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            SELECT&nbsp;</td>
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            <span id="nsrTitle">SQLite Language Reference Documentation</span>
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            <a id="seeAlsoSectionLink" href="#seeAlsoToggle" onclick="OpenSection(seeAlsoToggle)">See Also</a>
            <a id="exampleSectionLink" href="#codeExampleToggle" onclick="OpenSection(codeExampleToggle)">Example</a>
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      <h1 class="heading">
        SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1>
      <h4>
        SELECT</h4>
      <p>
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              <i><font color="#ff3434">sql-statement</font></i> ::=</td>
            <td>
              <b><font color="#2c2cf0">SELECT </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0">ALL </font></b>
              <big>|</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> DISTINCT</font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0">
              </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">result</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> </font>
              </b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0">FROM </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">table-list</font></i><b><font
                color="#2c2cf0"></font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"><br />
                </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0">WHERE </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">expr</font></i><b><font
                  color="#2c2cf0"></font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"><br />
                  </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0">GROUP BY </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">
                    expr-list</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"><br />
                    </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0">HAVING </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">expr</font></i><b><font
                      color="#2c2cf0"></font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"><br />
                      </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">compound-op</font></i><b><font
                        color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">select</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b>]<b><font
                          color="#2c2cf0"></font></b><big>*</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0"><br />
                          </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0">ORDER BY </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">
                            sort-expr-list</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"><br />
                            </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0">LIMIT </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">integer</font></i><b><font
                              color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b>(<b><font color="#2c2cf0">
                                OFFSET </font></b><big>|</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> <big>,</big> </font></b>
              )<b><font color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">integer</font></i><b><font
                color="#2c2cf0"></font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b></td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td align="right" width="1%" nowrap>
              <i><font color="#ff3434">result</font></i> ::=</td>
            <td>
              <b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">result-column</font></i><b><font
                color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0"><big>,</big> </font></b>
              <i><font color="#ff3434">result-column</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b>]<b><font
                color="#2c2cf0"></font></b><big>*</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b></td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td align="right" width="1%" nowrap>
              <i><font color="#ff3434">result-column</font></i> ::=</td>
            <td>
              <b><font color="#2c2cf0"><big>*</big> </font></b><big>|</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0">
              </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">table-name</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0">
                <big>.</big> <big>*</big> </font></b><big>|</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> </font>
                </b><i><font color="#ff3434">expr</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b>
              [<b><font color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0">AS</font></b>]<b><font
                color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">string</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0">
                </font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b></td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td align="right" width="1%" nowrap>
              <i><font color="#ff3434">table-list</font></i> ::=</td>
            <td>
              <b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">table</font></i><b><font
                color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">join-op</font></i><b><font
                  color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">table</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0">
                  </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">join-args</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b>]<b><font
                    color="#2c2cf0"></font></b><big>*</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b></td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td align="right" width="1%" nowrap>
              <i><font color="#ff3434">table</font></i> ::=</td>
            <td>
              <b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">table-name</font></i><b><font
                color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0">AS </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">
                  alias</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"> </font>
                  </b><big>|</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0"><br />
                    <big>(</big> </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">select</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0">
                      <big>)</big> </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0">AS </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">
                        alias</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b></td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td align="right" width="1%" nowrap>
              <i><font color="#ff3434">join-op</font></i> ::=</td>
            <td>
              <b><font color="#2c2cf0"><big>,</big> </font></b><big>|</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0">
              </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0">NATURAL</font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0">
              </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0">LEFT </font></b><big>|</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0">
                RIGHT </font></b><big>|</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> FULL</font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0">
                </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0">OUTER </font></b><big>|</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0">
                  INNER </font></b><big>|</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> CROSS</font></b>]<b><font
                    color="#2c2cf0"> JOIN</font></b></td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td align="right" width="1%" nowrap>
              <i><font color="#ff3434">join-args</font></i> ::=</td>
            <td>
              <b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0">ON </font></b><i><font
                color="#ff3434">expr</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0">
                </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0">USING <big>(</big> </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">
                  id-list</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> <big>)</big></font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b></td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td align="right" width="1%" nowrap>
              <i><font color="#ff3434">sort-expr-list</font></i> ::=</td>
            <td>
              <b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">expr</font></i><b><font
                color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">sort-order</font></i><b><font
                  color="#2c2cf0"></font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0"><big>,</big>
                  </font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">expr</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> </font>
                  </b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b><i><font color="#ff3434">sort-order</font></i><b><font
                    color="#2c2cf0"></font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b><big>*</big><b><font
                      color="#2c2cf0"></font></b></td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td align="right" width="1%" nowrap>
              <i><font color="#ff3434">sort-order</font></i> ::=</td>
            <td>
              <b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0"> COLLATE </font></b>
              <i><font color="#ff3434">collation-name</font></i><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> </font>
              </b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"> </font></b>[<b><font color="#2c2cf0"> ASC </font></b>
              <big>|</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> DESC </font></b>]<b><font color="#2c2cf0"></font></b></td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <td align="right" width="1%" nowrap>
              <i><font color="#ff3434">compound_op</font></i> ::=</td>
            <td>
              <b><font color="#2c2cf0">UNION </font></b><big>|</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> UNION
                ALL </font></b><big>|</big><b><font color="#2c2cf0"> INTERSECT </font></b><big>|</big><b><font
                  color="#2c2cf0"> EXCEPT</font></b></td>
          </tr>
        </table>
      </p>
      <p>
        The SELECT statement is used to query the database. The result of a SELECT is zero
        or more rows of data where each row has a fixed number of columns. The number of
        columns in the result is specified by the expression list in between the SELECT
        and FROM keywords. Any arbitrary expression can be used as a result. If a result
        expression is <font color="#2c2cf0"><big>*</big></font> then all columns of all
        tables are substituted for that one expression. If the expression is the name of
        a table followed by <font color="#2c2cf0"><big>.*</big></font> then the result is
        all columns in that one table.</p>
      <p>
        The DISTINCT keyword causes a subset of result rows to be returned, in which each
        result row is different. NULL values are not treated as distinct from each other.
        The default behavior is that all result rows be returned, which can be made explicit
        with the keyword ALL.</p>
      <p>
        The query is executed against one or more tables specified after the FROM keyword.
        If multiple tables names are separated by commas, then the query is against the
        cross join of the various tables. The full SQL-92 join syntax can also be used to
        specify joins. A sub-query in parentheses may be substituted for any table name
        in the FROM clause. The entire FROM clause may be omitted, in which case the result
        is a single row consisting of the values of the expression list.
      </p>
      <p>
        The WHERE clause can be used to limit the number of rows over which the query operates.</p>
      <p>
        The GROUP BY clauses causes one or more rows of the result to be combined into a
        single row of output. This is especially useful when the result contains aggregate
        functions. The expressions in the GROUP BY clause do <em>not</em> have to be expressions
        that appear in the result. The HAVING clause is similar to WHERE except that HAVING
        applies after grouping has occurred. The HAVING expression may refer to values,
        even aggregate functions, that are not in the result.</p>
      <p>
        The ORDER BY clause causes the output rows to be sorted. The argument to ORDER BY
        is a list of expressions that are used as the key for the sort. The expressions
        do not have to be part of the result for a simple SELECT, but in a compound SELECT
        each sort expression must exactly match one of the result columns. Each sort expression
        may be optionally followed by a COLLATE keyword and the name of a collating function
        used for ordering text and/or keywords ASC or DESC to specify the sort order.</p>
      <p>
        The LIMIT clause places an upper bound on the number of rows returned in the result.
        A negative LIMIT indicates no upper bound. The optional OFFSET following LIMIT specifies
        how many rows to skip at the beginning of the result set. In a compound query, the
        LIMIT clause may only appear on the final SELECT statement. The limit is applied
        to the entire query not to the individual SELECT statement to which it is attached.
        Note that if the OFFSET keyword is used in the LIMIT clause, then the limit is the
        first number and the offset is the second number. If a comma is used instead of
        the OFFSET keyword, then the offset is the first number and the limit is the second
        number. This seeming contradition is intentional - it maximizes compatibility with
        legacy SQL database systems.
      </p>
      <p>
        A compound SELECT is formed from two or more simple SELECTs connected by one of
        the operators UNION, UNION ALL, INTERSECT, or EXCEPT. In a compound SELECT, all
        the constituent SELECTs must specify the same number of result columns. There may
        be only a single ORDER BY clause at the end of the compound SELECT. The UNION and
        UNION ALL operators combine the results of the SELECTs to the right and left into
        a single big table. The difference is that in UNION all result rows are distinct
        where in UNION ALL there may be duplicates. The INTERSECT operator takes the intersection
        of the results of the left and right SELECTs. EXCEPT takes the result of left SELECT
        after removing the results of the right SELECT. When three or more SELECTs are connected
        into a compound, they group from left to right.</p>
      <p>
        &nbsp;</p>
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