Expr.flags mask, then no
  ** space is allocated for the fields below this point. An attempt to
  ** access them will result in a segfault or malfunction.
  *********************************************************************/

#if SQLITE_MAX_EXPR_DEPTH>0
................................................................................
#define EP_Agg        0x0002  /* Contains one or more aggregate functions */
#define EP_Resolved   0x0004  /* IDs have been resolved to COLUMNs */
#define EP_Error      0x0008  /* Expression contains one or more errors */
#define EP_Distinct   0x0010  /* Aggregate function with DISTINCT keyword */
#define EP_VarSelect  0x0020  /* pSelect is correlated, not constant */
#define EP_DblQuoted  0x0040  /* token.z was originally in "..." */
#define EP_InfixFunc  0x0080  /* True for an infix function: LIKE, GLOB, etc */
#define EP_Collate    0x0100  /* Tree contains a TK_COLLATE opeartor */
#define EP_FixedDest  0x0200  /* Result needed in a specific register */
#define EP_IntValue   0x0400  /* Integer value contained in u.iValue */
#define EP_xIsSelect  0x0800  /* x.pSelect is valid (otherwise x.pList is) */
#define EP_Hint       0x1000  /* Not used */
#define EP_Reduced    0x2000  /* Expr struct is EXPR_REDUCEDSIZE bytes only */
#define EP_TokenOnly  0x4000  /* Expr struct is EXPR_TOKENONLYSIZE bytes only */
#define EP_Static     0x8000  /* Held in memory not obtained from malloc() */
................................................................................
#define OPFLAG_APPEND        0x08    /* This is likely to be an append */
#define OPFLAG_USESEEKRESULT 0x10    /* Try to avoid a seek in BtreeInsert() */
#define OPFLAG_CLEARCACHE    0x20    /* Clear pseudo-table cache in OP_Column */
#define OPFLAG_LENGTHARG     0x40    /* OP_Column only used for length() */
#define OPFLAG_TYPEOFARG     0x80    /* OP_Column only used for typeof() */
#define OPFLAG_BULKCSR       0x01    /* OP_Open** used to open bulk cursor */
#define OPFLAG_P2ISREG       0x02    /* P2 to OP_Open** is a register number */
#define OPFLAG_PERMUTE       0x01    /* OP_Compare: use the permutation */

/*
 * Each trigger present in the database schema is stored as an instance of
 * struct Trigger. 
 *
 * Pointers to instances of struct Trigger are stored in two ways.
 * 1. In the "trigHash" hash table (part of the sqlite3* that represents the 
................................................................................
SQLITE_PRIVATE u8 sqlite3HexToInt(int h);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3TwoPartName(Parse *, Token *, Token *, Token **);
SQLITE_PRIVATE const char *sqlite3ErrStr(int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ReadSchema(Parse *pParse);
SQLITE_PRIVATE CollSeq *sqlite3FindCollSeq(sqlite3*,u8 enc, const char*,int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE CollSeq *sqlite3LocateCollSeq(Parse *pParse, const char*zName);
SQLITE_PRIVATE CollSeq *sqlite3ExprCollSeq(Parse *pParse, Expr *pExpr);
SQLITE_PRIVATE Expr *sqlite3ExprAddCollateToken(Parse *pParse, Expr*, Token*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE Expr *sqlite3ExprAddCollateString(Parse*,Expr*,const char*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE Expr *sqlite3ExprSkipCollate(Expr*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3CheckCollSeq(Parse *, CollSeq *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3CheckObjectName(Parse *, const char *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeSetChanges(sqlite3 *, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3AddInt64(i64*,i64);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3SubInt64(i64*,i64);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3MulInt64(i64*,i64);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3AbsInt32(int);
................................................................................
  }else if( (*pArg)==0 ){
    pFile->ctrlFlags &= ~mask;
  }else{
    pFile->ctrlFlags |= mask;
  }
}

/* Forward declaration */
static int unixGetTempname(int nBuf, char *zBuf);

/*
** Information and control of an open file handle.
*/
static int unixFileControl(sqlite3_file *id, int op, void *pArg){
  unixFile *pFile = (unixFile*)id;
  switch( op ){
    case SQLITE_FCNTL_LOCKSTATE: {
................................................................................
    case SQLITE_FCNTL_POWERSAFE_OVERWRITE: {
      unixModeBit(pFile, UNIXFILE_PSOW, (int*)pArg);
      return SQLITE_OK;
    }
    case SQLITE_FCNTL_VFSNAME: {
      *(char**)pArg = sqlite3_mprintf("%s", pFile->pVfs->zName);
      return SQLITE_OK;
    }
    case SQLITE_FCNTL_TEMPFILENAME: {
      char *zTFile = sqlite3_malloc( pFile->pVfs->mxPathname );
      if( zTFile ){
        unixGetTempname(pFile->pVfs->mxPathname, zTFile);
        *(char**)pArg = zTFile;
      }
      return SQLITE_OK;
    }
#ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
    /* The pager calls this method to signal that it has done
    ** a rollback and that the database is therefore unchanged and
    ** it hence it is OK for the transaction change counter to be
    ** unchanged.
    */
................................................................................
  }else if( (*pArg)==0 ){
    pFile->ctrlFlags &= ~mask;
  }else{
    pFile->ctrlFlags |= mask;
  }
}

/* Forward declaration */
static int getTempname(int nBuf, char *zBuf);

/*
** Control and query of the open file handle.
*/
static int winFileControl(sqlite3_file *id, int op, void *pArg){
  winFile *pFile = (winFile*)id;
  switch( op ){
    case SQLITE_FCNTL_LOCKSTATE: {
................................................................................
      }
      if( a[1]>0 ){
        win32IoerrRetryDelay = a[1];
      }else{
        a[1] = win32IoerrRetryDelay;
      }
      return SQLITE_OK;
    }
    case SQLITE_FCNTL_TEMPFILENAME: {
      char *zTFile = sqlite3_malloc( pFile->pVfs->mxPathname );
      if( zTFile ){
        getTempname(pFile->pVfs->mxPathname, zTFile);
        *(char**)pArg = zTFile;
      }
      return SQLITE_OK;
    }
  }
  return SQLITE_NOTFOUND;
}

/*
** Return the sector size in bytes of the underlying block device for
................................................................................
      int i, j;
      KeyInfo *pKeyInfo = pOp->p4.pKeyInfo;
      assert( pKeyInfo->aSortOrder!=0 );
      sqlite3_snprintf(nTemp, zTemp, "keyinfo(%d", pKeyInfo->nField);
      i = sqlite3Strlen30(zTemp);
      for(j=0; j<pKeyInfo->nField; j++){
        CollSeq *pColl = pKeyInfo->aColl[j];
        const char *zColl = pColl ? pColl->zName : "nil";
        int n = sqlite3Strlen30(zColl);
        if( i+n>nTemp-6 ){
          memcpy(&zTemp[i],",...",4);
          break;
        }
        zTemp[i++] = ',';
        if( pKeyInfo->aSortOrder[j] ){
          zTemp[i++] = '-';
        }
        memcpy(&zTemp[i], zColl, n+1);
        i += n;




      }
      zTemp[i++] = ')';
      zTemp[i] = 0;
      assert( i<nTemp );
      break;
    }
    case P4_COLLSEQ: {
................................................................................
#endif

#ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
/*
** Print the value of a register for tracing purposes:
*/
static void memTracePrint(FILE *out, Mem *p){
  if( p->flags & MEM_Invalid ){
    fprintf(out, " undefined");
  }else if( p->flags & MEM_Null ){
    fprintf(out, " NULL");
  }else if( (p->flags & (MEM_Int|MEM_Str))==(MEM_Int|MEM_Str) ){
    fprintf(out, " si:%lld", p->u.i);
  }else if( p->flags & MEM_Int ){
    fprintf(out, " i:%lld", p->u.i);
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_FLOATING_POINT
  }else if( p->flags & MEM_Real ){
................................................................................
      Mem *pMem;
      int i;
    } af;
    struct OP_Concat_stack_vars {
      i64 nByte;
    } ag;
    struct OP_Remainder_stack_vars {
      char bIntint;   /* Started out as two integer operands */
      int flags;      /* Combined MEM_* flags from both inputs */
      i64 iA;         /* Integer value of left operand */
      i64 iB;         /* Integer value of right operand */
      double rA;      /* Real value of left operand */
      double rB;      /* Real value of right operand */
    } ah;
    struct OP_Function_stack_vars {
................................................................................
  u.ae.n = pOp->p3;
  pIn1 = &aMem[pOp->p1];
  pOut = &aMem[pOp->p2];
  assert( pOut!=pIn1 );
  while( 1 ){
    sqlite3VdbeMemShallowCopy(pOut, pIn1, MEM_Ephem);
    Deephemeralize(pOut);
#ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
    pOut->pScopyFrom = 0;
#endif
    REGISTER_TRACE(pOp->p2+pOp->p3-u.ae.n, pOut);
    if( (u.ae.n--)==0 ) break;
    pOut++;
    pIn1++;
  }
  break;
}
................................................................................
*/
case OP_Add:                   /* same as TK_PLUS, in1, in2, out3 */
case OP_Subtract:              /* same as TK_MINUS, in1, in2, out3 */
case OP_Multiply:              /* same as TK_STAR, in1, in2, out3 */
case OP_Divide:                /* same as TK_SLASH, in1, in2, out3 */
case OP_Remainder: {           /* same as TK_REM, in1, in2, out3 */
#if 0  /* local variables moved into u.ah */
  char bIntint;   /* Started out as two integer operands */
  int flags;      /* Combined MEM_* flags from both inputs */
  i64 iA;         /* Integer value of left operand */
  i64 iB;         /* Integer value of right operand */
  double rA;      /* Real value of left operand */
  double rB;      /* Real value of right operand */
#endif /* local variables moved into u.ah */

................................................................................
  applyNumericAffinity(pIn2);
  pOut = &aMem[pOp->p3];
  u.ah.flags = pIn1->flags | pIn2->flags;
  if( (u.ah.flags & MEM_Null)!=0 ) goto arithmetic_result_is_null;
  if( (pIn1->flags & pIn2->flags & MEM_Int)==MEM_Int ){
    u.ah.iA = pIn1->u.i;
    u.ah.iB = pIn2->u.i;
    u.ah.bIntint = 1;
    switch( pOp->opcode ){
      case OP_Add:       if( sqlite3AddInt64(&u.ah.iB,u.ah.iA) ) goto fp_math;  break;
      case OP_Subtract:  if( sqlite3SubInt64(&u.ah.iB,u.ah.iA) ) goto fp_math;  break;
      case OP_Multiply:  if( sqlite3MulInt64(&u.ah.iB,u.ah.iA) ) goto fp_math;  break;
      case OP_Divide: {
        if( u.ah.iA==0 ) goto arithmetic_result_is_null;
        if( u.ah.iA==-1 && u.ah.iB==SMALLEST_INT64 ) goto fp_math;
................................................................................
        u.ah.iB %= u.ah.iA;
        break;
      }
    }
    pOut->u.i = u.ah.iB;
    MemSetTypeFlag(pOut, MEM_Int);
  }else{
    u.ah.bIntint = 0;
fp_math:
    u.ah.rA = sqlite3VdbeRealValue(pIn1);
    u.ah.rB = sqlite3VdbeRealValue(pIn2);
    switch( pOp->opcode ){
      case OP_Add:         u.ah.rB += u.ah.rA;       break;
      case OP_Subtract:    u.ah.rB -= u.ah.rA;       break;
      case OP_Multiply:    u.ah.rB *= u.ah.rA;       break;
................................................................................
    MemSetTypeFlag(pOut, MEM_Int);
#else
    if( sqlite3IsNaN(u.ah.rB) ){
      goto arithmetic_result_is_null;
    }
    pOut->r = u.ah.rB;
    MemSetTypeFlag(pOut, MEM_Real);
    if( (u.ah.flags & MEM_Real)==0 && !u.ah.bIntint ){
      sqlite3VdbeIntegerAffinity(pOut);
    }
#endif
  }
  break;

arithmetic_result_is_null:
................................................................................
}

/* Opcode: Permutation * * * P4 *
**
** Set the permutation used by the OP_Compare operator to be the array
** of integers in P4.
**
** The permutation is only valid until the next OP_Compare that has
** the OPFLAG_PERMUTE bit set in P5. Typically the OP_Permutation should 
** occur immediately prior to the OP_Compare.
*/
case OP_Permutation: {
  assert( pOp->p4type==P4_INTARRAY );
  assert( pOp->p4.ai );
  aPermute = pOp->p4.ai;
  break;
}

/* Opcode: Compare P1 P2 P3 P4 P5
**
** Compare two vectors of registers in reg(P1)..reg(P1+P3-1) (call this
** vector "A") and in reg(P2)..reg(P2+P3-1) ("B").  Save the result of
** the comparison for use by the next OP_Jump instruct.
**
** If P5 has the OPFLAG_PERMUTE bit set, then the order of comparison is
** determined by the most recent OP_Permutation operator.  If the
** OPFLAG_PERMUTE bit is clear, then register are compared in sequential
** order.
**
** P4 is a KeyInfo structure that defines collating sequences and sort
** orders for the comparison.  The permutation applies to registers
** only.  The KeyInfo elements are used sequentially.
**
** The comparison is a sort comparison, so NULLs compare equal,
** NULLs are less than numbers, numbers are less than strings,
................................................................................
  int p2;
  const KeyInfo *pKeyInfo;
  int idx;
  CollSeq *pColl;    /* Collating sequence to use on this term */
  int bRev;          /* True for DESCENDING sort order */
#endif /* local variables moved into u.al */

  if( (pOp->p5 & OPFLAG_PERMUTE)==0 ) aPermute = 0;
  u.al.n = pOp->p3;
  u.al.pKeyInfo = pOp->p4.pKeyInfo;
  assert( u.al.n>0 );
  assert( u.al.pKeyInfo!=0 );
  u.al.p1 = pOp->p1;
  u.al.p2 = pOp->p2;
#if SQLITE_DEBUG
................................................................................
  break;
}

/* Opcode: Once P1 P2 * * *
**
** Check if OP_Once flag P1 is set. If so, jump to instruction P2. Otherwise,
** set the flag and fall through to the next instruction.


*/
case OP_Once: {             /* jump */
  assert( pOp->p1<p->nOnceFlag );
  if( p->aOnceFlag[pOp->p1] ){
    pc = pOp->p2-1;
  }else{
    p->aOnceFlag[pOp->p1] = 1;
................................................................................
** Is equivalent to:
**
**     SELECT random()%5 AS x, count(*) FROM tab GROUP BY random()%5
**
** The result of random()%5 in the GROUP BY clause is probably different
** from the result in the result-set.  We might fix this someday.  Or
** then again, we might not...
**
** If the reference is followed by a COLLATE operator, then make sure
** the COLLATE operator is preserved.  For example:
**
**     SELECT a+b, c+d FROM t1 ORDER BY 1 COLLATE nocase;
**
** Should be transformed into:
**
**     SELECT a+b, c+d FROM t1 ORDER BY (a+b) COLLATE nocase;
**
** The nSubquery parameter specifies how many levels of subquery the
** alias is removed from the original expression.  The usually value is
** zero but it might be more if the alias is contained within a subquery
** of the original expression.  The Expr.op2 field of TK_AGG_FUNCTION
** structures must be increased by the nSubquery amount.
*/
................................................................................
  sqlite3 *db;           /* The database connection */

  assert( iCol>=0 && iCol<pEList->nExpr );
  pOrig = pEList->a[iCol].pExpr;
  assert( pOrig!=0 );
  assert( pOrig->flags & EP_Resolved );
  db = pParse->db;

  pDup = sqlite3ExprDup(db, pOrig, 0);
  if( pDup==0 ) return;
  if( pOrig->op!=TK_COLUMN && zType[0]!='G' ){
    incrAggFunctionDepth(pDup, nSubquery);
    pDup = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_AS, pDup, 0, 0);
    if( pDup==0 ) return;
    if( pEList->a[iCol].iAlias==0 ){
      pEList->a[iCol].iAlias = (u16)(++pParse->nAlias);
    }
    pDup->iTable = pEList->a[iCol].iAlias;













  }



  if( pExpr->op==TK_COLLATE ){
    pDup = sqlite3ExprAddCollateString(pParse, pDup, pExpr->u.zToken);
  }

  /* Before calling sqlite3ExprDelete(), set the EP_Static flag. This 
  ** prevents ExprDelete() from deleting the Expr structure itself,
  ** allowing it to be repopulated by the memcpy() on the following line.
  ** The pExpr->u.zToken might point into memory that will be freed by the
  ** sqlite3DbFree(db, pDup) on the last line of this block, so be sure to
  ** make a copy of the token before doing the sqlite3DbFree().
  */
  ExprSetProperty(pExpr, EP_Static);
  sqlite3ExprDelete(db, pExpr);
  memcpy(pExpr, pDup, sizeof(*pExpr));
  if( !ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_IntValue) && pExpr->u.zToken!=0 ){
    assert( (pExpr->flags & (EP_Reduced|EP_TokenOnly))==0 );
    pExpr->u.zToken = sqlite3DbStrDup(db, pExpr->u.zToken);
    pExpr->flags2 |= EP2_MallocedToken;
  }
  sqlite3DbFree(db, pDup);
}


/*
** Return TRUE if the name zCol occurs anywhere in the USING clause.
**
................................................................................
    moreToDo = 0;
    pEList = pSelect->pEList;
    assert( pEList!=0 );
    for(i=0, pItem=pOrderBy->a; i<pOrderBy->nExpr; i++, pItem++){
      int iCol = -1;
      Expr *pE, *pDup;
      if( pItem->done ) continue;
      pE = sqlite3ExprSkipCollate(pItem->pExpr);
      if( sqlite3ExprIsInteger(pE, &iCol) ){
        if( iCol<=0 || iCol>pEList->nExpr ){
          resolveOutOfRangeError(pParse, "ORDER", i+1, pEList->nExpr);
          return 1;
        }
      }else{
        iCol = resolveAsName(pParse, pEList, pE);
................................................................................
            assert(pDup);
            iCol = resolveOrderByTermToExprList(pParse, pSelect, pDup);
          }
          sqlite3ExprDelete(db, pDup);
        }
      }
      if( iCol>0 ){
        /* Convert the ORDER BY term into an integer column number iCol,
        ** taking care to preserve the COLLATE clause if it exists */

        Expr *pNew = sqlite3Expr(db, TK_INTEGER, 0);
        if( pNew==0 ) return 1;

        pNew->flags |= EP_IntValue;
        pNew->u.iValue = iCol;
        if( pItem->pExpr==pE ){
          pItem->pExpr = pNew;
        }else{
          assert( pItem->pExpr->op==TK_COLLATE );
          assert( pItem->pExpr->pLeft==pE );
          pItem->pExpr->pLeft = pNew;
        }
        sqlite3ExprDelete(db, pE);
        pItem->iOrderByCol = (u16)iCol;
        pItem->done = 1;
      }else{
        moreToDo = 1;
      }
    }
    pSelect = pSelect->pNext;
................................................................................
      /* If an AS-name match is found, mark this ORDER BY column as being
      ** a copy of the iCol-th result-set column.  The subsequent call to
      ** sqlite3ResolveOrderGroupBy() will convert the expression to a
      ** copy of the iCol-th result-set expression. */
      pItem->iOrderByCol = (u16)iCol;
      continue;
    }
    if( sqlite3ExprIsInteger(sqlite3ExprSkipCollate(pE), &iCol) ){
      /* The ORDER BY term is an integer constant.  Again, set the column
      ** number so that sqlite3ResolveOrderGroupBy() will convert the
      ** order-by term to a copy of the result-set expression */
      if( iCol<1 || iCol>0xffff ){
        resolveOutOfRangeError(pParse, zType, i+1, nResult);
        return 1;
      }
      pItem->iOrderByCol = (u16)iCol;
      continue;
    }

................................................................................
**
** CREATE TABLE t1(a);
** SELECT * FROM t1 WHERE a;
** SELECT a AS b FROM t1 WHERE b;
** SELECT * FROM t1 WHERE (select a from t1);
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE char sqlite3ExprAffinity(Expr *pExpr){
  int op;
  pExpr = sqlite3ExprSkipCollate(pExpr);
  op = pExpr->op;
  if( op==TK_SELECT ){
    assert( pExpr->flags&EP_xIsSelect );
    return sqlite3ExprAffinity(pExpr->x.pSelect->pEList->a[0].pExpr);
  }
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_CAST
  if( op==TK_CAST ){
    assert( !ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_IntValue) );
................................................................................
    assert( pExpr->pTab && j<pExpr->pTab->nCol );
    return pExpr->pTab->aCol[j].affinity;
  }
  return pExpr->affinity;
}

/*
** Set the collating sequence for expression pExpr to be the collating
** sequence named by pToken.   Return a pointer to a new Expr node that
** implements the COLLATE operator.
**
** If a memory allocation error occurs, that fact is recorded in pParse->db
** and the pExpr parameter is returned unchanged.
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE Expr *sqlite3ExprAddCollateToken(Parse *pParse, Expr *pExpr, Token *pCollName){


  if( pCollName->n>0 ){
    Expr *pNew = sqlite3ExprAlloc(pParse->db, TK_COLLATE, pCollName, 1);
    if( pNew ){
      pNew->pLeft = pExpr;
      pNew->flags |= EP_Collate;
      pExpr = pNew;
    }
  }
  return pExpr;
}
SQLITE_PRIVATE Expr *sqlite3ExprAddCollateString(Parse *pParse, Expr *pExpr, const char *zC){
  Token s;
  assert( zC!=0 );
  s.z = zC;
  s.n = sqlite3Strlen30(s.z);
  return sqlite3ExprAddCollateToken(pParse, pExpr, &s);
}

/*





** Skip over any TK_COLLATE and/or TK_AS operators at the root of
** an expression.
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE Expr *sqlite3ExprSkipCollate(Expr *pExpr){







  while( pExpr && (pExpr->op==TK_COLLATE || pExpr->op==TK_AS) ){
    pExpr = pExpr->pLeft;
  }
  return pExpr;
}

/*
** Return the collation sequence for the expression pExpr. If

** there is no defined collating sequence, return NULL.
**
** The collating sequence might be determined by a COLLATE operator
** or by the presence of a column with a defined collating sequence.
** COLLATE operators take first precedence.  Left operands take
** precedence over right operands.
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE CollSeq *sqlite3ExprCollSeq(Parse *pParse, Expr *pExpr){
  sqlite3 *db = pParse->db;
  CollSeq *pColl = 0;
  Expr *p = pExpr;
  while( p ){
    int op = p->op;
    if( op==TK_CAST || op==TK_UPLUS ){
      p = p->pLeft;
      continue;
    }
    assert( op!=TK_REGISTER || p->op2!=TK_COLLATE );
    if( op==TK_COLLATE ){
      if( db->init.busy ){
        /* Do not report errors when parsing while the schema */
        pColl = sqlite3FindCollSeq(db, ENC(db), p->u.zToken, 0);
      }else{
        pColl = sqlite3GetCollSeq(pParse, ENC(db), 0, p->u.zToken);
      }
      break;

    }
    if( p->pTab!=0
     && (op==TK_AGG_COLUMN || op==TK_COLUMN
          || op==TK_REGISTER || op==TK_TRIGGER)
    ){
      /* op==TK_REGISTER && p->pTab!=0 happens when pExpr was originally
      ** a TK_COLUMN but was previously evaluated and cached in a register */

      int j = p->iColumn;
      if( j>=0 ){

        const char *zColl = p->pTab->aCol[j].zColl;
        pColl = sqlite3FindCollSeq(db, ENC(db), zColl, 0);

      }
      break;
    }
    if( p->flags & EP_Collate ){
      if( ALWAYS(p->pLeft) && (p->pLeft->flags & EP_Collate)!=0 ){
        p = p->pLeft;
      }else{
        p = p->pRight;
      }
    }else{
      break;
    }

  }
  if( sqlite3CheckCollSeq(pParse, pColl) ){ 
    pColl = 0;
  }
  return pColl;
}

................................................................................
SQLITE_PRIVATE CollSeq *sqlite3BinaryCompareCollSeq(
  Parse *pParse, 
  Expr *pLeft, 
  Expr *pRight
){
  CollSeq *pColl;
  assert( pLeft );
  if( pLeft->flags & EP_Collate ){
    pColl = sqlite3ExprCollSeq(pParse, pLeft);

  }else if( pRight && (pRight->flags & EP_Collate)!=0 ){


    pColl = sqlite3ExprCollSeq(pParse, pRight);
  }else{
    pColl = sqlite3ExprCollSeq(pParse, pLeft);
    if( !pColl ){
      pColl = sqlite3ExprCollSeq(pParse, pRight);
    }
  }
  return pColl;
................................................................................
  if( pRoot==0 ){
    assert( db->mallocFailed );
    sqlite3ExprDelete(db, pLeft);
    sqlite3ExprDelete(db, pRight);
  }else{
    if( pRight ){
      pRoot->pRight = pRight;

      pRoot->flags |= EP_Collate & pRight->flags;


    }
    if( pLeft ){
      pRoot->pLeft = pLeft;

      pRoot->flags |= EP_Collate & pLeft->flags;


    }
    exprSetHeight(pRoot);
  }
}

/*
** Allocate a Expr node which joins as many as two subtrees.
................................................................................
  if( 0==(flags&EXPRDUP_REDUCE) ){
    nSize = EXPR_FULLSIZE;
  }else{
    assert( !ExprHasAnyProperty(p, EP_TokenOnly|EP_Reduced) );
    assert( !ExprHasProperty(p, EP_FromJoin) ); 
    assert( (p->flags2 & EP2_MallocedToken)==0 );
    assert( (p->flags2 & EP2_Irreducible)==0 );
    if( p->pLeft || p->pRight || p->x.pList ){
      nSize = EXPR_REDUCEDSIZE | EP_Reduced;
    }else{
      nSize = EXPR_TOKENONLYSIZE | EP_TokenOnly;
    }
  }
  return nSize;
}
................................................................................
      testcase( regFree2==0 );
      codeCompare(pParse, pLeft, pRight, OP_Le, r1, r2, r4, SQLITE_STOREP2);
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_And, r3, r4, target);
      sqlite3ReleaseTempReg(pParse, r3);
      sqlite3ReleaseTempReg(pParse, r4);
      break;
    }
    case TK_COLLATE: 
    case TK_UPLUS: {
      inReg = sqlite3ExprCodeTarget(pParse, pExpr->pLeft, target);
      break;
    }

    case TK_TRIGGER: {
      /* If the opcode is TK_TRIGGER, then the expression is a reference
................................................................................

    case TK_UMINUS:  zUniOp = "UMINUS"; break;
    case TK_UPLUS:   zUniOp = "UPLUS";  break;
    case TK_BITNOT:  zUniOp = "BITNOT"; break;
    case TK_NOT:     zUniOp = "NOT";    break;
    case TK_ISNULL:  zUniOp = "ISNULL"; break;
    case TK_NOTNULL: zUniOp = "NOTNULL"; break;

    case TK_COLLATE: {
      sqlite3ExplainExpr(pOut, pExpr->pLeft);
      sqlite3ExplainPrintf(pOut,".COLLATE(%s)",pExpr->u.zToken);
      break;
    }

    case TK_AGG_FUNCTION:
    case TK_CONST_FUNC:
    case TK_FUNCTION: {
      ExprList *pFarg;       /* List of function arguments */
      if( ExprHasAnyProperty(pExpr, EP_TokenOnly) ){
        pFarg = 0;
................................................................................
static int evalConstExpr(Walker *pWalker, Expr *pExpr){
  Parse *pParse = pWalker->pParse;
  switch( pExpr->op ){
    case TK_IN:
    case TK_REGISTER: {
      return WRC_Prune;
    }
    case TK_COLLATE: {
      return WRC_Continue;
    }
    case TK_FUNCTION:
    case TK_AGG_FUNCTION:
    case TK_CONST_FUNC: {
      /* The arguments to a function have a fixed destination.
      ** Mark them this way to avoid generated unneeded OP_SCopy
      ** instructions. 
      */
................................................................................
        }
      }
      break;
    }
  }
  if( isAppropriateForFactoring(pExpr) ){
    int r1 = ++pParse->nMem;

    int r2 = sqlite3ExprCodeTarget(pParse, pExpr, r1);
    /* If r2!=r1, it means that register r1 is never used.  That is harmless
    ** but suboptimal, so we want to know about the situation to fix it.
    ** Hence the following assert: */
    assert( r2==r1 );
    pExpr->op2 = pExpr->op;
    pExpr->op = TK_REGISTER;
    pExpr->iTable = r2;
    return WRC_Prune;
  }
  return WRC_Continue;
}
................................................................................
  }
  assert( !ExprHasAnyProperty(pA, EP_TokenOnly|EP_Reduced) );
  assert( !ExprHasAnyProperty(pB, EP_TokenOnly|EP_Reduced) );
  if( ExprHasProperty(pA, EP_xIsSelect) || ExprHasProperty(pB, EP_xIsSelect) ){
    return 2;
  }
  if( (pA->flags & EP_Distinct)!=(pB->flags & EP_Distinct) ) return 2;
  if( pA->op!=pB->op ){
    if( pA->op==TK_COLLATE && sqlite3ExprCompare(pA->pLeft, pB)<2 ){
      return 1;
    }
    if( pB->op==TK_COLLATE && sqlite3ExprCompare(pA, pB->pLeft)<2 ){
      return 1;
    }
    return 2;
  }
  if( sqlite3ExprCompare(pA->pLeft, pB->pLeft) ) return 2;
  if( sqlite3ExprCompare(pA->pRight, pB->pRight) ) return 2;
  if( sqlite3ExprListCompare(pA->x.pList, pB->x.pList) ) return 2;
  if( pA->iTable!=pB->iTable || pA->iColumn!=pB->iColumn ) return 2;
  if( ExprHasProperty(pA, EP_IntValue) ){
    if( !ExprHasProperty(pB, EP_IntValue) || pA->u.iValue!=pB->u.iValue ){
      return 2;
    }
  }else if( pA->op!=TK_COLUMN && ALWAYS(pA->op!=TK_AGG_COLUMN) && pA->u.zToken){
    if( ExprHasProperty(pB, EP_IntValue) || NEVER(pB->u.zToken==0) ) return 2;
    if( strcmp(pA->u.zToken,pB->u.zToken)!=0 ){
      return pA->op==TK_COLLATE ? 1 : 2;
    }
  }


  return 0;
}

/*
** Compare two ExprList objects.  Return 0 if they are identical and 
** non-zero if they differ in any way.
**
................................................................................
** Note that if an error occurred, it might be the case that
** no VDBE code was generated.
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3FinishCoding(Parse *pParse){
  sqlite3 *db;
  Vdbe *v;

  assert( pParse->pToplevel==0 );
  db = pParse->db;
  if( db->mallocFailed ) return;
  if( pParse->nested ) return;
  if( pParse->nErr ) return;

  /* Begin by generating some termination code at the end of the
  ** vdbe program
................................................................................

  /* Figure out how many bytes of space are required to store explicitly
  ** specified collation sequence names.
  */
  for(i=0; i<pList->nExpr; i++){
    Expr *pExpr = pList->a[i].pExpr;
    if( pExpr ){
      CollSeq *pColl = sqlite3ExprCollSeq(pParse, pExpr);
      if( pColl ){


        nExtra += (1 + sqlite3Strlen30(pColl->zName));
      }
    }
  }

  /* 
  ** Allocate the index structure. 
................................................................................
  ** same column more than once cannot be an error because that would 
  ** break backwards compatibility - it needs to be a warning.
  */
  for(i=0, pListItem=pList->a; i<pList->nExpr; i++, pListItem++){
    const char *zColName = pListItem->zName;
    Column *pTabCol;
    int requestedSortOrder;
    CollSeq *pColl;                /* Collating sequence */
    char *zColl;                   /* Collation sequence name */

    for(j=0, pTabCol=pTab->aCol; j<pTab->nCol; j++, pTabCol++){
      if( sqlite3StrICmp(zColName, pTabCol->zName)==0 ) break;
    }
    if( j>=pTab->nCol ){
      sqlite3ErrorMsg(pParse, "table %s has no column named %s",
        pTab->zName, zColName);
      pParse->checkSchema = 1;
      goto exit_create_index;
    }
    pIndex->aiColumn[i] = j;





    if( pListItem->pExpr
     && (pColl = sqlite3ExprCollSeq(pParse, pListItem->pExpr))!=0
    ){
      int nColl;
      zColl = pColl->zName;
      nColl = sqlite3Strlen30(zColl) + 1;
      assert( nExtra>=nColl );
      memcpy(zExtra, zColl, nColl);
      zColl = zExtra;
      zExtra += nColl;
      nExtra -= nColl;
    }else{
................................................................................
** If iDb<0 then code the OP_Goto only - don't set flag to verify the
** schema on any databases.  This can be used to position the OP_Goto
** early in the code, before we know if any database tables will be used.
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3CodeVerifySchema(Parse *pParse, int iDb){
  Parse *pToplevel = sqlite3ParseToplevel(pParse);

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_TRIGGER
  if( pToplevel!=pParse ){
    /* This branch is taken if a trigger is currently being coded. In this
    ** case, set cookieGoto to a non-zero value to show that this function
    ** has been called. This is used by the sqlite3ExprCodeConstants()
    ** function. */
    pParse->cookieGoto = -1;
  }
#endif
  if( pToplevel->cookieGoto==0 ){
    Vdbe *v = sqlite3GetVdbe(pToplevel);
    if( v==0 ) return;  /* This only happens if there was a prior error */
    pToplevel->cookieGoto = sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Goto, 0, 0)+1;
  }
  if( iDb>=0 ){
    sqlite3 *db = pToplevel->db;
................................................................................

    pLeft = sqlite3Expr(db, TK_REGISTER, 0);
    if( pLeft ){
      /* Set the collation sequence and affinity of the LHS of each TK_EQ
      ** expression to the parent key column defaults.  */
      if( pIdx ){
        Column *pCol;
        const char *zColl;
        iCol = pIdx->aiColumn[i];
        pCol = &pTab->aCol[iCol];
        if( pTab->iPKey==iCol ) iCol = -1;
        pLeft->iTable = regData+iCol+1;
        pLeft->affinity = pCol->affinity;
        zColl = pCol->zColl;
        if( zColl==0 ) zColl = db->pDfltColl->zName;
        pLeft = sqlite3ExprAddCollateString(pParse, pLeft, zColl);
      }else{
        pLeft->iTable = regData;
        pLeft->affinity = SQLITE_AFF_INTEGER;
      }
    }
    iCol = aiCol ? aiCol[i] : pFKey->aCol[0].iFrom;
    assert( iCol>=0 );
................................................................................
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_CHECK
  if( pTab->pCheck && (db->flags & SQLITE_IgnoreChecks)==0 ){
    ExprList *pCheck = pTab->pCheck;
    pParse->ckBase = regData;
    onError = overrideError!=OE_Default ? overrideError : OE_Abort;
    for(i=0; i<pCheck->nExpr; i++){
      int allOk = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(v);



      sqlite3ExprIfTrue(pParse, pCheck->a[i].pExpr, allOk, SQLITE_JUMPIFNULL);
      if( onError==OE_Ignore ){
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Goto, 0, ignoreDest);
      }else{
        char *zConsName = pCheck->a[i].zName;
        if( onError==OE_Replace ) onError = OE_Abort; /* IMP: R-15569-63625 */
        if( zConsName ){
          zConsName = sqlite3MPrintf(db, "constraint %s failed", zConsName);
        }else{
          zConsName = 0;
        }
        sqlite3HaltConstraint(pParse, onError, zConsName, P4_DYNAMIC);
      }
      sqlite3VdbeResolveLabel(v, allOk);


    }
  }
#endif /* !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_CHECK) */

  /* If we have an INTEGER PRIMARY KEY, make sure the primary key
  ** of the new record does not previously exist.  Except, if this
  ** is an UPDATE and the primary key is not changing, that is OK.
................................................................................
  }
  *pnCol = nCol;
  *paCol = aCol;

  for(i=0, pCol=aCol; i<nCol; i++, pCol++){
    /* Get an appropriate name for the column
    */
    p = sqlite3ExprSkipCollate(pEList->a[i].pExpr);
    assert( p->pRight==0 || ExprHasProperty(p->pRight, EP_IntValue)
               || p->pRight->u.zToken==0 || p->pRight->u.zToken[0]!=0 );
    if( (zName = pEList->a[i].zName)!=0 ){
      /* If the column contains an "AS <name>" phrase, use <name> as the name */
      zName = sqlite3DbStrDup(db, zName);
    }else{
      Expr *pColExpr = p;  /* The expression that is the result column name */
................................................................................
    if( pKeyMerge ){
      pKeyMerge->aSortOrder = (u8*)&pKeyMerge->aColl[nOrderBy];
      pKeyMerge->nField = (u16)nOrderBy;
      pKeyMerge->enc = ENC(db);
      for(i=0; i<nOrderBy; i++){
        CollSeq *pColl;
        Expr *pTerm = pOrderBy->a[i].pExpr;
        if( pTerm->flags & EP_Collate ){
          pColl = sqlite3ExprCollSeq(pParse, pTerm);
        }else{
          pColl = multiSelectCollSeq(pParse, p, aPermute[i]);
          if( pColl==0 ) pColl = db->pDfltColl;
          pOrderBy->a[i].pExpr =
             sqlite3ExprAddCollateString(pParse, pTerm, pColl->zName);
        }
        pKeyMerge->aColl[i] = pColl;
        pKeyMerge->aSortOrder[i] = pOrderBy->a[i].sortOrder;
      }
    }
  }else{
    pKeyMerge = 0;
................................................................................

  /* Implement the main merge loop
  */
  sqlite3VdbeResolveLabel(v, labelCmpr);
  sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_Permutation, 0, 0, 0, (char*)aPermute, P4_INTARRAY);
  sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_Compare, destA.iSdst, destB.iSdst, nOrderBy,
                         (char*)pKeyMerge, P4_KEYINFO_HANDOFF);
  sqlite3VdbeChangeP5(v, OPFLAG_PERMUTE);
  sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_Jump, addrAltB, addrAeqB, addrAgtB);

  /* Release temporary registers
  */
  if( regPrev ){
    sqlite3ReleaseTempRange(pParse, regPrev, nOrderBy+1);
  }
................................................................................
    if( pExpr->iColumn<0 ){
      pExpr->op = TK_NULL;
    }else{
      Expr *pNew;
      assert( pEList!=0 && pExpr->iColumn<pEList->nExpr );
      assert( pExpr->pLeft==0 && pExpr->pRight==0 );
      pNew = sqlite3ExprDup(db, pEList->a[pExpr->iColumn].pExpr, 0);



      sqlite3ExprDelete(db, pExpr);
      pExpr = pNew;
    }
  }else{
    pExpr->pLeft = substExpr(db, pExpr->pLeft, iTable, pEList);
    pExpr->pRight = substExpr(db, pExpr->pRight, iTable, pEList);
    if( ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_xIsSelect) ){
................................................................................
      /* Implement a co-routine that will return a single row of the result
      ** set on each invocation.
      */
      int addrTop;
      int addrEof;
      pItem->regReturn = ++pParse->nMem;
      addrEof = ++pParse->nMem;
      /* Before coding the OP_Goto to jump to the start of the main routine,
      ** ensure that the jump to the verify-schema routine has already
      ** been coded. Otherwise, the verify-schema would likely be coded as 
      ** part of the co-routine. If the main routine then accessed the 
      ** database before invoking the co-routine for the first time (for 
      ** example to initialize a LIMIT register from a sub-select), it would 
      ** be doing so without having verified the schema version and obtained 
      ** the required db locks. See ticket d6b36be38.  */
      sqlite3CodeVerifySchema(pParse, -1);
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp0(v, OP_Goto);
      addrTop = sqlite3VdbeAddOp1(v, OP_OpenPseudo, pItem->iCursor);
      sqlite3VdbeChangeP5(v, 1);
      VdbeComment((v, "coroutine for %s", pItem->pTab->zName));
      pItem->addrFillSub = addrTop;
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Integer, 0, addrEof);
      sqlite3VdbeChangeP5(v, 1);
................................................................................
    **     INSERT OR REPLACE INTO t2 VALUES(new.a, new.b);
    **   END;
    **
    **   INSERT INTO t1 ... ;            -- insert into t2 uses REPLACE policy
    **   INSERT OR IGNORE INTO t1 ... ;  -- insert into t2 uses IGNORE policy
    */
    pParse->eOrconf = (orconf==OE_Default)?pStep->orconf:(u8)orconf;

    /* Clear the cookieGoto flag. When coding triggers, the cookieGoto 
    ** variable is used as a flag to indicate to sqlite3ExprCodeConstants()
    ** that it is not safe to refactor constants (this happens after the
    ** start of the first loop in the SQL statement is coded - at that 
    ** point code may be conditionally executed, so it is no longer safe to 
    ** initialize constant register values).  */
    assert( pParse->cookieGoto==0 || pParse->cookieGoto==-1 );
    pParse->cookieGoto = 0;

    switch( pStep->op ){
      case TK_UPDATE: {
        sqlite3Update(pParse, 
          targetSrcList(pParse, pStep),
          sqlite3ExprListDup(db, pStep->pExprList, 0), 
          sqlite3ExprDup(db, pStep->pWhere, 0), 
................................................................................
*/
#define SWAP(TYPE,A,B) {TYPE t=A; A=B; B=t;}

/*
** Commute a comparison operator.  Expressions of the form "X op Y"
** are converted into "Y op X".
**
** If left/right precendence rules come into play when determining the
** collating
** side of the comparison, it remains associated with the same side after
** the commutation. So "Y collate NOCASE op X" becomes 
** "X op Y". This is because any collation sequence on
** the left hand side of a comparison overrides any collation sequence 
** attached to the right. For the same reason the EP_Collate flag
** is not commuted.
*/
static void exprCommute(Parse *pParse, Expr *pExpr){
  u16 expRight = (pExpr->pRight->flags & EP_Collate);
  u16 expLeft = (pExpr->pLeft->flags & EP_Collate);
  assert( allowedOp(pExpr->op) && pExpr->op!=TK_IN );
  if( expRight==expLeft ){
    /* Either X and Y both have COLLATE operator or neither do */
    if( expRight ){
      /* Both X and Y have COLLATE operators.  Make sure X is always
      ** used by clearing the EP_Collate flag from Y. */
      pExpr->pRight->flags &= ~EP_Collate;
    }else if( sqlite3ExprCollSeq(pParse, pExpr->pLeft)!=0 ){


      /* Neither X nor Y have COLLATE operators, but X has a non-default
      ** collating sequence.  So add the EP_Collate marker on X to cause
      ** it to be searched first. */
      pExpr->pLeft->flags |= EP_Collate;
    }
  }
  SWAP(Expr*,pExpr->pRight,pExpr->pLeft);
  if( pExpr->op>=TK_GT ){
    assert( TK_LT==TK_GT+2 );
    assert( TK_GE==TK_LE+2 );
    assert( TK_GT>TK_EQ );
    assert( TK_GT<TK_LE );
    assert( pExpr->op>=TK_GT && pExpr->op<=TK_GE );
................................................................................
  
          /* Figure out the collation sequence required from an index for
          ** it to be useful for optimising expression pX. Store this
          ** value in variable pColl.
          */
          assert(pX->pLeft);
          pColl = sqlite3BinaryCompareCollSeq(pParse, pX->pLeft, pX->pRight);
          if( pColl==0 ) pColl = pParse->db->pDfltColl;
  
          for(j=0; pIdx->aiColumn[j]!=iColumn; j++){
            if( NEVER(j>=pIdx->nColumn) ) return 0;
          }
          if( sqlite3StrICmp(pColl->zName, pIdx->azColl[j]) ) continue;
        }
        return pTerm;
      }
    }
  }
  return 0;
}
................................................................................
  sqlite3 *db = pParse->db;        /* Database connection */

  if( db->mallocFailed ){
    return;
  }
  pTerm = &pWC->a[idxTerm];
  pMaskSet = pWC->pMaskSet;
  pExpr = sqlite3ExprSkipCollate(pTerm->pExpr);
  prereqLeft = exprTableUsage(pMaskSet, pExpr->pLeft);
  op = pExpr->op;
  if( op==TK_IN ){
    assert( pExpr->pRight==0 );
    if( ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_xIsSelect) ){
      pTerm->prereqRight = exprSelectTableUsage(pMaskSet, pExpr->x.pSelect);
    }else{
................................................................................
                       ** on left table of a LEFT JOIN.  Ticket #3015 */
  }
  pTerm->prereqAll = prereqAll;
  pTerm->leftCursor = -1;
  pTerm->iParent = -1;
  pTerm->eOperator = 0;
  if( allowedOp(op) && (pTerm->prereqRight & prereqLeft)==0 ){
    Expr *pLeft = sqlite3ExprSkipCollate(pExpr->pLeft);
    Expr *pRight = sqlite3ExprSkipCollate(pExpr->pRight);
    if( pLeft->op==TK_COLUMN ){
      pTerm->leftCursor = pLeft->iTable;
      pTerm->u.leftColumn = pLeft->iColumn;
      pTerm->eOperator = operatorMask(op);
    }
    if( pRight && pRight->op==TK_COLUMN ){
      WhereTerm *pNew;
................................................................................
        pTerm->nChild = 1;
        pTerm->wtFlags |= TERM_COPIED;
      }else{
        pDup = pExpr;
        pNew = pTerm;
      }
      exprCommute(pParse, pDup);
      pLeft = sqlite3ExprSkipCollate(pDup->pLeft);
      pNew->leftCursor = pLeft->iTable;
      pNew->u.leftColumn = pLeft->iColumn;
      testcase( (prereqLeft | extraRight) != prereqLeft );
      pNew->prereqRight = prereqLeft | extraRight;
      pNew->prereqAll = prereqAll;
      pNew->eOperator = operatorMask(pDup->op);
    }
................................................................................
  ){
    Expr *pLeft;       /* LHS of LIKE/GLOB operator */
    Expr *pStr2;       /* Copy of pStr1 - RHS of LIKE/GLOB operator */
    Expr *pNewExpr1;
    Expr *pNewExpr2;
    int idxNew1;
    int idxNew2;
    Token sCollSeqName;  /* Name of collating sequence */

    pLeft = pExpr->x.pList->a[1].pExpr;
    pStr2 = sqlite3ExprDup(db, pStr1, 0);
    if( !db->mallocFailed ){
      u8 c, *pC;       /* Last character before the first wildcard */
      pC = (u8*)&pStr2->u.zToken[sqlite3Strlen30(pStr2->u.zToken)-1];
      c = *pC;
................................................................................
        if( c=='A'-1 ) isComplete = 0;   /* EV: R-64339-08207 */


        c = sqlite3UpperToLower[c];
      }
      *pC = c + 1;
    }
    sCollSeqName.z = noCase ? "NOCASE" : "BINARY";
    sCollSeqName.n = 6;
    pNewExpr1 = sqlite3ExprDup(db, pLeft, 0);
    pNewExpr1 = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_GE, 

           sqlite3ExprAddCollateToken(pParse,pNewExpr1,&sCollSeqName),
           pStr1, 0);
    idxNew1 = whereClauseInsert(pWC, pNewExpr1, TERM_VIRTUAL|TERM_DYNAMIC);
    testcase( idxNew1==0 );
    exprAnalyze(pSrc, pWC, idxNew1);
    pNewExpr2 = sqlite3ExprDup(db, pLeft, 0);
    pNewExpr2 = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_LT,

           sqlite3ExprAddCollateToken(pParse,pNewExpr2,&sCollSeqName),
           pStr2, 0);
    idxNew2 = whereClauseInsert(pWC, pNewExpr2, TERM_VIRTUAL|TERM_DYNAMIC);
    testcase( idxNew2==0 );
    exprAnalyze(pSrc, pWC, idxNew2);
    pTerm = &pWC->a[idxTerm];
    if( isComplete ){
      pWC->a[idxNew1].iParent = idxTerm;
      pWC->a[idxNew2].iParent = idxTerm;
................................................................................
  Index *pIdx,                    /* Index to match column of */
  int iCol                        /* Column of index to match */
){
  int i;
  const char *zColl = pIdx->azColl[iCol];

  for(i=0; i<pList->nExpr; i++){
    Expr *p = sqlite3ExprSkipCollate(pList->a[i].pExpr);
    if( p->op==TK_COLUMN
     && p->iColumn==pIdx->aiColumn[iCol]
     && p->iTable==iBase
    ){
      CollSeq *pColl = sqlite3ExprCollSeq(pParse, pList->a[i].pExpr);
      if( ALWAYS(pColl) && 0==sqlite3StrICmp(pColl->zName, zColl) ){
        return i;
      }
    }
  }

  return -1;
................................................................................
  ** can be ignored. If it does not, and the column does not belong to the
  ** same table as index pIdx, return early. Finally, if there is no
  ** matching "col=X" expression and the column is on the same table as pIdx,
  ** set the corresponding bit in variable mask.
  */
  for(i=0; i<pDistinct->nExpr; i++){
    WhereTerm *pTerm;
    Expr *p = sqlite3ExprSkipCollate(pDistinct->a[i].pExpr);
    if( p->op!=TK_COLUMN ) return 0;
    pTerm = findTerm(pWC, p->iTable, p->iColumn, ~(Bitmask)0, WO_EQ, 0);
    if( pTerm ){
      Expr *pX = pTerm->pExpr;
      CollSeq *p1 = sqlite3BinaryCompareCollSeq(pParse, pX->pLeft, pX->pRight);
      CollSeq *p2 = sqlite3ExprCollSeq(pParse, p);
      if( p1==p2 ) continue;
................................................................................
  pTab = pTabList->a[0].pTab;

  /* If any of the expressions is an IPK column on table iBase, then return 
  ** true. Note: The (p->iTable==iBase) part of this test may be false if the
  ** current SELECT is a correlated sub-query.
  */
  for(i=0; i<pDistinct->nExpr; i++){
    Expr *p = sqlite3ExprSkipCollate(pDistinct->a[i].pExpr);
    if( p->op==TK_COLUMN && p->iTable==iBase && p->iColumn<0 ) return 1;
  }

  /* Loop through all indices on the table, checking each to see if it makes
  ** the DISTINCT qualifier redundant. It does so if:
  **
  **   1. The index is itself UNIQUE, and
................................................................................
    int isMatch;            /* ORDER BY term matches the index term */
    const char *zColl;      /* Name of collating sequence for i-th index term */
    WhereTerm *pConstraint; /* A constraint in the WHERE clause */

    /* If the next term of the ORDER BY clause refers to anything other than
    ** a column in the "base" table, then this index will not be of any
    ** further use in handling the ORDER BY. */
    pOBExpr = sqlite3ExprSkipCollate(pOBItem->pExpr);
    if( pOBExpr->op!=TK_COLUMN || pOBExpr->iTable!=base ){
      break;
    }

    /* Find column number and collating sequence for the next entry
    ** in the index */
    if( pIdx->zName && i<pIdx->nColumn ){
................................................................................
    }

    /* Check to see if the column number and collating sequence of the
    ** index match the column number and collating sequence of the ORDER BY
    ** clause entry.  Set isMatch to 1 if they both match. */
    if( pOBExpr->iColumn==iColumn ){
      if( zColl ){
        pColl = sqlite3ExprCollSeq(pParse, pOBItem->pExpr);
        if( !pColl ) pColl = db->pDfltColl;
        isMatch = sqlite3StrICmp(pColl->zName, zColl)==0;
      }else{
        isMatch = 1;
      }
    }else{
      isMatch = 0;
................................................................................
  Index *pIdx;                /* Copy of pProbe, or zero for IPK index */
  int eqTermMask;             /* Current mask of valid equality operators */
  int idxEqTermMask;          /* Index mask of valid equality operators */
  Index sPk;                  /* A fake index object for the primary key */
  tRowcnt aiRowEstPk[2];      /* The aiRowEst[] value for the sPk index */
  int aiColumnPk = -1;        /* The aColumn[] value for the sPk index */
  int wsFlagMask;             /* Allowed flags in p->cost.plan.wsFlag */
  int nPriorSat;              /* ORDER BY terms satisfied by outer loops */
  int nOrderBy;               /* Number of ORDER BY terms */
  char bSortInit;             /* Initializer for bSort in inner loop */
  char bDistInit;             /* Initializer for bDist in inner loop */


  /* Initialize the cost to a worst-case value */
  memset(&p->cost, 0, sizeof(p->cost));
  p->cost.rCost = SQLITE_BIG_DBL;

  /* If the pSrc table is the right table of a LEFT JOIN then we may not
  ** use an index to satisfy IS NULL constraints on that table.  This is
................................................................................
    pProbe = &sPk;
    wsFlagMask = ~(
        WHERE_COLUMN_IN|WHERE_COLUMN_EQ|WHERE_COLUMN_NULL|WHERE_COLUMN_RANGE
    );
    eqTermMask = WO_EQ|WO_IN;
    pIdx = 0;
  }

  nOrderBy = p->pOrderBy ? p->pOrderBy->nExpr : 0;
  if( p->i ){
    nPriorSat = p->aLevel[p->i-1].plan.nOBSat;
    bSortInit = nPriorSat<nOrderBy;
    bDistInit = 0;
  }else{
    nPriorSat = 0;
    bSortInit = nOrderBy>0;
    bDistInit = p->pDistinct!=0;
  }

  /* Loop over all indices looking for the best one to use
  */
  for(; pProbe; pIdx=pProbe=pProbe->pNext){
    const tRowcnt * const aiRowEst = pProbe->aiRowEst;
    WhereCost pc;               /* Cost of using pProbe */
    double log10N = (double)1;  /* base-10 logarithm of nRow (inexact) */
................................................................................
    **             SELECT a, b    FROM tbl WHERE a = 1;
    **             SELECT a, b, c FROM tbl WHERE a = 1;
    */
    int bInEst = 0;               /* True if "x IN (SELECT...)" seen */
    int nInMul = 1;               /* Number of distinct equalities to lookup */
    double rangeDiv = (double)1;  /* Estimated reduction in search space */
    int nBound = 0;               /* Number of range constraints seen */
    char bSort = bSortInit;       /* True if external sort required */
    char bDist = bDistInit;       /* True if index cannot help with DISTINCT */
    char bLookup = 0;             /* True if not a covering index */


    WhereTerm *pTerm;             /* A single term of the WHERE clause */
#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT3
    WhereTerm *pFirstTerm = 0;    /* First term matching the index */
#endif

    WHERETRACE((
      "   %s(%s):\n",
      pSrc->pTab->zName, (pIdx ? pIdx->zName : "ipk")
    ));
    memset(&pc, 0, sizeof(pc));






    pc.plan.nOBSat = nPriorSat;




    /* Determine the values of pc.plan.nEq and nInMul */
    for(pc.plan.nEq=0; pc.plan.nEq<pProbe->nColumn; pc.plan.nEq++){
      int j = pProbe->aiColumn[pc.plan.nEq];
      pTerm = findTerm(pWC, iCur, j, p->notReady, eqTermMask, pIdx);
      if( pTerm==0 ) break;
      pc.plan.wsFlags |= (WHERE_COLUMN_EQ|WHERE_ROWID_EQ);
................................................................................
  spanExpr(&yygotominor.yy342, pParse, TK_VARIABLE, &yymsp[0].minor.yy0);
  sqlite3ExprAssignVarNumber(pParse, yygotominor.yy342.pExpr);
  spanSet(&yygotominor.yy342, &yymsp[0].minor.yy0, &yymsp[0].minor.yy0);
}
        break;
      case 194: /* expr ::= expr COLLATE ids */
{
  yygotominor.yy342.pExpr = sqlite3ExprAddCollateToken(pParse, yymsp[-2].minor.yy342.pExpr, &yymsp[0].minor.yy0);
  yygotominor.yy342.zStart = yymsp[-2].minor.yy342.zStart;
  yygotominor.yy342.zEnd = &yymsp[0].minor.yy0.z[yymsp[0].minor.yy0.n];
}
        break;
      case 195: /* expr ::= CAST LP expr AS typetoken RP */
{
  yygotominor.yy342.pExpr = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_CAST, yymsp[-3].minor.yy342.pExpr, 0, &yymsp[-1].minor.yy0);
................................................................................
{yygotominor.yy392 = OE_Abort;}
        break;
      case 244: /* uniqueflag ::= */
{yygotominor.yy392 = OE_None;}
        break;
      case 247: /* idxlist ::= idxlist COMMA nm collate sortorder */
{

  Expr *p = sqlite3ExprAddCollateToken(pParse, 0, &yymsp[-1].minor.yy0);



  yygotominor.yy442 = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,yymsp[-4].minor.yy442, p);
  sqlite3ExprListSetName(pParse,yygotominor.yy442,&yymsp[-2].minor.yy0,1);
  sqlite3ExprListCheckLength(pParse, yygotominor.yy442, "index");
  if( yygotominor.yy442 ) yygotominor.yy442->a[yygotominor.yy442->nExpr-1].sortOrder = (u8)yymsp[0].minor.yy392;
}
        break;
      case 248: /* idxlist ::= nm collate sortorder */
{

  Expr *p = sqlite3ExprAddCollateToken(pParse, 0, &yymsp[-1].minor.yy0);



  yygotominor.yy442 = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,0, p);
  sqlite3ExprListSetName(pParse, yygotominor.yy442, &yymsp[-2].minor.yy0, 1);
  sqlite3ExprListCheckLength(pParse, yygotominor.yy442, "index");
  if( yygotominor.yy442 ) yygotominor.yy442->a[yygotominor.yy442->nExpr-1].sortOrder = (u8)yymsp[0].minor.yy392;
}
        break;
      case 249: /* collate ::= */

Changes to SQLite.Interop/src/core/sqlite3.h.

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**
** See also: [sqlite3_libversion()],
** [sqlite3_libversion_number()], [sqlite3_sourceid()],
** [sqlite_version()] and [sqlite_source_id()].
*/
#define SQLITE_VERSION        "3.7.15"
#define SQLITE_VERSION_NUMBER 3007015
#define SQLITE_SOURCE_ID      "2012-12-06 04:33:13 d507648d820cfea70e17f3d21c35c932a2d20367"

/*
** CAPI3REF: Run-Time Library Version Numbers
** KEYWORDS: sqlite3_version, sqlite3_sourceid
**
** These interfaces provide the same information as the [SQLITE_VERSION],
** [SQLITE_VERSION_NUMBER], and [SQLITE_SOURCE_ID] C preprocessor macros
................................................................................
** VFS has handled the PRAGMA itself and the parser generates a no-op
** prepared statement.  ^If the [SQLITE_FCNTL_PRAGMA] file control returns
** any result code other than [SQLITE_OK] or [SQLITE_NOTFOUND], that means
** that the VFS encountered an error while handling the [PRAGMA] and the
** compilation of the PRAGMA fails with an error.  ^The [SQLITE_FCNTL_PRAGMA]
** file control occurs at the beginning of pragma statement analysis and so
** it is able to override built-in [PRAGMA] statements.
** </ul>
**
** <li>[[SQLITE_FCNTL_BUSYHANDLER]]
** ^This file-control may be invoked by SQLite on the database file handle
** shortly after it is opened in order to provide a custom VFS with access
** to the connections busy-handler callback. The argument is of type (void **)
** - an array of two (void *) values. The first (void *) actually points
** to a function of type (int (*)(void *)). In order to invoke the connections
** busy-handler, this function should be invoked with the second (void *) in
** the array as the only argument. If it returns non-zero, then the operation
** should be retried. If it returns zero, the custom VFS should abandon the
** current operation.










*/
#define SQLITE_FCNTL_LOCKSTATE               1
#define SQLITE_GET_LOCKPROXYFILE             2
#define SQLITE_SET_LOCKPROXYFILE             3
#define SQLITE_LAST_ERRNO                    4
#define SQLITE_FCNTL_SIZE_HINT               5
#define SQLITE_FCNTL_CHUNK_SIZE              6
................................................................................
#define SQLITE_FCNTL_WIN32_AV_RETRY          9
#define SQLITE_FCNTL_PERSIST_WAL            10
#define SQLITE_FCNTL_OVERWRITE              11
#define SQLITE_FCNTL_VFSNAME                12
#define SQLITE_FCNTL_POWERSAFE_OVERWRITE    13
#define SQLITE_FCNTL_PRAGMA                 14
#define SQLITE_FCNTL_BUSYHANDLER            15


/*
** CAPI3REF: Mutex Handle
**
** The mutex module within SQLite defines [sqlite3_mutex] to be an
** abstract type for a mutex object.  The SQLite core never looks
** at the internal representation of an [sqlite3_mutex].  It only







|







 







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>







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**
** See also: [sqlite3_libversion()],
** [sqlite3_libversion_number()], [sqlite3_sourceid()],
** [sqlite_version()] and [sqlite_source_id()].
*/
#define SQLITE_VERSION        "3.7.15"
#define SQLITE_VERSION_NUMBER 3007015
#define SQLITE_SOURCE_ID      "2012-12-10 22:19:14 bd7aeeb691fee69dd6a562138a7aba8e8e192272"

/*
** CAPI3REF: Run-Time Library Version Numbers
** KEYWORDS: sqlite3_version, sqlite3_sourceid
**
** These interfaces provide the same information as the [SQLITE_VERSION],
** [SQLITE_VERSION_NUMBER], and [SQLITE_SOURCE_ID] C preprocessor macros
................................................................................
** VFS has handled the PRAGMA itself and the parser generates a no-op
** prepared statement.  ^If the [SQLITE_FCNTL_PRAGMA] file control returns
** any result code other than [SQLITE_OK] or [SQLITE_NOTFOUND], that means
** that the VFS encountered an error while handling the [PRAGMA] and the
** compilation of the PRAGMA fails with an error.  ^The [SQLITE_FCNTL_PRAGMA]
** file control occurs at the beginning of pragma statement analysis and so
** it is able to override built-in [PRAGMA] statements.

**
** <li>[[SQLITE_FCNTL_BUSYHANDLER]]
** ^This file-control may be invoked by SQLite on the database file handle
** shortly after it is opened in order to provide a custom VFS with access
** to the connections busy-handler callback. The argument is of type (void **)
** - an array of two (void *) values. The first (void *) actually points
** to a function of type (int (*)(void *)). In order to invoke the connections
** busy-handler, this function should be invoked with the second (void *) in
** the array as the only argument. If it returns non-zero, then the operation
** should be retried. If it returns zero, the custom VFS should abandon the
** current operation.
**
** <li>[[SQLITE_FCNTL_TEMPFILENAME]]
** ^Application can invoke this file-control to have SQLite generate a
** temporary filename using the same algorithm that is followed to generate
** temporary filenames for TEMP tables and other internal uses.  The
** argument should be a char** which will be filled with the filename
** written into memory obtained from [sqlite3_malloc()].  The caller should
** invoke [sqlite3_free()] on the result to avoid a memory leak.
**
** </ul>
*/
#define SQLITE_FCNTL_LOCKSTATE               1
#define SQLITE_GET_LOCKPROXYFILE             2
#define SQLITE_SET_LOCKPROXYFILE             3
#define SQLITE_LAST_ERRNO                    4
#define SQLITE_FCNTL_SIZE_HINT               5
#define SQLITE_FCNTL_CHUNK_SIZE              6
................................................................................
#define SQLITE_FCNTL_WIN32_AV_RETRY          9
#define SQLITE_FCNTL_PERSIST_WAL            10
#define SQLITE_FCNTL_OVERWRITE              11
#define SQLITE_FCNTL_VFSNAME                12
#define SQLITE_FCNTL_POWERSAFE_OVERWRITE    13
#define SQLITE_FCNTL_PRAGMA                 14
#define SQLITE_FCNTL_BUSYHANDLER            15
#define SQLITE_FCNTL_TEMPFILENAME           16

/*
** CAPI3REF: Mutex Handle
**
** The mutex module within SQLite defines [sqlite3_mutex] to be an
** abstract type for a mutex object.  The SQLite core never looks
** at the internal representation of an [sqlite3_mutex].  It only